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Topic: Cytosol

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  SparkNotes: Intracellular Components: The Cytoskeleton and Cytosol
The cytoskeleton is composed of protein filaments and is found throughout the inside of a eukaryotic cell.
The cytosol is the main component of the cytoplasm, the fluid that fills the inside of the cell.
The interior of a cell is composed of organelles, the cytoskeleton, and the cytosol.
www.sparknotes.com /biology/cellstructure/intracellularcomponents/section1.html   (658 words)

  Cytosol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The cytosol (as opposed to cytoplasm, which also includes the organelles) is the internal fluid of the cell, and a large part of cell metabolism occurs here.
Proteins within the cytosol play an important role in signal transduction pathways, glycolysis, and they act as intracellular receptors and form part of the ribosomes, enabling further protein synthesis.
This is made of fibrous proteins (microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments) and (in many organisms) maintains the shape of the cell, anchors organelles, and controls internal movement of structures, e.g., transport vesicles.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cytosol   (252 words)

 CYTOSOL, Oil Program, US EPA
The CytoSol is applied to oiled shorelines to extract and recover weathered petroleum by flotation with passive water deluges from header pipes or manual spraying.
CytoSol may be applied with a variety of spraying or washing equipment, depending upon the scale and type of shoreline to be cleaned.
The quantity of CytoSol applied should be approximately equivalent to the quantity of petroleum accumulated on the shoreline, or as required to dissolve and remove weathered oil.
www.epa.gov /ceppo/oilspill/ncp/cytosol.htm   (733 words)

 Apolipoprotein A-I Induces Translocation of Cholesterol, Phospholipid, and Caveolin-1 to Cytosol in Rat Astrocytes -- ...
The cytosol was analyzed by density gradient ultracentrifugation to examine the status of lipid translocated to the cytosol
The cytosol fraction prepared from the cells treated with (5 µg/ml) and without apoA-I for 90 min was overlaid on the sucrose solutions of density 1.20 g/ml (bottom) and 1.07 g/ml (middle) and centrifuged at 49,000 rpm for 48 h.
that the translocation of lipid and caveolin-1 to the cytosol
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/277/10/7929   (5404 words)

 Purification and characterization of CTP: cholinephosphate cytidylytransferase from rat liver cytosol.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
When the cytosol is incubated at 4 degrees for 5 days, the H-form (high molecular weight) of the enzyme is generated from the L-form.
The L-form of the cytidylyltransferase was purified from rat liver cytosol.
The H-form of the enzyme from the cytosol could be precipitated by centrifugation at 100,000 X g for 1 h.
www.arclab.org /medlineupdates/abstract_914832.html   (265 words)

 Calcium binding capacity of the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum of mouse pancreatic acinar cells -- Mogami et al. 518 ...
The rise in the cytosolic Ca concentration of pancreatic acinar cells was triggered by stimulation with a supramaximal dose of cholecystokinin (CCK).
As the cytosolic Ca concentration declined, the steepness of the rise in the extracellular calcium concentration decreased and finally, when the cytosolic Ca concentration reached the pre-stimulation resting level, there was no further rise in the extracellular calcium level (Fig.
A high cytosolic calcium binding capacity is essential for any small cell that needs to generate local Ca signals, so that Ca spreading from the place of its release or entry into the cytosol could be quenched by the calcium buffer that surrounds such a 'hot spot'.
jp.physoc.org /cgi/content/full/518/2/463   (3895 words)

 Cleaning Oiled Shorelines with a Vegetable Oil Biosolvent
A major goal of the CytoSol Process is to eliminate the "re-oiling" that often occurs as trapped oil is continually released after conventional washes and treatments, particularly in sensitive ecosystems that would otherwise have to be destroyed to recover the oil.
The CytoSol biosolvent may be applied with a variety of spraying or washing equipment depending on the scale and type of surface to be cleaned.
The CytoSol biosolvent and process are proprietary technologies developed in 1994 as an extension of Dr. von Wedel's experience with designing continuous flow bioreactors and in situ bioremediation technologies for the cleanup of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in soil and groundwater.
www.cytoculture.com /cytosolarticle.htm   (2323 words)

