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Topic: Cytoskeleton

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In the News (Sat 25 May 19)

Cytoskeleton is a form of rigid structure or scaffolding contained within the cytoplasm, and necessary for cellular structure, motion and cell division.
In the eukaryotic cell, the cytoskeleton is made up primarily of actin filaments, which are about 7 nanometers (nm) in diameter; of intermediate filaments, about 8-11 nm in diameter; and microtubules, which are more complex structures.
Molecules of the Cytoskeleton by Amos & Amos
www.iscid.org /encyclopedia/Cytoskeleton   (211 words)

The cytoskeleton is a series of intercellular proteins that help a cell with shape, support, and movement.
Cytoskeleton has three main structural components: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules.
The cytoskeleton mediates movement by helping the cell move in its environment and mediating the movement of the cell's components.
biology.kenyon.edu /HHMI/Biol113/cytoskeleton.htm   (163 words)

 The Actin Cytoskeleton
To ensure that the erythrocyte retains its characteristic shape, the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton is firmly attached to the overlying erythrocyte membrane by two peripheral membrane proteins, each of which binds to a specific integral membrane protein (see Figure 18-7).
The platelet cytoskeleton must undergo complicated rearrangements that are responsible for a repertoire of changes in cell shape during a blood clotting reaction (Figure 18-8).
A critical difference between the erythrocyte and platelet cytoskeletons is the presence in the platelet of the second network of actin filaments, which are organized by filamin cross-links into a three-dimensional gel (see Figure 18-5b).
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /books/bv.fcgi?rid=mcb.section.5117   (3500 words)

 Cytoskeleton - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The cytoskeleton is a cellular "scaffolding" or "skeleton" contained, as all other organelles, within the cytoplasm.
Actin cytoskeleton of mouse embryo fibroblasts, stained with phalloidin
FtsZ was the first protein of the prokaryotic cytoskeleton to be identified.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cytoskeleton   (743 words)

 Cytoskeleton - Picture - MSN Encarta
The cytoskeleton, a network of protein fibers, crisscrosses the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, providing shape and mechanical support.
The cytoskeleton also functions as a monorail to transport substances around the cell.
A cell such as an amoeba changes shape by dismantling parts of the cytoskeleton and reassembling them in other locations.
encarta.msn.com /media_461547332/Cytoskeleton.html   (51 words)

 Canolfan Edward Llwyd
The cytoskeleton is responsible for all movement within cells and the detection of signals from the cell's surrounding environment.
The cytoskeleton is also involved in processes such as cell secretion, signal transduction, cell adhesion, oncogenesis (cancer development) and apoptosis (programmed cell death), lymphocyte activation, the inflammatory response, cell cycle control and growth control.
In short, the cytoskeleton is responsible for all of the functional properties of living cells.
www.aber.ac.uk /gwydd-cym/cellbiol/cytoskeleton/index.htm   (403 words)

 Drosophila gene families: cytoskeleton
Cytoskeleton is an important aspect of cell motility, assuring that a motile cell has a front and back as it moves along a substratum.
One of the major functions of cytoskeleton carried out by microtubules during mitosis is the equitable distribution of chromosomes to the two poles of the cell.
In mutants, the bundling of the microtubules at the cortex of the oocyte and the streaming of the oocyte cytoplasm occurs prematurely, by stage 8 in oogenesis.
www.sdbonline.org /fly/aignfam/cytoskel.htm   (10451 words)

 The Cytoskeleton   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The cytoskeleton is transparent in standard light and electron microscope preparations, and is therefore "invisible.
The cytoskeleton maintains the cell's shape, anchors organelles in place, and moves parts of the cell in processes of growth and motility.
There are a great number of proteins associated with the cytoskeleton, controlling its structure by directing bundling and alignment of filaments, as well as by moving the filaments around.
web.mit.edu /esgbio/www/cb/cytoskeleton.html   (217 words)

 Cytoskeleton isolation kit (BK039)
To study the effects of mutated cell lines versus their parent cell line for the change in polymerized components of the cytoskeleton.
The method is established in the cytoskeleton field of research with many references for extra information and citation (1-5).
The general approach is to homogenize cells in the cytoskeleton stabilization buffer, followed by centrifugation to separate the insoluble cytoskeleton from the cytosol.
www.cytoskeleton.com /products/biochem/bk039.html   (282 words)

