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Topic: Cytotoxic T cell

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  Cytotoxic T cell - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cytotoxic T cells are activated when their TCR binds to an MHC class I molecule presenting viral antigen, which can occur on any nucleated or neoplastic cell.
cells release the cytoxins perforin and granulysin, which forms pores in the target cell's plasma membrane; this causes ions and water to flow into the target cell, making it expand and eventually lyse.
cells have the protein CD8 present on the cell surface, which is attracted to portions of the Class I MHC molecule.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cytotoxic_T_cell   (419 words)

 BioCarta - Charting Pathways of Life
Cytotoxic T cells are a key part of the cellular immune response, killing cells that display foreign antigen on their surface, primarily virus-infected cells.
Cytotoxic T cells also express Fas ligand to bind to Fas on target cells and induce apoptosis.
Cytotoxic T cell activation also requires additional signals provided by helper T cells in addition to signals provided by antigen-presenting cells.
www.biocarta.com /pathfiles/h_tcytotoxicPathway.asp   (323 words)

 Michael J. Bevan
T cells recognize foreign antigens as peptide fragments presented in the groove of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-encoded molecules expressed on the cell surface.
subset of T lymphocytes, recognize and kill cells expressing foreign peptides derived from infection with viruses or intracellular bacteria, or from self-proteins that are overexpressed or mutated in tumors.
It was thought that helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells were brought close together by recognizing their antigen on the same cell, and that help was provided by cell-cell contact or the short-range provision of cytokines.
www.hhmi.org /research/investigators/bevan.html   (1035 words)

 CD8 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) is a glycoprotein which serves as a co-receptor that is expressed on the surface of cytotoxic T cells.
This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen-specific activation.
Cytotoxic T cells with CD8 surface protein are called CD8+ T cells.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/CD8   (118 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Each cytotoxic T cell expresses a number of cell surface recognition receptors, which recognition receptors all possess precise specificity for a particular"foreign"peptide sequence, which recognition receptors are adapted to bind to HLA class I molecules expressed on the surface of cells scanned by the T cell.
HLA class I molecules are cell surface molecules which possess a peptide binding groove exposed on the external surface of the cell, which groove is arranged under normal circumstances to bind a peptide derived from the interior of the cell.
Cytotoxic T cells of various specificities within a host immune system are also able to recognise and trigger an immunological response against a cell exhibiting an HLA class I molecule which is of a different allotype from the HLA class I molecules of the host cells.
www.wipo.int /cgi-pct/guest/getbykey5?KEY=99/64464.991216&ELEMENT_SET=DECL   (5093 words)

 Cytotoxic T cell Activation, Immunology bookcase, Dalhousie University
Cytotoxic T cells (Tc) are derived from a lymphocyte stem cell matured in the thymus.
These cells are characterized by the presence of the CD8 marker on their surface, and an antigen-specific T cell receptor which recognizes antigens in the context of MHC class I. The main role of the cytotoxic T cell, as the name suggests, is to kill other cells.
The requirement for MHC class I on the target cell means that the Tc cell is very important in recognizing and destroying self-cells that have been altered or infected.
pim.medicine.dal.ca /tcact.htm   (202 words)

 Immune System 23   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
After an antigen-presenting cell such as a macrophage has ingested and processed an antigen, it presents the antigen fragment, along with a class II marker protein, to a matching helper T cell with a T4 receptor.
A cytotoxic T cell recognizes antigens such as virus proteins,which are produced within a cell, in combination with a class I self-marker protein.
With the cooperation of a helper T cell, the cytotoxic T cell matures.
www.transferfactorresearch.com /immune23.html   (162 words)

 Zoology 214 Lecture 52: December 7, 2001   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The effector cell for cell-mediated immunity is the cytotoxic T cell (T
The cytotoxic T cell antigen receptor is a little different than the membrane antibodies we saw on the B cells
The immune responses of B cells and T cells as I’ve described are pretty wimpy
www.humboldt.edu /~bao3/214lectures/214Lecture52.htm   (963 words)

 HON Allergy Glossary T-Cell
A lymphocyte (white blood cell) that develops in the bone marrow, matures in the thymus and expresses what appear to be antibody molecules on their surfaces but, unlike B-cells, these molecules cannot be secreted.
Cells that kill target cells bearing appropriate antigen within the groove of an MHC class I molecule that is identical to that of the T-cell.
The existance of these cells is a relatively recent discovery and hence their functioning is still somewhat debated.
www.hon.ch /Library/Theme/Allergy/Glossary/t_cell.html   (221 words)