 In yeast the export of small glycopeptides from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol is not affected by the ...
of the glycopeptide from the lumen of the ER to the cytosol.
the Golgi apparatus (high-speed pellet (HSP)), and the cytosol
of the N-glycosylated peptide from the ER to the cytosol.
glycob.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/10/1/51   (4439 words)

In plants, the amount of cytosol can be reduced due to the large tonoplast (central vacuole) that takes up most of the room of the cell.
The cytosol isn't a "soup" with free-floating particles, but highly organized on the molecular level.
It is made of fibrous proteins and (in many organisms) maintains the shape of the cell, anchors organelles, and controls internal movement of structures, e.g., transport vesicles.
www.wordlookup.net /cy/cytosol.html   (333 words)

 Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate stimulates vesicle formation from liposomes by brain cytosol -- Kinuta et al. 99 ...
by the immunodepletion of dynamin 1 from the cytosol, indicating
Liposomes were incubated with control or dynamin-depleted cytosol in the presence of ATP and GTP for 15 min at 37°C. Vesicle formation was detected by the DLS assay.
Liposomes were incubated for 15 min at 37°C with brain cytosol and various nucleotide conditions (Left) or with buffer alone or buffer supplemented with brain cytosol preheated at 100°C for 5 min in the presence of ATP and GTP (Right).
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/99/5/2842   (4344 words)

 Cell Organelles: Membrane and Cytosol
Cytosol: The cytosol is the "soup" within which all the other cell organelles reside and where most of the cellular metabolism occurs.
Though mostly water, the cytosol is full of proteins that control cell metabolism including signal transduction pathways, glycolysis, intracellular receptors, and transcription factors.
Cytoplasm is a collective term for the cytosol plus the organelles suspended within the cytosol.
www.cellsalive.com /cells/membrane.htm   (125 words)

 The p67-phox cytosolic peptide of the respiratory burst oxidase from human neutrophils. Functional aspects.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The p67-phox cytosolic peptide of the respiratory burst oxidase from human neutrophils.
Using neutrophils obtained from a patient with this form of the disease, we examined the function of p67-phox in the activation of the oxidase.
In the cell-free oxidase-activating system, the ability of the p67-phox-deficient cytosol to support oxidase activation was partly restored by the addition of p47-phox-deficient cytosol; the p67-phox-deficient cytosol, however, was not complemented by cytosol inactivated with NADPH dialdehyde, an affinity label previously found to block the NADPH-binding component of the oxidase.
www.pdg.cnb.uam.es /UniPub/iHOP/gp/9619.html   (191 words)

 Transfer of the Cholera Toxin A1 Polypeptide from the Endoplasmic Reticulum to the Cytosol Is a Rapid Process ...
of CTA1-CVIM from the ER to the cytosol (Fig.
CTA1-CVIM translocation from the ER to the cytosol.
Retrograde transport of mutant ricin to the endoplasmic reticulum with subsequent translocation to cytosol.
iai.asm.org /cgi/content/full/70/11/6166   (4428 words)

 FDA-Requested Recall - Cytosol Laboratories, Inc. Product Contains Dangerous Levels of Endotoxin
BSS is a drug used by health professionals to irrigate a patient's eyes, ears, nose and/or throat during a variety of surgical procedures including cataract surgery.
FDA has received reports of a serious and potentially irreversible eye injury called Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome(TASS) which occurs when a contaminant, such as endotoxin, enters the anterior segment of the eye during surgery and causes an inflammatory reaction.
"Cytosol Ophthalmics" distributed by Cytosol Ophthalmics, Lenoir, NC; and
www.fda.gov /bbs/topics/news/2006/NEW01315.html   (419 words)