 Cell Organelles: Cytoskeleton
But the primary importance of the cytoskeleton is in cell motility.
The cytoskeleton is an organized network of three primary protein filaments: microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate fibers.
The complexity of the cytoskeleton can be seen in the abundant F-actin stress fibers (green) in the endothelial cell shown to the left.
www.cellsalive.com /cells/cytoskel.htm   (94 words)

 Cytokinetics Focus on the Cytoskeleton
We believe that the cytoskeleton is one of a few biological areas with broad potential for drug discovery and development and has been scientifically and commercially validated in a wide variety of human diseases.
For example, the cytoskeleton plays a fundamental role in the cell proliferation process, and cancer is a disease of unregulated cell proliferation.
As another example, the cytoskeleton plays a fundamental role in cardiac muscle contraction and has been linked to the origins of congestive heart failure, a disease of impaired cardiac function.
www.cytokinetics.com /cyto/overview_cytoskeleton   (191 words)

 Plant Cell Cytoskeleton   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The cytoskeleton is a set of small filaments that is found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
For the process of phagocytosis, the cytoskeleton helps the cell move liquid into the cell, and in the process of pinocytosis, the cytoskeleton helps the cell move large particles into the cell.
The cytoskeleton is a three dimensional structure found in the cytoplasm.
sun.menloschool.org /~birchler/cells/plants/cytoskeleton   (204 words)

 The actin cytoskeleton
As stated above, the actin cytoskeleton is a complex network of structural proteins (including actin and numerous actin-binding proteins) that support both the architectural integrity of a cell and stimulus-dependent changes in cell shape.
Furthermore, the actin cytoskeleton enables adherent cells, such as fibroblasts, to form contacts (called focal adhesions) with its “substratum” (i.e., extracellular matrix proteins or plastic in a petri dish).
Although the roles of many of these effectors in regulating changes in the actin cytoskeleton and gene transcription remain unclear, it is evident that Rac and Cdc42 control proteins with highly divergent activities (i.e., lipid kinases, protein kinases, adaptor proteins).
neurobio.mcphu.edu /GalloWeb/Loudonactin_cytoskeleton.htm   (2510 words)

 Role of Cytoskeleton in Cell Division
cytoskeleton provides an architectural framework upon which the cell can organize the subcell organelles and the metabolic machinery.
It is responsible for sustaining a cell's shape, for the locomotion of a cell, and for the movement of the various organelles within the cell itself.
Besides the intracellular movement of organelles, the cytoskeleton is responsible for chromosome movement during cell division and for cytokinesis.
fig.cox.miami.edu /~cmallery/255/255mitos/cytoskeleton.htm   (1102 words)

 Re: How are the activities of the cytoskeleton controlled and coordinated??
First, the cytoskeleton, as its name implies, constitutes a jellylike material within the cytoplasm which protects the cell from rupture due to external forces and helps maintain cell shape.
Thirdly, and the last one i'll describe, is the roles of the cytoskeleton in biochemistry in the cell.
Regulation of the cytoskeleton, however, is thought to be due to four major molecular paradigms.
www.madsci.org /posts/archives/dec98/913251016.Cb.r.html   (810 words)

A three-dimensional network of fibers, composed of filamentous protein, which runs throughout the matrix of living cells, providing a framework for organelles, anchoring the cell membrane, and providing a suitable surface for chemical reactions to take place.
The cytoskeleton also provides the cell with motility – the ability of the entire cell to move around and for material to be moved within the cell.
Although the term “cytoskeleton” is well used and accepted, it unfortunately gives an impression of a rather static entity.
www.daviddarling.info /encyclopedia/C/cytoskeleton.html   (185 words)

