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Topic: Cytidine

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  BioMed Central | Full text | Maize haplotype with a helitron-amplified cytidine deaminase gene copy
Cytidine deaminases are a superfamily, which includes Cytidine deaminase, nucleoside deaminase, deoxycytidylate deaminase and riboflavin deaminase.
They are enzymes that de-aminate cytidine to uridine and play an important role in a variety of pathways from bacteria to man. Ancestral members of this superfamily were only able to de-aminate cytidine of mononucleotides or nucleosides.
The cytidine deaminase super-family can be classified into RNA-editing deaminases, cytidine deaminases, nucleoside deaminases and deoxycytidylate deaminases, based on substrate specificity and homology of the active-site sequence [26].
www.biomedcentral.com /1471-2156/7/52   (6341 words)

  Olympus MIC-D: Polarized Light Gallery - Cytidine
Cytosine, the organic base of cytidine, was first isolated from the thymus of a calf in 1894 and was synthesized in the laboratory in 1903.
As a crystal, cytidine appears as a white or almost white powder and is available in a chemically synthesized regular or radiolabeled form.
The enzyme is used by geneticists and gene therapists for cutting and splicing DNA and RNA segments, and may explain somatic mutations and evolution by viral and bacterial vectors.
www.olympusmicro.com /micd/galleries/polarized/cytidine2.html   (325 words)

 Advantages and Disadvantages of Cytidine Deamination -- Cascalho 172 (11): 6513 -- The Journal of Immunology
Cytidine deamination and diversification of the Ig genes
cytidine residue in a mRNA molecule that is >14,000 residues
cytidine to be deaminated at the apex of the loop (44, 45).
www.jimmunol.org /cgi/content/full/172/11/6513   (4229 words)

 Cytidine monophosphate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
O[C@H]1[C@H]([C@H] Cytidine monophosphate, also known as 5'-cytidylic acid and abbreviated CMP, is a nucleotide that is found in RNA.
It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside cytidine.
CMP consists of the phosphate group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase cytosine.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cytidine_monophosphate   (193 words)

Cytidine is an organic base of the pyrimidine family.
CTP is the source of the cytidine found in ribonucleic acid and deoxycytidine triphosphate is the source of the deoxycytidine in DNA.
Cytidine is a pyrimidine or a two ring structure that hydrogen bonds to a purine to complete a stable structure.
www.greatvistachemicals.com /proteins-sugars-nucleotides/cytidine.html   (182 words)

CTP is the source of the cytidine in RNA (ribonucleic acid) and deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP) is the source of the deoxycytidine in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
Cytidine Diphosphate (CDP): a nucleotide, the 5'-pyrophosphate of cytidine, acting as a carrier of choline and ethanolamine in the phospholipid synthesis.
Cytidine Triphosphate (CTP): a nucleotide, the 5'-triphosphate of cytidine; precursor in the synthesis of ribonucleic acid and of CDP- and CMP-linked compounds.
www.chemicalland21.com /lifescience/UH/CYTIDINE-5'-TRIPHOSPHATE.htm   (647 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Rogers, J. and Joyce, G.F. "The effect of cytidine on the strucure and function of an RNA ligase ribozyme"
Cytidine was introduced to the cytidine-free ribozyme in a combinatorial fashion and additional rounds of in vitro evolution were carried out to allow the molecule to adapt to this added component.
The improved rate of the cytidine-containing ribozyme was the result of 12 mutations, including seven added cytidines, that remodeled the internal bulge loops located adjacent to the three-way junction and stabilized the peripheral stem regions.
www.scripps.edu /mb/joyce/66.html   (180 words)

 Regulation of Transcription of the Bacillus subtilis pyrG Gene, Encoding Cytidine Triphosphate Synthetase -- Meng and ...
cytidine and uridine nucleotides to be manipulated by the composition
QM206, was a cytidine auxotroph; uracil, uridine, and cytosine
Repression of cytidine triphosphate synthetase in Salmonella typhimurium by pyrimidines during uridine nucleotide depletion.
jb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/183/19/5513   (5385 words)

