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Topic: Czechoslovak parliamentary election, 1946

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In the News (Fri 26 Apr 19)

  History of Slovakia
Although Czechoslovakia was the only east-central European country to remain a parliamentary democracy[?] from 1918 to 1938, it was plagued with minority problems, the most important of which concerned the country's large German population.
In elections held in June 1992, Vaclav Klaus[?]'s Civic Democratic Party won in the Czech lands on a platform of economic reform, and Vladimir Meciar's Movement for a Democratic Slovakia[?] (HZDS) emerged as the leading party in Slovakia, basing its appeal on fairness to Slovak demands for autonomy.
Vladimir Meciar's semi-authoritarian government seriously breached democratic norms and the rule of law until being ousted in the parliamentary elections of 1998 by a coalition led by Mikulas Dzurinda[?].
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/hi/History_of_Slovakia.html   (1217 words)

 Czechoslovakia - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about Czechoslovakia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
It was the only East European state to retain a parliamentary democracy throughout the interwar period, with five coalition governments (dominated by the Agrarian and National Socialist parties), with Tomas Masaryk serving as president.
Elections in 1946 gave the left a slight majority, and in February 1948 the communists seized power, winning an electoral victory in May. Beneš, who had been president since 1945, resigned.
On 27 December 1989 the rehabilitated Dubček was sworn in as chair of the federal assembly, and on 29 December Havel became president of Czechoslovakia.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /Czechoslovakia   (1469 words)

 History of Czech Republic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The Czechoslovak Communist Party, which won 38% of the vote, held most of the key positions in the government and gradually managed to neutralize or silence the anti-communist forces.
The Czechoslovak Government immediately declared that the troops had not been invited into the country and that their invasion was a violation of socialist principles, international law, and the UN Charter.
In the election of June 1992, Klaus's Civic Democratic Party won handily in the Czech lands on a platform of economic reform.
www.historyofnations.net /europe/czechrepublic.html   (1756 words)

 Vaclav Havel - Search View - MSN Encarta
In November 1989, in the wake of democratic reforms in the USSR and mass demonstrations against the Czechoslovak government by Czechs and Slovaks, Czechoslovakia’s Communist regime began to collapse.
In July 1990, after the country's first free parliamentary elections since 1946, he was reelected for a two-year term.
As president, Havel oversaw the establishment of a new Czechoslovak government that began instituting democratic freedoms and a free-market economy.
encarta.msn.com /text_761563691__1/Vaclav_Havel.html   (951 words)

 Eastern Europe: Two case studies in nationalism - The World and I Magazine
There Ukrainian and Belorussian communist parties amassed impressive voter support in the free elections of the early interwar period because they stood openly for secession from Poland and admission to the Soviet Union, an attitude that was in part a by-product of the assimilationist policies of the government in Warsaw.
The remaining 65 percent of the seats would be contested solely by candidates, including those of the government labor union, chosen by the party, 38 percent for party members, the remainder for representatives of the shadow parties that had formally participated in the communist government all along.
The senators were to be chosen by entirely free elections and possess a veto that could override acts of the lower house--which was to have the principal responsibility for legislation--by a two-thirds vote.
www.worldandi.com /public/1989/december/mt4.cfm   (5851 words)

 Background Notes on Selected East European Countries from the Department of State
The country's first fully democratic parliamentary elections, in November 1991, ushered in another coalition government, which was led by the pro-reform Union of Democratic Forces (UDF) in partnership with the Movement for Rights and Freedoms (MRF).
Parliamentary deputies are elected by secret ballot for a maximum of 4 years, but elections can be called earlier.
Hungary's transition to a Western-style parliamentary democracy was the first and the smoothest among the former Soviet bloc, inspired by a nationalism that long had encouraged Hungarians to control their own destiny.
www.shsu.edu /~his_ncp/EEurBN.html   (20889 words)