 T Cell Development
T cell development occurs in the thymus; the thymic microenvironment directs differentiation as well as positive and negative selection.
T cell precursors enter the subcapsular cortical areas, where they encounter networks of cortical epithelial calls (the thymic stroma) and undergo a period of proliferation.
T cells that survive positive selection migrate further into the cortico-medullary junction of the thymus where they encounter macrophages and dendritic cells, bone-marrow derived APC with high expression of MHC-self peptide complexes.
microvet.arizona.edu /Courses/MIC419/Tutorials/Tcelldevelopment.html   (3818 words)

The purpose of this study was to develop a model in which T cell activation and homing could be monitored independently in vivo We then tested the mode, using a peptide inhibitor of 4 integrin/fibronectin (FN) interactions thought to specifically inhibit T cell homing without affecting activation.
The 2C T cell receptor transgenic provides a purified alloreactive CD8+ cytotoxic T cell (CTL) population (B6 background) with specificity for the Class 1 MHC (Ld) of the BALB/c mouse.
CTL homing was defined as the presence of 2C+ T cells in the islet allograft both histologically and by flow cytometry of the graft 10 days after transplantation.
www.a-s-t.org /abstracts98/abs431.htm   (528 words)

 CD8 T cell populations in anti-HIV gag cytotoxic T cell activity.
CD8 T cell populations in anti-HIV gag cytotoxic T cell activity.
Autologous EBV transformed B cell lines infected with a vaccinia-HIVgag construct were incubated in vitro with cultured patient cells.
Analysis of in vitro cultured cells showed that CTL activity was found only in patients cells in which a significant increase in %CD8 CD45RO+ and HLA-DR+ cells (P less than 0.005) had occurred.
www.aegis.com /aidsline/1992/dec/M92C4864.html   (504 words)

 Designer Glycopeptides for Cytotoxic T Cell-based Elimination of Carcinomas -- Xu et al. 199 (5): 707 -- The Journal of ...
EL-4 cells plated with T cell blasts in the absence of antigens have been assessed in duplicate at every E/T ratio to determine the extent of nonspecific lysis.
T cell recognition of a tumor-associated glycoprotein and its synthetic carbohydrate epitopes: stimulation of anticancer T cell immunity in vivo.
Mechanism of expression of Thomsen Freidereich (T) antigen at the cell surface of a mammary adenocarcinoma.
www.jem.org /cgi/content/full/199/5/707   (5232 words)

 Delivery of Multiple CD8 Cytotoxic T Cell Epitopes by DNA Vaccination -- Thomson et al. 160 (4): 1717 -- The Journal of ...
C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with the polytope plasmid by i.m.
T cells by anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (GK1.5) in young and aged mice.
Effects of influenza virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses induced by a synthetic nucleoprotein peptide on the survival of mice challenged with a lethal dose of virus.
www.jimmunol.org /cgi/content/full/160/4/1717   (6104 words)

 Induction of Protective Cytotoxic T Cell Responses in the Presence of High Titers of  Virus-neutralizing Antibodies: ...
Induction of Protective Cytotoxic T Cell Responses in the Presence of High Titers of Virus-neutralizing Antibodies: Implications for Passive and Active Immunization
T cells are less efficiently primed in the presence of limiting
T cells, and interferons in persistent and acute infections of
www.jem.org /cgi/content/full/187/4/649   (2836 words)

 HIV T Cell Immunity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The current project focuses on T cell immunity to HIV using a live, recombinant enterovirus.
To generate T cytotoxic cell responses, HIV sequences will be expressed in infected cells but will not be incorporated into progeny virions.
Recombinants that can elicit T cell immunity against HIV could be part of a "cocktail" of immunogens used as a preventive HIV vaccine.
www.wadsworth.org /educate/hiv.htm   (293 words)

 ICE-LAP6, a Novel Member of the ICE/Ced-3 Gene Family, Is Activated by the Cytotoxic T Cell Protease Granzyme B -- Duan ...
Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a physiologic process important in the normal development and homeostasis of metazoans (1).
Further, the serine protease granzyme B, one of the major effectors of cytotoxic T cell-mediated apoptosis, was shown to directly activate Yama (but not ICE), in vitro (22, 23).
ICE-LAP6 is activated by the cytotoxic T cell protease granzyme B., Yama and ICE-LAP6 are proteolyzed by granzyme B in vitro.
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/271/28/16720   (4938 words)

