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Topic: Cytotoxic

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  BioCarta - Charting Pathways of Life
Cytotoxic T cells are a key part of the cellular immune response, killing cells that display foreign antigen on their surface, primarily virus-infected cells.
Cytotoxic T cell activation also requires additional signals provided by helper T cells in addition to signals provided by antigen-presenting cells.
Interaction of activated cytotoxic T cells is aided by increased expression of LFA-1, a cell-adhesion molecule that binds to ICAM on target cells.
www.biocarta.com /pathfiles/h_tcytotoxicPathway.asp   (323 words)

 Takayasu's Arteritis And Cytotoxic Drugs
Since cytotoxic drugs are very potent and may have serious side effects, doctors prescribe them only when the arthritis is severe and other simpler or safer drugs have failed to bring relief.
Cytotoxic drugs can be used to treat many forms of arthritis, including juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, as well as conditions such as steroid-resistant polymyositis or dermatomyositis, Wegener's granulomatosis, polyarteritis or some forms of vasculitis.
When considering treatment with cytotoxic drugs, you, your doctor, and your family will want to consider factors such as the severity of your disease, the potential benefits of the drug as well as the potential side effects.
www.takayasus.org /cytotoxic.htm   (1151 words)

 Cytotoxic cell antigen expression in anaplastic large cell lymphomas   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Cytotoxic cell antigen expression in anaplastic large cell lymphomas of T- and null-cell type and Hodgkin's disease: evidence for distinct cellular origin.
Cytotoxic antigen expression was also studied in 51 cases of Hodgkin's disease (HD) and 17 large B-cell lymphomas (LBCLs) with anaplastic cytomorphology and/ or CD30 positivity.
The expression of cytotoxic granule proteins in the majority of ALCL implies a cytotoxic lymphocyte phenotype and suggests that most cases originate from lymphocytes with cytotoxic potential.
home.earthlink.net /~cfelten/cytotoxic_cell_antigen_expressio.htm   (416 words)

 Cytotoxic / Immunosuppresive Drugs
While some of the side effects of Imuran (azathioprine), Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide) and other immunosuppressive and cytotoxic drugs are severe, they are generally reversible by either reducing the dosage or stopping the medication.
Cytotoxic (cyto=cell, toxic=damage) drugs work by targeting and damaging cells that grow at a rapid rate.
Cytotoxic medicines have their greatest effect against rapidly dividing cells and, therefore, can be beneficial by suppressing the cells involved in the hyperactive immune response.
www.aocd.org /skin/dermatologic_diseases/cytotoxic_drugs.html   (1077 words)

 Cytotoxic Drugs - Introduction
Cytotoxic drugs include any drug that inhibits or prevents the function of cells.
Cytotoxic drugs include drugs used to treat cancer and in some cases, to treat certain skin conditions (e.g., psoriasis).
When therapeutic doses are given to patients, cytotoxic drugs produce toxic side effects due to their poor selectivity between target (e.g., cancer cells) and normal cells.
www.labour.gov.sk.ca /safety/cytotoxic/introduction.htm   (529 words)

 Stay Away from Cytotoxic Testing
But her test report, which arrived three weeks later, said that she was allergic to 25 foods—including wheat, cane sugar, corn, potato, beef and milk—and should avoid all of them for an 8-week period.
Another study found that cytotoxic test results did not correlate with allergic and other untoward reactions to foods and that the results were inconsistent when repeated in the same patient [3].
In a double-blind controlled study, positive cytotoxic tests were frequently obtained to foods that produced no clinical symptoms and negative reactions were obtained to foods that did produce symptoms [4].
www.quackwatch.org /01QuackeryRelatedTopics/Tests/cyto.html   (1105 words)

 Cytotoxic effects of the extracts of Iranian Taxus baccata and Cupressus horizentalis on cancer cells   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
In a program to screen the cytotoxic effects of natural resources, male and female branchlets, fruit or bark of two different species of Iranian conifers were collected, identified and the cytotoxic effects of their hydroalcoholic extracts on three human tumor cell lines were determined.
The cytotoxic effect of extracts obtained against previously mentioned human tumor cell lines was determined by a rapid colorimetric assay, using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and compared with the untreated controls (10).
It seems that saponins, tannins and flavonoids are not responsible for the cytotoxic effects of plants tested, as the amount of these compounds are not consistent with the cytotoxic effects of extracts of different plant parts (14).
www.ijpr-online.com /Docs/20032/IJPR144.htm   (1573 words)

 Cytotoxic T cell - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Most cytotoxic T cells express T-cell receptors (TcRs) that can recognise a specific antigenic peptide bound to Class I MHC molecules on an antigen presenting cell, and a glycoprotein called CD8, which is attracted to non-variable portions of the Class I MHC molecule.
With the exception of some cell types such as non-nucleated cells (including erythrocytes), Class I MHC is expressed by all host cells.
The activation of cytotoxic T cells is dependent on several simulanteous interactions between molecules expressed on the the surface of the T cell and molecules on the surface of the antigen presenting cell (APC).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cytotoxic_T_cell   (888 words)