 Reduction of Arsenate to Arsenite in Hepatic Cytosol -- Németi and Gregus 70 (1): 4 -- Toxicological Sciences
Rat liver cytosol (5 mg protein/ml) was incubated at 37°C in 150 mM KCl–50 mM TRIS (pH 7.6) for 10 min with 25 µM AsV in the presence of different monothiols (5 mM) or dithiols (0.5 mM).
Cytosol (5 mg protein/ml), filtrate (corresponding to 5 mg protein/ml unfiltered cytosol) or retentate (corresponding to 5 mg protein/ml unfiltered cytosol) were incubated at 37°C in 150 mM KCl–50 mM TRIS (pH 7.6) for 10 min with 25 µM AsV in the presence of 0.5 mM DTT.
Liver cytosols were incubated at 37°C in 150 mM KCl–50 mM TRIS (pH 7.6) for 10 min with 25 µM AsV in the presence of 0.5 mM DTT.
toxsci.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/70/1/4   (4448 words)

 Cytosolic Activation of Aromatic and Heterocyclic Amines. Inhibition by Dicoumarol and Enhancement in Viral Hepatitis B
The hypothesis is that, following a preliminary oxidative step in the cytosol (pure cytosolic activation) or in microsomes via prostaglandin H synthase (mixed microsomal-cytosolic activation), an oxidized intermediate of amino compounds may serve as substrate for DT diaphorase activity and bielectronically reduced to the corresponding N-hydroxyamino derivative.
Therefore, we propose that, following a preliminary oxidation to the nitroso- or the nitro-derivative, either in the cytosol or in the endoplasmic reticulum, DT diaphorase may catalyze one or two consecutive two-electron reductions, as it is typical for this enzyme activity (at least with quinones) (32).
Activation and detoxification of 1,8-dinitropyrene by mammalian hepatic fractions in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay.
ehp.niehs.nih.gov /members/1994/Suppl-6/deflora-full.html   (3920 words)

 Visualization of the ER-to-cytosol dislocation reaction of a type I membrane protein -- Fiebiger et al. 21 (5): 1041 -- ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The fluorescence emission of the cytosolic population of EGFP–HC was plotted as a percentage of signal calculated for unfractionated homogenates.
Hiller,M.M., Finger,A., Schweiger,M. and Wolf,D.H. (1996) ER degradation of a misfolded luminal protein by the cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.
Pilon,M., Schekman,R. and Romisch,K. (1997) Sec61p mediates export of a misfolded secretory protein from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol for degradation.
embojournal.npgjournals.com /cgi/content/full/21/5/1041   (7148 words)

 Cdc6 protein causes premature entry into S phase in a mammalian cell-free system   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
After incubation for 3 h with biotin-16-dUTP, nuclei were washed, fixed in paraformaldehyde and stained with propidium iodide to reveal DNA (red) and with fluorescein−streptavidin (green) to detect biotin incorporation resulting from DNA synthesis.
In contrast, an increased replication signal (25%) was observed in the presence of XCdc6 in permeabilized G
nuclei incubated in S phase cytosol alone was not influenced by permeabilization of the nuclear envelope with lysolecithin (b and d).
www.nature.com /emboj/journal/v17/n24/fig_tab/7591410ft.html   (1016 words)

 Cytosol Ophthalmics: About Us
Cytosol Ophthalmics: About Us Cytosol Ophthalmics, Inc. was incorporated in the state of Massachusetts on the twenty-second of November 1994.
Cytosol Laboratories, Inc. is a large volume parenteral manufacturer located in Braintree, Massachusetts.
Cytosol Laboratories launched the first generic balanced salt solution in the Fall of 1983.
www.cytosol.com /about.php   (333 words)

 Apoptotic Cytosol Facilitates Bax Translocation to Mitochondria That Involves Cytosolic Factor Regulated by Bcl-2 -- ...
Bcl-2 Inhibits Bax Translocation from Cytosol to Organelles.
LDH activity in the cytosolic fraction was measured and expressed as a percentage of the total.
to the mitochondria was inhibited by cytosol from HeLa-Bcl-2
cancerres.aacrjournals.org /cgi/content/full/59/21/5542   (6015 words)