 History of Slovakia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
In Slovakia, the Democratic Party won the elections, but the Czechoslovak Communist Party won 38% of the total vote in Czechoslovakia and eventually seized power in February 1948.
Meciar's semi-authoritarian government seriously breached democratic norms and the rule of law until being ousted in the parliamentary elections of 1998 by a coalition led by Mikulas Dzurinda.
Following a summer 2003 parliamentary shake-up, the government lost its narrow parliamentary majority and now controls only 67 of the 150 seats; however, the coalition is relatively stable because of the parties' similar political philosophies.
www.historyofnations.net /europe/slovakia.html   (1098 words)

 The Slovak Republic
In the 1946 elections held in Czecho-Slovakia, the Slovak nation, of which one third was disenfranchised, cast its votes in absolute majority against Communism.
By November of 1947, after considerable parliamentary maneuvering, the Democratic Party was relegated to minority status in the government of Slovakia, and by February, 1948, the Czech Communists were able to consolidate their hold over the entire country into a full-scale Communist dictatorship.
In May, 1946, the Czechs sent three Czech divisions to Slovakia to vote for the Communists, one-third of the Slovak population was disenfranchised, and yet, despite many Czech provocations, seventy percent of the Slovak voters cast their ballots against the Communists.
www.tccweb.org /slovakrep.htm   (8379 words)

 Background Notes Archive - Europe
Although Czechoslovakia was the only East European country to remain a parliamentary democracy from 1918 to 1938, it was plagued with minority problems, the most important concerning the country's large German population.
The first free elections in Czechoslovakia since 1948 took place in June 1990 without incident and with more than 95% of the population voting.
An agreement was concluded to divide all federal property of the former Czechoslovak state according to a 2:1 ratio in favor of the Czech Republic.
dosfan.lib.uic.edu /ERC/bgnotes/eur/czechrepublic9407.html   (3989 words)

The Slovak national revival was begun in the nineteenth century by intellectuals seeking to revive the Slovak language and culture.
Although Czechoslovakia was the only east-central European country to remain a parliamentary democracy from 1918 to 1938, it was plagued with minority problems, the most important concerning the country's large German population.
In the election of June 1992, Vaclav Klaus's Civic Democratic Party won in the Czech lands on a platform of economic reform, and Vladimir Meciar's Movement for a Democratic Slovakia (HZDS) emerged as the leading party in Slovakia, basing its appeal on fairness to Slovak demands for autonomy.
burns.dcb.du.edu /oldFiles/history.asp?id=66   (740 words)

 Links from the Slovak Embassy
Internally it was established as a parliamentary democracy with a president as head of state (1918-1935 T. Masaryk, 1935-1938 Edvard Beneš).
In contrast to the Czech lands, where the communists were victorious in the election of 1946, in Slovakia the majority of the inhabitants (62%) supported the Democratic Party.
In contradiction to parliamentary habits the opposition was pushed out from parliamentary committees and from privatization of the state property.
www.slovakembassy-us.org /history.html   (7611 words)

 Czech Republic (09/06)
A large percentage of the Czech population claim to be atheists (40%), and 16% describe themselves as uncertain.
A major overhaul of the Czechoslovak defense forces began in 1990 and continues in the Czech Republic.
President Wilson's 14 Points, including the right of ethnic groups to form their own states, were the basis for the union of the Czechs and Slovaks.
www.state.gov /r/pa/ei/bgn/3237.htm   (4716 words)

 Columbia Encyclopedia- Czechoslovakia - AOL Research & Learn
In the elections of 1946 the Communists emerged as the strongest party (obtaining one third of the votes) and became the dominant party in the coalition headed by the Communist Klement Gottwald.
The Velvet Revolution was successfully completed with the departure of the last Soviet troops in May, 1991, and a free parliamentary election in June, 1992.
The new government was faced with several difficulties, including a distressed and inefficient economic system in need of drastic reform, high unemployment, widespread social discontent, and environmental pollution.
reference.aol.com /columbia/_a/czechoslovakia/20051205225309990005   (1367 words)