 Surface Cathepsin B Protects Cytotoxic Lymphocytes from Self-destruction after Degranulation -- Balaji et al. 196 (4): ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Activation-induced suicide of cytotoxic effectors in the presence of membrane-impermeant cathepsin B inhibitors.
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte sequential killing of immobilized allogeneic tumor target cells measured by time-lapse microcinematography.
Impaired binding of perforin on the surface of tumor cells is a cause of target cell resistance against cytotoxic effector cells.
www.jem.org /cgi/content/full/196/4/493   (6888 words)

 Loss of the Perforin Cytotoxic Pathway Predisposes Mice to Experimental Cytomegalovirus Retinitis -- Dix et al. 77 (6): ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
MAIDS correlates with a decrease in the perforin cytotoxic pathway.
cytotoxic pathway (PKO mice) are susceptible to experimental
Cytotoxicity mediated by T cells and natural killer cells is greatly impaired in perforin-deficient mice.
jvi.asm.org /cgi/content/full/77/6/3402   (4884 words)

 Properties of cytotoxic peptide-formed ion channels -- Kourie and Shorthouse 278 (6): C1063 -- AJP - Cell Physiology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The cytotoxic peptides discussed here can be divided into three main groups based on the origin of the molecule.
cytotoxic T cells and NK cells, is 78 amino acid residues in length.
The conductance properties and the experimental conditions for the cytotoxic peptide-formed channels are shown in Table 1.
ajpcell.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/278/6/C1063   (7868 words)

 Introduction to Immunology Tutorial
The cellular system is composed of cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells.
Cytotoxic T cells kill infected cells, preventing these cells from producing more pathogen.
Receptors on the surface of cytotoxic T cells detect fragments of the virus on the surfaces of infected cells.
www.biology.arizona.edu /immunology/tutorials/immunology/08t.html   (261 words)

 Effect of Nitric Oxide Donors on Oxygen-Dependent Cytotoxic Responses Mediated by Neutrophils -- Andonegui et al. 162 ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
After 1–2 min of incubation at 37°C, cytotoxicity was triggered by the addition of IC (10 µg/ml), without removing NO donors or NO scavengers from the culture medium.
Neutrophil-mediated cytotoxicity triggered by immune complexes: the role of reactive oxygen metabolites.
Inactivation of glutathione peroxidase by nitric oxide: implications for cytotoxicity.
www.jimmunol.org /cgi/content/full/162/5/2922   (5927 words)

 Cytotoxic Food Tests
Cytotoxic food tests involve observation of the response of specific allergens on collected white blood cells.
Cytotoxic food tests for the diagnosis of an allergy are considered investigational.
No randomized controlled trials have established the efficacy for cytotoxic food testing in the diagnosis of food allergies.
www.bcbst.com /MPManual/Allergy_Testing_-_Cytotoxic_Food_Tests.htm   (336 words)

 AEGiS-03CROI: Kinetics of HIV-specific cytotoxic activity during primary HIV infection.
In the present study, we have analyzed the kinetics of HIV-specific cytotoxic activity in 4 HIV-infected individuals with primary infection.
In addition, the precursor frequency of HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLP) was determined by limiting dilution analysis.
The kinetics of HIV-specific cytotoxic activity were significantly different among the 4 patients.
www.aegis.com /conferences/croi/1996/421.html   (356 words)

 Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) recognize surface markers on other cells in the body that label those cells for destruction.
A longer, larger, silent version of the above clip may be purchased and downloaded for classroom use as part of the "Immune System Collection".
cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CD4 T lymphocyte, CD8 T lymphocyte, cancer vaccine, natural killer cell, apoptosis, tumor induced lymphocyte
www.cellsalive.com /ctl.htm   (140 words)

 Epstein-Barr Virus-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses in the Blood and Tumor Site of Hodgkin's Disease Patients: ...
These viral proteins are targets for Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTLs) in healthy EBV carriers, and their expression in EBV-associated HD raises the possibility of targeting them for a CTL-based immunotherapy.
It is now well established that 40% of HD cases in Western countries and a far higher proportion in some developing regions are associated with EBV infection of the malignant H-RS cells (1, 2, 3).
Cutting edge: silencing virus-specific cytotoxic T cell-mediated immune recognition by differential splicing: a novel implication of RNA processing for antigen presentation.
www.euchromatin.net /Chapman1.htm   (4657 words)

 airlab :: Services :: Cytotoxix Drug Safety Cabinets
Cytotoxic drugs are toxic compounds and are known to have carcinogenic, mutagenic and / or teratogenic potential.
Project Services Ltd provide annual validation and certification of cytotoxic cabinets as well as certifying that the room of operation complies with the Class 350 air cleanliness standard and that the supply of air does not inhibit the operation of the cabinet.
Project Services is IANZ accredited to perform tests to AS/NZS 1807 and NSF 49 standards, and has several experienced staff who can advise you on all aspects of testing and validation of biohazard cabinets.
www.airlab.co.nz /cyotoxic.php   (263 words)