 Recognition of bacteria in the cytosol by the immune system
Prior research had shown that bacteria inside the cytosol (the cell's expansive gel-like compartment) could be detected, but how bacteria within the cytosol are recognized has not been clear.
In this foreign environment, the bacteria were recognized by the ubiquitin system, a protein machine that applies molecular tags to cellular proteins to target them for destruction by the proteasome, essentially a molecular shredding device inside mammalian cells.
These findings suggest that bacterial proteins are being destroyed by the proteasome within the cytosol during infection, and that this may play a key role in activation of the immune system.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2004-05/cp-rob043004.php   (322 words)

 Salmon Lab Protocols: Rat Liver Cytosol Prep
Transfer the homogenate to 31.5 ml centrifuge tubes, and remove cellular debris by centrifugation at 10,000 x g (9000 rpm) for 10 min at 4oC in a SS-34 rotor.
In the cold room, collect the supernatant, transfer it to 31.5 ml ultracentrifuge tubes, pair them by weight, and clarify the cytosol by centrifugation at 100,000 x g (29,000 rpm) for 60 min at 4oC in a 50.2Ti rotor.
Collect the clarified cytosolic supernatant, disburse into 50 ul aliquots, and freeze by immersion in liquid nitrogen.
www.bio.unc.edu /faculty/salmon/lab/protocolsratlivercytosol.html   (703 words)

 Characterization of Caspase Processing and Activation in HL-60 Cell Cytosol Under Cell-free Conditions. NUCLEOTIDE ...
Lane 2-9, cytosol incubated for 5 h at 30 °C in absence (lane 2) or presence (lanes 3-9) of 500 µg/ml cytochrome c and absence (lane 3) or presence (lanes 4-9) of the indicated nucleotide at a final concentration of 1 m
Lanes 1-3, dialyzed cytosol incubated for 5 h at 30 °C in the absence (lane 1) or presence (lanes 2 and 3) of 1 m
Cytosol was incubated at 30 °C for 5 h in the presence of 0.1, 0.5, 1, or 5 m
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/274/32/22635   (7532 words)

 An unusual sex steroid-binding protein in mature male rat liver cytosol.
Mature male rat liver cytosol contains a moderate affinity and capacity estrogen-binding protein in at least a 200-fold higher level than mature female or immature male rat liver cytosol.
This is the major binding protein for [3H]estradiol ([3H]E2) in mature male rat liver cytosol, and it has properties clearly distinguishing it from putative liver or uterine estrogen receptors.
Cytosol binding levels of both the [3H]E2 and the [3H]DHT metabolites change in a similar direction in resonse to endocrine manipulation.
www.arclab.org /medlineupdates/abstract_107020.html   (213 words)

 Transfer of Free Polymannose-type Oligosaccharides from the Cytosol to Lysosomes in Cultured Human Hepatocellular ...
from the MBC and an increase in free oligosaccharides in the cytosolic
for the appearance of free oligosaccharides in the cytosol.
are cleared from the cytosol with a half-life of ~3-4 h.
www.jcb.org /cgi/content/full/136/1/45   (8567 words)

 LAP3 - Cytosol aminopeptidase   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
These synonyms are used for gene LAP3 (Cytosol aminopeptidase): EC, HGNC:8843, LAP, LAPEP, Leucine aminopeptidase, leucine aminopeptidase 3, Leucyl aminopeptidase, PEPS, Proline aminopeptidase, Prolyl aminopeptidase.
LAP3 is a homologue of At2g24200 (Cytosol aminopeptidase) from Arabidopsis thaliana.
LAP3 is a homologue of Lap3 (Cytosol aminopeptidase) from Mus musculus.
www.pdg.cnb.uam.es /UniPub/iHOP/gg/99146.html   (624 words)

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