 Otto Ulc Published in East European Quarlerly, XXX,No.3,September 1996
Czechoslovak federation of merely two components -- the Czech (population 10 million) and the Slovak Republic (population 5 million) -- dissolved at midnight on December 31, 1992.
Yet, the presumably underdeveloped, immature Slovaks demonstrated more political acumen in the first free general election of 1946: their overwhelming majority voted for the non-communist Democratic Party, whereas in the Czech Lands the Communist Party won a plurality -- 35 percent of the total vote, the highest (42 percent) in Bohemia.
The election platform of Meciar's winning party called for a declaration of independence, adoption of a new Slovak constitution, and obtaining international recognition as a separate subject of international law.
people2.clarityconnect.com /webpages6/ota/art_eng/E-68.html   (7743 words)

 Managing cultural, ethnic and religious diversities - Discussion Paper 50
The newly appointed Czechoslovak Ambassador to Hungary had held negotiations in Hungary in 1918, according to which (a) Hungarians in Slovak lands would have autonomy and their own Parliament, which would be connected with the Parliament in Hungary, and (b) the border between the two countries would more or less follow along ethnic lines.
Centrist, newly established before the 1998 elections, it is oriented toward undecided voters, is progressive, has a strong leader in the person of R. Schuster, candidate for the presidency in the elections of May 1999.
The parliamentary elections of 1992 brought about the victory of the nationalist political parties, which pushed into the opposition not only the political representatives of the Hungarian parties, but most members of the Hungarian minority.
www.unesco.org /most/ronen.htm   (15999 words)

 FTR 2002 / UN Treaty Bodies
By notice of 22 February 1993 addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, the depositary of the Covenant, the CR succeeded to the obligations arising from the Covenant for the former CSFR as of 1 January 1993.
The Chamber of Deputies has 200 deputies, elected for a period of four years.Elections to the Chamber of Deputies are held by secret ballot on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage, on the principle of proportional representation.
Elections to the Senate are held by secret ballot on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage, on the principle of a majority system.
www.hri.ca /fortherecord2002/documentation/tbodies/e-1990-5-add47.htm   (5786 words)

Three years later the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia seized power (1948-1989) following a parliamentary election in which the Communists emerged as the winner and the country came under the influence of the Soviet Union.
Except for a short period in the late 1960s (the Prague Spring) the country was characterized by the absence of democracy and relative economic backwardness compared to Western Europe, although its economy remained more advanced than those of its neighbors in Eastern Europe.
The 1960 Constitution (The Constitution of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic) [a Communist one till 1989] with amendments in 1968 (Czechoslovakia turned into a federation), 1971, 1975, 1978, 1989 (leading role of the KSC abolished) and several times during 1990-1992 (e.
www.ufaqs.com /wiki/en/cz/Czechoslovakia.htm   (1714 words)

 Commanding Heights : Czech Republic | on PBS
At the war's end, the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapses, and the Czechoslovak Republic is formed.
1920-1937: The 1920 constitution establishes a parliamentary democracy, held together largely by the presidencies of revered leaders T.G. Masaryk and Eduard Benes.
The Czechoslovak government insists that losing the industry-rich region will lead to economic ruin and open the door to invasion.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/commandingheights/lo/countries/cz/cz_full.html   (1008 words)

 Roma Rights / nr4, 2001 -- notebook
In Bulgaria, each of the elections of 1990, 1994 and 1997 brought one person explicitly declaring himself to be Romani into parliament on a mainstream party ticket (no Roma were elected to parliament during general elections in 1991).
In the most recent Bulgarian elections in June 2001, a Romani candidate from the list of the National Movement Simeon II (NDSV)[5] and one from the Coalition For Bulgaria, an electoral coalition led by the Socialist Party, were elected.
In 1946, he was deposed as a result of an arguably unconstitutional referendum which abolished the monarchy.
lists.errc.org /rr_nr4_2001/noteb1.shtml   (5830 words)