 AllRefer.com - cytosine (Biochemistry) - Encyclopedia
Combined with the sugar ribose in glycosidic linkage, cytosine forms a derivative called cytidine (a nucleoside), which in turn can be phosphorylated with from one to three phosphoric acid groups, yielding the three nucleotides CMP (cytidine monophosphate), CDP (cytidine diphosphate), and CTP (cytidine triphosphate).
CTP acts as a coenzyme in both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; it can readily donate one of its phosphate groups to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an extremely important intermediate in the transfer of chemical energy in living systems.
CTP is the source of the cytidine found in ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP) is the source of the deoxycytidine in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/C/cytosine.html   (282 words)

 Enzymatic conformational fluctuations along the reaction coordinate of cytidine deaminase -- Noonan et al. 11 (6): 1424 ...
Carter, Jr., C.W. The nucleoside deaminases for cytidine and adenosine: Structure, transition state stabilization, mechanism, and evolution.
Frick, L., Yang, C., Marquez, V.E., and Wolfenden, R. Binding of pyrimidin-2-one ribonucleoside by cytidine deaminase as the transition-state analogue 3,4-dihydrouridine and the contribution of the 4-hydroxyl group to its biding affinity.
Cytidine deaminase complexed to 3-deazacytidine: A "valence buffer" in zinc enzyme catalysis.
www.proteinscience.org /cgi/content/full/11/6/1424   (5109 words)

 APOBEC3G is a single-stranded DNA cytidine deaminase and functions independently of HIV reverse transcriptase -- ...
homology to cytidine deaminases, it is presumed that in the
Zhang,H., Yang,B., Pomerantz,R.J., Zhang,C., Arunachalam,S.C. and Gao,L. (2003) The cytidine deaminase CEM15 induces hypermutation in newly synthesized HIV-1 DNA.
Eto,T., Kinoshita,K., Yoshikawa,K., Muramatsu,M. and Honjo,T. (2003) RNA-editing cytidine deaminase Apobec-1 is unable to induce somatic hypermutation in mammalian cells.
nar.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/32/8/2421   (4232 words)

 Antiviral Potency of APOBEC Proteins Does Not Correlate with Cytidine Deamination -- Bishop et al. 80 (17): 8450 -- The ...
Cytidine deamination and resistance to retroviral infection: toward a structural understanding of the APOBEC proteins.
Uracil DNA glycosylase is dispensable for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication and does not contribute to the antiviral effects of the cytidine deaminase Apobec3G.
The cytidine deaminase CEM15 induces hypermutation in newly synthesized HIV-1 DNA.
jvi.asm.org /cgi/content/full/80/17/8450   (6462 words)

 Smith Lab research - Structural Analysis of ARP family members
Given the that the ARP family have homologous zinc-dependent cytidine deaminase domains (CD) yet do not have common mRNAs or DNAs substrates, an important question to address is how do these enzymes distinguish where to deaminate cytidine or deoxycytidine.
CDD1 belongs to the tetrameric class of cytidine deaminases with a quaternary fold nearly identical to that of the tetrameric cytidine deaminase from B.
Comparative modeling of APOBEC-1-related proteins suggested that the domain interface between subunits influences the positioning of ribose binding loops as in cytidine deaminases and that a variably sized 'flap' at the catalytic site regulates access based on substrate size, which was corroborated in deaminase and RNA editing functional assays.
dbb.urmc.rochester.edu /labs/smith/research_5.htm   (546 words)

 Cytidylate cyclase: development of assay and determination of kinetic properties of a cytidine 3',5'-cyclic ...   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Cytidylate cyclase: development of assay and determination of kinetic properties of a cytidine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate-synthesizing enzyme.
A method is described for the separation of cytidine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic CMP) from cytidine tri-, di- and mono-phosphates and from cytidine 3',5'-cyclic pyrophosphate, cytidine 2'-monophosphate-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, cytidine 2'-O-aspartyl-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and cytidine monophosphate, compounds previously shown to be the result of putative cytidylate cyclase activity.
In several of the tissues examined, the cytidylate cyclase activity was inversely proportional to age of the animals.
www.arclab.org /medlineupdates/abstract_2154193.html   (213 words)