Another example is IL-1 which activates T cells and causes fever by inducing prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus.
Since immune cells come into very close contact only with cells that bear foreign antigens, this family of cytokines will only bind to receptors on cells that are infected.
Cytotoxic T (Tc) cells are the main effector cells of Cell Mediated Immunity (CMI), i.e.
sprojects.mmi.mcgill.ca /immunology/cd8_text.htm   (979 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
T cell must recognize both antigen and MHC complex.
If T cell recognizes antigen bound by class I MHC the cell containing the MHC molecule will be lysed.
class II confined to immune cells, used to stimulate helper T cells which then stimulate other immune cells through the release of cytokines that activate macrophages to phagocytose, B cells to mature and secrete antibody etc. Present antigen endocytosed from extracellular material.
www.pitt.edu /~wsaund/lect14.htm   (696 words)

 Cytotoxic T Cell Responses to DNA Vaccination: Dependence on Antigen Presentation via Class II MHC -- Maecker et al. ...
Cytotoxic T Cell Responses to DNA Vaccination: Dependence on Antigen Presentation via Class II MHC -- Maecker et al.
Cytotoxic T Cell Responses to DNA Vaccination: Dependence on Antigen Presentation via Class II MHC
T cell responses, such priming might be unnecessary.
www.jimmunol.org /cgi/content/abstract/161/12/6532   (1516 words)

 Cytotoxic T cell responses to intracellular pathogens.
Host defense against intracellular pathogens is thought to require cytotoxic T cells.
Recent studies have investigated the impact of host cell lysis and cytokine production by cytotoxic T lymphocytes on the fate of intracellular pathogens.
The identification of two mechanisms of lysis induced by cytotoxic T lymphocytes--the granule exocytosis pathway and the Fas-FasL interaction--have provided new insight into the role of cytotoxic T lymphocyters in immunity to infection.
www.aegis.com /aidsline/1999/feb/A9920977.html   (294 words)

 Epstein-Barr Virus-specific Cytotoxic T Cell Responses in HIV-1 Infection . Different Kinetics in Patients Progressing ...
Epstein-Barr Virus-specific Cytotoxic T Cell Responses in HIV-1 Infection.
T cells from seropositive individuals: Identification of CTL epitopes and precursor frequencies.
Pircher, and R.M. Zinkernagel (1993) Virus persistence in acutely infected immunocompetent mice by exhaustion of antiviral cytotoxic effector T cells.
www.jci.org /cgi/content/full/99/7/1525?maxtoshow=&resultformat=&firstindex=&fulltext=aids&searchid=QID_NOT_SET   (5286 words)

 Cytotoxic T Cell Responses to Multiple Conserved HIV Epitopes in HIV-Resistant Prostitutes in Nairobi -- Rowland-Jones ...
Cytotoxic T Cell Responses to Multiple Conserved HIV Epitopes in HIV-Resistant Prostitutes in Nairobi -- Rowland-Jones et al.
Cytotoxic T Cell Responses to Multiple Conserved HIV Epitopes in HIV-Resistant Prostitutes in Nairobi
Humphrey, M.J. McElrath, J.L. Excler, A.M. Duliege, M.L. Clements, L.C. Corey, D.P. Bolognesi, and K.J. Weinhold (1997) Clade B-based HIV-1 vaccines elicit cross-clade cytotoxic T lymphocyte reactivities in uninfected volunteers.
www.jci.org /cgi/content/full/102/9/1758   (6282 words)

 Definition of cytotoxic T cell - NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
A type of white blood cell that can directly destroy specific cells.
T cells can be separated from other blood cells, grown in the laboratory, and then given to a patient to destroy tumor cells.
Certain cytokines can also be given to a patient to help form cytotoxic T cells in the patient's body.
www.cancer.gov /Templates/db_alpha.aspx?print=1&cdrid=45664   (65 words)

 Primary Cutaneous CD8-Positive Epidermotropic Cytotoxic T Cell Lymphomas : A Distinct Clinicopathological Entity with ...
T cell phenotype are extremely rare and ill-defined.
T cells, they were further investigated for the presence of cytotoxic
Mackie RM, Turbitt ML: A case of pagetoid reticulosis bearing the cytotoxic suppressor surface marker on the lymphoid infiltrate: further evidence that pagetoid reticulosis is not a variant of mycosis fungoides.
ajp.amjpathol.org /cgi/content/full/155/2/483   (4816 words)

 Epstein-Barr Virus-specific Cytotoxic T Cell Responses in HIV-1 Infection . Different Kinetics in Patients Progressing ...
T cell bystander activation that is reflected in high levels
Miedema (1995) Kinetics of gag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses during the clinical course of HIV-1 infection: a longitudinal analysis of rapid progressors and long-term asymptomatics.
Tersmette (1992) Biological phenotype of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clones at different stages of infection: progression of disease is associated with a shift from monocytotropic to T cell-tropic virus populations.
jci.org /cgi/content/full/99/7/1525?maxtoshow=&resultformat=&...   (5479 words)

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