 Comparative Criminology | Europe - Slovakia
Prime Minister Mikulas Dzurinda took office after parliamentary elections in the fall of 1998.
Both elections were declared free and fair by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).
A parliamentary commission composed of legislators from ruling and opposition parties oversees the SIS.
www-rohan.sdsu.edu /faculty/rwinslow/europe/slovakia.html   (9446 words)

 The Cold War Begins
The Czechoslovak delegation returned to Prague on July 11, and after a long meeting among the full government it was announced that Czechoslovakia would cancel its decision to join the Marshall Plan.
The three High Commissioners set up shop in Bonn, the provisional West German capital and, after parliamentary elections in August 1949, the Federal Republic of Germany was officially declared on September 15, 1949, with Konrad Adenauer, elected by the Bundestag, as the chancellor.
In 1946, President Truman sent George Marshall to China to prevent a civil war between Chiang Kai-shek's forces and the communists, led by Mao Zedung.
www.fsmitha.com /h2/ch24cld.html   (6331 words)

 WHKMLA : History of Slovakia, 1945-1948
In April 1945, a National Front Czechoslovak coalition government was established at Kosice, consisting of the Communist (split in a Czechoslovak and a Slovak party), the Social Democrat, the National Socialist parties, and, among others the Slovak Democratic Party.
In the 1946 elections, the Slovak Democratic Party gained 62 % of the votes in Slovakia, while the Communists emerged as the strongest party nationwide.
The Communists held the ministry of the interior and abused this office in order to prepare the takeover of the state; the non-Communist cabinet members, including those belonging to the Slovak Democratic Party, resigned in February 1948 in protest.
www.zum.de /whkmla/region/eceurope/slovakia19451948.html   (665 words)

 Czechoslovakia's Quiet Revolution
Yet they have managed to perform their heroic symphony in a minor key and couple the word "revolution" with such unexpected adjectives as "peaceful," "moderate" and "orderly." There is a distance, an irony, a sense of humor in the cultural climate here and, once bitten twice shy, an allergy to romantic illusions.
This Czechoslovak version of the "pride of understatement," which Hemingway attributed to the English, is not the only reason for the complexity of the answer to my original question.
It supported the Czechoslovak tradition of parliamentary democracy, in which the president was more a referee than a party political leader and was not elected directly by the people.
www.thenation.com /doc/19900129/singer   (4628 words)

Whatever the reasons and aims of this act may be and whoever the author, the significance of this event lay in the fact that the statehood of the Czech nation merged into Czechoslovak statehood from that moment and increasingly influenced it.
A similar situation arose within the Communist party as well, where there was inadequate representation of Slovaks at the highest level, etc. As a consequence of these conflicts in the political sphere, conflicts between the Slovak Communists and the central government, which was formed mostly of Czech Communists, were frequent.
The whole series of events and their culmination is a lapidary example of the reduction and sacrifice of Slovak national rights to the interest and aims of the dictatorship of the proletariat.
www.crvp.org /book/Series04/IVA-5/chapter_viii.htm   (6127 words)

 Introduction [Free Republic]
Written between 1950 and 1955 as an internal Czechoslovak Communist Party strategy paper, the two chapters which comprise this document was discussed briefly by Communist Czechoslovak delegates to the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) in London in the fall of 1957.
Kozak was a member of the Czechoslovak Communist Party Central Committee, briefly a member of the government secretariat, and later, official historian of the Czechoslovak Communist Party.
Meanwhile, “parliamentary socialism” — the “pressure from above” — used the power of the state, under the pretext of yielding to pressure from “farmers” (represented by these Communist infiltrators) to brake up the economic base and strength of the independent farmers.
www.freerepublic.com /forum/a39a1563842a7.htm   (3429 words)

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