 Two Nucleoside Uptake Systems in Lactococcus lactis: Competition between Purine Nucleosides and Cytidine Allows for ...
with 20 µg of cytidine per ml and was found to be 56 min.
cytidine and the uptake of purine nucleosides are probably mediated
of cytidine to uridine and the subsequent conversion to UTP.
jb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/185/5/1503   (4134 words)

 Cytidine : by Ray Sahelian, M.D.
Cytidine : by Ray Sahelian, M.D. Cytidine by Ray Sahelian, M.D. Definition of Cytidine - Cytidine is a nucleoside made of the combination of cytosine and ribose.
We examined whether adding cytidine or uridine to the slice medium, which increases the utilization of choline to form phospholipids, also decreases acetylcholine levels and release.
These data show that cytidine and uridine can stimulate brain phosphatide synthesis without diminishing acetylcholine synthesis or release.
www.raysahelian.com /cytidine.html   (157 words)

 CDD1 - Cytidine deaminase   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Identification of the yeast cytidine deaminase CDD1 as an orphan C-->U RNA editase.
CDD1 is a yeast ortholog of APOBEC-1 that exhibits cytidine deaminase and RNA-editing activity.
CDD1 is a homologue of CDA (Cytidine deaminase) from Homo sapiens.
www.ihop-net.org /UniPub/iHOP/gi/31467.html   (97 words)

 ARCD-1, an apobec-1-related cytidine deaminase, exerts a dominant negative effect on C to U RNA editing -- Anant et al. ...
The catalytic domain of cytosine nucleotide and nucleoside deaminases, blasticidin-S deaminase, the RNA editing enzymes, and novel apobec-1-related cytidine deaminases (ARCD-1 to -7) were aligned on the basis of the crystal structure of the Escherichia coli cytidine deaminase (6).
Cytidine deaminase activity was determined by in vitro incubation at 37°C with [
C: inhibition of cytidine deaminase activity by a zinc chelator, 1,10-o-phenanthroline (1,10), but not by its inactive isomer, 1,7-o-phenanthroline (1,7).
ajpcell.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/281/6/C1904   (5560 words)

 Coupling products of cytidine-diphosphocholine and amino-compounds for pharmaceutical use - Patent 4203893
Another application of the compound according to the invention is in the field of the discovery, the purification and the measurement of biological compounds reacting with phosphorylcholine, that is to say, reactive protein C and anti-phosphorylcholine antibodies.
The fixation reaction of the dialdehyde obtained by periodic oxidation of the ribose of the cytidine on amino groups of protein was pursued for 45 minutes at pH 9-9.5.
The bond was then stabilized by reduction with sodium borohydride for one night (75 mg of sodium borohydride were dissolved in 10 ml of distilled water and added to the preparation).
www.freepatentsonline.com /4203893.html   (4606 words)

 Energy Citations Database (ECD) - Energy and Energy-Related Bibliographic Citations   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The mouse bile duct cestode, Hymenolepis microstoma, was exposed in vivo in separate experiments to tiitiated cytidine and tritiated thymidine, respectively.
Nucleolar and nuclear labeling, by cytidine, and nuclear labeling, by thymidine, as revealed by autoradiographic methods, occurred in both host and cestode tissues.
The assimilation of cytidine amd thymidine by direct absorption from the fluid contents of the bile duct implies that cestodes can absorb such materials from their immediate environment.
www.osti.gov /energycitations/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=4647310   (236 words)

 À La Mode Cytosine Component Index
The sugar is ribose in the C2'-endo conformation, and geometries for the gamma torsion angle (synclinal), the chi torsion angle (antiperiplanar), and the C3*-O3* and C5*-O5* bonds are inserted from other models.
The sugar is ribose in the C3'-endo conformation, and geometries for the gamma torsion angle (synclinal), the chi torsion angle (antiperiplanar), and the C3*-O3* and C5*-O5* bonds are inserted from other models.
Model constructed for protonated cytidine from subcomponents for protonated base and sugar.
ndbserver.rutgers.edu /alamode/models/C.html   (713 words)