 Targeting of Cytotoxic Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Analogs to Breast, Ovarian, Endometrial, and Prostate ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Targeting cytotoxic conjugates of somatostatin, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and bombesin to cancers expressing their receptors: a "smarter" chemotherapy.
Szepeshazi K, Schally AV, Nagy A, Halmos G, Groot K. Targeted cytotoxic luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogs inhibit growth of estrogen-independent MXT mouse mammary cancer in vivo by decreasing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis.
Cytotoxic analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone bind with high affinity to human breast cancers.
www.biolreprod.org /cgi/content/full/73/5/851   (6827 words)

 Unlocking the secrets of cytotoxic granule proteins -- Smyth et al. 70 (1): 18 -- Journal of Leukocyte Biology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
of premalignant cells and the absence of the cytotoxic mechanism
Edwards, K. M., Kam, C-M., Powers, J., Trapani, J. (1999) The human cytotoxic T cell granule protease granzyme H has chymotrypsin-like (chymase) activity and is taken up into cytoplasmic vesicles reminiscent of granzyme B-containing endosomes J.
Browne, K. A., Johnstone, R. J., Jans, D. A., Trapani, J. (2000) Filamin (280 kDa actin-binding protein) is a caspase substrate, and is also cleaved directly by the cytotoxic T lymphocyte protease granzyme B during apoptosis J.
www.jleukbio.org /cgi/content/full/70/1/18   (7339 words)

 Isolation of macrophage-like cell mutants resistant to the cytotoxic effect of oxidized low density lipoprotein -- ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Cytotoxic effects of 7-ketocholesterol, t-butyl hydroperoxide, and lysophosphatidylcholine on JO21b cells.
Hessler, J. R., Robertson, A. L., Jr., Chisolm, G. LDL-induced cytotoxicity and its inhibition by HDL in human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells in culture.
Hughes, H., Mathews, B., Lenz, M. L., Guyton, J. Cytotoxicity of oxidized LDL to porcine aortic smooth muscle cells is associated with the oxysterols 7-ketocholesterol and 7-hydroxycholesterol.
www.jlr.org /cgi/content/full/39/3/482   (6627 words)

 Occupational exposure to cytotoxic drugs in two UK oncology wards -- Ziegler et al. 59 (9): 608 -- Occupational and ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Occupational exposure to cytotoxic drugs in two UK oncology wards -- Ziegler et al.
cytotoxic drugs, in line with the hospital policy, as she was
Monitoring exposure of nursing and pharmacy personnel to cytotoxic drugs: urinary mutation assays and urinary platinum as markers of absorption.
oem.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/59/9/608   (3615 words)

 Immunosuppressive and cytotoxic medications for lupus
Depending on the drug, an immunosuppressive medication may be given in pill form, weekly injections, or by intravenous (IV) pulse therapy (injection given monthly).
In higher doses, cytotoxic medications are also used to treat certain forms of cancer.
Immunosuppressive and cytotoxic medications have been associated with a small increase in the risk of developing certain cancers.
www.webmd.com /hw/lupus/hw123107.asp   (1057 words)

 The role of IFN regulatory factor-3 in the cytotoxic activity of NS-9, a polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid/cationic ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The role of IFN regulatory factor-3 in the cytotoxic activity of NS-9, a polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid/cationic liposome complex, against tumor cells -- Uno et al.
The role of IFN regulatory factor-3 in the cytotoxic activity of NS-9, a polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid/cationic liposome complex, against tumor cells
Involvement of PKR, RNase L, TLR3, and IFNAR1 in the cytotoxic activity of NS-9.
mct.aacrjournals.org /cgi/content/full/4/5/799   (3664 words)

 Washington Attorney General Stops Cytotoxic testing Lab
Representing to consumers, health care professionals or others that cytotoxic testing is a proven, effective or non-experimental test for an individual's food allergies or sensitivities.
Using or marketing cytotoxic testing services without having registered the cytotoxic testing devices with the FDA and having received FDA approval for the same; provided that defendants may use cytotoxic testing devices without FDA approval if FDA issues a statement specifically exempting defendants from such approval pursuant to applicable federal statutes, regulations, and policy guides.
Representing to consumers, health care professionals or others that any person or entity has endorsed the cytotoxic testing services offered by defendants, or is affiliated with defendants, without written permission of that person or entity to make such a representation.
www.casewatch.org /ag/wa/cyto.shtml   (1514 words)

 Use of Cytotoxic Agents and Cyclosporine in the Treatment of Autoimmune Disease: Part 2: Inflammatory Bowel Disease, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Use of Cytotoxic Agents and Cyclosporine in the Treatment of Autoimmune Disease: Part 2: Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Systemic Vasculitis, and Therapeutic Toxicity -- Langford et al.
cytotoxic agent and high-dose daily glucocorticoid therapy [29, 52, 55].
Use of cytotoxic agents and cyclosporine in the treatment of autoimmune disease.
www.annals.org /cgi/content/full/129/1/49   (5701 words)

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