 Research interests -->> cytoskeleton
We develop a new technique to evaluate the integrity of the cytoskeleton network of oocytes as a measure of their viability.
Cytoskeleton response to disruption is monitored by tracking the displacement of the injected beads.
We are trying to link the changes in the viscoelastic properties of the cytoskeleton to the cell integrity, creating thus a basis for studies on cell preservation and revitalization techniques.
www.missouri.edu /~bghpn2/ri-cytoskeleton.htm   (154 words)

 Cytoskeleton Tour
A unique feature of the trypanosome cytoskeleton is that upon membrane extraction with non-ionic detergents (e.g.
The extracted cytoskeletons can be separated from the detergent insoluble material by centrifugation.
The Trypanosome cytoskeleton consists primarily of microtubule-based structures, which can be both physically and conceptually divided into two fractions, "the subpellicular fraction" and "the flagellar fraction".
www.biochem.uiowa.edu /donelson/cytoskeleton_tour.htm   (608 words)

 The Cytoskeleton and Cell Signaling: Component Localization and Mechanical Coupling -- JANMEY 78 (3): 763 -- ...
A hallmark of programmed cell death is an alteration of the cytoskeleton frequently resulting in membrane blebbing (122, 127, 229, 230).
Role of the actin cytoskeleton in the regulation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.
Translocation of Src kinase to the cell periphery is mediated by the actin cytoskeleton under the control of the Rho family of small G proteins.
physrev.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/78/3/763   (7074 words)

 Yoshio Fukui: Cytoskeleton
Cytoskeleton is organized in a spatially and temporally specific manner.
In this study, we demonstrated that a mutant in which the normal myosin II was replaced with a truncated form, heavy meromyosin (hmm), is defective in cytokenesis and mobility of surface receptors (Con-A capping), and myosin II is localized only diffusely in the cytoplasm (left).
This finding helped establishing a then new idea that actin cytoskeleton is the key framework, which is associated with various binding proteins including myosin II in spatially unique manners.
faculty-web.at.northwestern.edu /med/fukui/04-Cytoskeleton.html   (581 words)

 Cytokinetics The Cytoskeleton
The cytoskeleton is a diverse, multi-protein framework that plays a fundamental role in many cellular activities including mitosis, cell division, intracellular transport, cell motility, muscle contraction, and the regulation of cell polarity and organization.
Furthermore, cytoskeletal proteins have been implicated in the etiology or pathogenesis of a wide variety of diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory disease, fungal, bacterial and viral infections, and neurodegenerative disease.
In many ways, the cytoskeletal framework can be likened to a highly organized city plan, with highways, motor cars, construction crews and street signs, whose structure and function is directly observable in the living cell.
www.cytokinetics.com /cyto/cytoskeleton   (133 words)

 Altered membrane-cytoskeleton linkage and membrane blebbing in energy-depleted renal proximal tubular cells -- Chen and ...
The association of ezrin with the cytoskeleton was determined after Triton X-100 treatment in the presence or absence of salts.
In vivo, the basal membranes are stabilized by the cytoskeleton,
Bretscher, A. Purification of an 80,000-dalton protein that is a component of the isolated microvillar cytoskeleton, and its localization in nonmuscle cells.
ajprenal.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/280/4/F619   (4951 words)

 Alibris: Cytoskeleton
To examine these questions, this volume describes the properties of the individual proteins of the cytoskeleton and their assembly into the filamentous structures that are responsible for the remarkably stiff consistency of cytoplasm.
The cytoskeleton plays essential roles in delineating membrane protein distributions, in defining structural and functional domains in the plasma membrane, and in regulating membrane protein, and ultimately, cell function.
The morphogenesis of cells and organisms appear to be mediated in part by the mechanically active components of the cytoskeleton.
www.alibris.com /search/books/subject/Cytoskeleton   (751 words)

 NASA - Curious Skeletons
Cytoskeletons give cells their shape, help cells move, and hold the nucleus in place.
In either case, they are responding to a control system in which the shape-shifting cytoskeleton serves as a switching mechanism.
Cytoskeleton Tutorial -- (University of Arizona) The cytoskeleton is both a muscle and a skeleton, and is responsible for cell movement, cytokinesis, and the organization of the organelles within the cell.
www.nasa.gov /vision/earth/livingthings/19jun_cytoskeletons.html   (1052 words)

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