 Holistic Health Encyclopedia - N
The protoplasm composing the nucleus of a cell; karyoplasm.
A heterocyclic nitrogenous base, particularly a purine or pyrimidine, in N-glycosidic linkage with a sugar, particularly a pentose; it is often used specifically to denote a compound obtained by hydrolysis of nucleic acids, a purine or pyrimidine linked to ribose or deoxyribose, e.g., adenosine or cytidine.
Any of several compounds that consist of a ribose or deoxyribose sugar joined to a purine or pyrimidine base and to a phosphate group and that are the basic structural units of RNA and DNA.
www.thehealthguardian.com /glossary/N.html   (2655 words)

 Phase I Clinical Trials of Tezacitabine [(E)-2'-Deoxy-2'-(fluoromethylene)cytidine] in Patients with Refractory Solid ...
cytidine, and, thereupon, acts as a DNA chain terminator (6).
cytidine analogues, is relatively resistant to metabolic deactivation
Snyder R. Effect of 2'-deoxy-2'-(fluoromethylene) cytidine on the ultraviolet and X-ray sensitivity of HeLa cells.
clincancerres.aacrjournals.org /cgi/content/full/8/9/2828   (3380 words)

 New cytidine nucleoside analog active against resistant HIV strains   (Site not responding. Last check: )
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - A new cytidine nucleoside analog may prove useful as a component of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) against HIV-1 strains resistant to older nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), according to a report in the May issue of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.
Susan Erickson-Viitanen, from The Dupont Pharmaceuticals Company in Wilmington, Delaware (now at Pharmasset, Inc. in Tucker, Georgia), and colleagues investigated the effects of DPC 817, a cytidine analog that potently inhibits HIV-1 replication in vitro.
DPC 817 inhibited HIV reverse transcriptase with a potency more than fourfold that of lamivudine, the authors report, and at levels readily achievable intracellularly (0.14 micromolar).
www.aidsmeds.com /news/20020514drgd001.html   (502 words)

 Cloning of cytidine triphosphate: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase mRNA upregulated by a neuropeptide ...   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Cloning of cytidine triphosphate: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase mRNA upregulated by a neuropeptide arginine-vasopressin((4-8)) in rat hippocampus.
The study of tissue distribution with reverse transcription PCR showed that the gene was abundant in brain.
Since CCT catalyzes the formation of cytidine diphosphate choline, which was reported to have a beneficial therapeutic effect on Alzheimer's disease, so we speculated that AVP(4-8) may be a potential candidate for treating Alzheimer's disease by upregulating CCT mRNA level.
www.arclab.org /medlineupdates/abstract_10739892.html   (190 words)

 (WO 01/68806) 26934, A NOVEL CYTIDINE DEAMINASE-LIKE MOLECULE AND USES THEREOF   (Site not responding. Last check: )
(57) Novel cytidine deaminase-like polypeptides, proteins, and nucleic acid molecules are disclosed.
In addition to isolated, full-length cytidine deaminase-like proteins, the invention further provides isolated cytidine deaminase-like fusion proteins, antigenic peptides, and anti-cytidine deaminase-like antibodies.
The invention also provides cytidine deaminase-like nucleic acid molecules, recombinant expression vectors containing a nucleic acid molecule of the invention, host cells into which the expression vectors have been introduced, and nonhuman transgenic animals in which a cytidine deaminase-like gene has been introduced or disrupted.
wipo.int /ipdl/IPDL-CIMAGES/view/pct/getbykey5?KEY=01/68806.010920&...   (204 words)

 Induction of Differentiation of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells by a Cytidine Deaminase-resistant Analogue of ...
Induction of Differentiation of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells by a Cytidine Deaminase-resistant Analogue of 1-{beta}-D-Arabinofuranosylcytosine, 1-(2-Deoxy-2-methylene-{beta}-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)cytidine -- Niitsu et al.
by cytidine deaminase, DMDC is resistant to this enzyme (12).
Cory A. H., Samano V., Robins M. J., Cory J. 2'-Deoxy-2'-methylene derivatives of adenosine, guanosine, tubercidin, cytidine and uridine as inhibitors of L1210 cell growth in culture.
cancerres.aacrjournals.org /cgi/content/full/61/1/178   (5423 words)

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