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Topic: Dardic languages

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In the News (Wed 17 Apr 19)

  civilwar.ca - Dardic languages   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
There are 10 languages which are indigenous to Chitral, a valley in the extreme Northwest corner of Pakistan with a...
...languages the Dardic languages of the first wave of Aryans who settled down in the Pamir mountains were mentioned earlier.
The Dardic languages form a subfamily of the Indo-Iranian languages.
www.civilwar.ca /Dardic-languages/reference/fullview/wikipedia/739987   (65 words)

 Dardic languages in Chitral
Kirghiz is a Turkic language spoken in the former Soviet Republic of Kirgizskaya.
The languages of Khowar, Phalura, Dameli, Gawar-Bati, Nuristani, Kalasha, Yidgha and Munji are all classified as Dardic languages in the Indo-European family of languages.
Dards, Dardistan, and Dardic: an Ethnographic, Geographic, and Linguistic Conundrum
www.ishipress.com /dardic.htm   (2918 words)

 AllRefer.com - Indo-Iranian : Dardic Group (Language And Linguistics) - Encyclopedia
Among the Dardic, or Pisacha, languages are Kafiri, spoken in Afghanistan; Khowar, current in Pakistan; Shina, Kohistani, and Kashmiri, prevalent in Pakistan and N India; and Romany, the language of the Gypsies, spoken mainly outside India.
These languages share certain distinctive phonetic characteristics, feature the use of pronominal suffixes with various verb forms, and include in their vocabularies a number of words that among the languages of India are usually encountered only in Vedic Sanskrit.
Kashmiri is the sole Dardic language that both has a literature and is recognized in the Indian constitution of 1950.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/I/IndoIran-dardic-group.html   (244 words)

 Iranica.com - DARDESTAÚN
The Dardic languages are an offshoot of the Indo-Aryan languages of the post-Vedic period.
The assumption of a connection between the Dardic languages and the Middle Indian Pais‚a@c^ language is based partly on their common geographical location and partly on such phonetic features as the devoicing of postvocalic (occasionally also initial) voiced consonants.
Alhough Dardic languages were occasionally mentioned in travelers' notes and Christian missionaries actually published parts of the Bible in Kashmiri (in the Nagari alphabet) in the 1820s, the study of Dardic languages actually began in the 1830s, when the first professional linguistic data, in the form of compact vocabularies and glossaries, were published by M.
www.iranica.com /articles/v7f1/v7f126.html   (3230 words)

 Peoples and languages   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The language of the first wave, which remained confined to the Pamir mountains of Pakistan, is identified as Dardic while the second one may be called Indic.
This language, opines Gankovsky, was probably made up of elements from the languages of the 'local pre-Indo-European population and Indo-Aryan tribes, as well as the Dardic and East-Iranian ethnic elements'.
Among the pre-Vedic languages the Dardic languages of the first wave of Aryans who settled down in the Pamir mountains were mentioned earlier.
asnic.utexas.edu /asnic/subject/peoplesandlanguages.html   (6630 words)

 Dardic languages --  Encyclopædia Britannica   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
language spoken in the Vale of Kashmir and the surrounding hills.
The languages of the region are generally classified as belonging to the following families: Indo-European (the Indo-Iranian branch in particular), Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic (Munda in particular), and Sino-Tibetan.
The sacred language of Islam was Arabic, and the proportion of Arabic words used in Persian rapidly increased until it reached something like the 40 to 50 percent of the present day.
www.britannica.com /eb/article?tocId=9028763   (788 words)

 Vitasta Annual Number: A Kashmir Sabha, Kolkata Publication
In the north, it is surrounded by Shina (a Dardic language), in the east by Tibeto-Burman languages (e.g., Balti, Ladakhi), in the west by Pahari and Punjabi dialects, and in the South by Dogri and Pahari dialects.
Morgenstierne concludes that Dardic languages (Kashmiri, Shina, Indus Kohistani, Khowar, Kalsha, Pashai, Tirahi) are Indo-Aryan languages.
A language lives because it has users, and it dies or decays because its users believe that it has no vital uses for them, or its users have gradually shifted to other languages languages that provide access to, functionally and attitudinally, greener pastures.
vitasta.org /2001/1.4.html   (4226 words)

 UNESCO Collection of History of Civilizations of Central Asia : Online chapter   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
A considerable part of the population was composed of sedentary speakers of: (i) Middle and New East Iranian languages, Late Bactrian, and the New Iranian phase - the Afghan language; and (ii) West Iranian languages in the Middle Iranian and New Iranian phases – Tajik or Persian.
Of the aboriginal languages of the east of the region, the linguistically isolated Burushaski should be mentioned.
The language known as New Persian, which may usually be called at this period by the name of dari or parsi-i dari, can be classified linguistically as a continuation of Middle Persian, the official, religions and literary language of Sasanian Iran...
www.unesco.org /culture/asia/html_eng/chapitre316/chapitre1.htm   (1273 words)

 Braj B. Kachru: An Introduction to Spoken Kashmiri
The question of the linguistic origin of Kashmiri, and its relation,on the one hand, to the Dardic group of languages and, on the other hand to the Indo-Aryan group of languages, continues to be discussed.
languages, which include the Shina-Khowar group, occupy a position intermediate between the Sanskritic languages of India proper and Eranian languages farther to their west.
In general, the languages of the Dardic-group show a large number of lexical items which have been preserved from Vedic Sanskrit and which are rarely found in other Indian languages.
www.koshur.org /SpokenKashmiri/Introduction   (3303 words)

 Kashmiri Language: Roots, Evolution and Affinity
Considering Dardic languages, including the Shina- Khowar group, to have developed from the Indo-Iranian branch of Aryan, he uses the cover term Pishacha to describe them and observes that Kashmiri too shares their characteristics and so must be grouped with them.
The postpositions used are hund or sund with masculine singular and hinz or sinz with feminine singular nouns and pronouns in case of animate objects the plural forms being, hindy or sindy and hinzi or sinzi respectively Punjabi uses handa or hunda and sanda and Sindhi sanda.
Being a record of the Kashmiri language as it was spoken in the 15th century, the last two works shed useful light on its medieval development and are greatly helpful in tracing earlier forms of a good number of Kashmiri words.
www.koausa.org /Languages/Shashi.html   (6842 words)

 Jammu & Kashmir: Distribution of Languages
Among the Indo-European languages, Kashmiri, Shina, and several other local tongues (spoken over much of the Northern Areas and in a small portion of Kargil district) form a distinct Dardic group, whose area of dominance also extends across the northern part of the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan and into northeastern Afghanistan.
Whether or not this group constitutes a separate sub-family within the Indo-European family is a question still debated by linguists; but none doubts the linguistic affinity of Dardic languages.
Also within the Indo-European family are several locally dominant languages, most notably Gojri, the language spoken by the Gujar and Bakerwal pastoral communities, and various dialects collectively grouped under the designation "Pahari" (i.e., of the mountains).
www.kashmirstudygroup.net /awayforward/mapsexplan/languages.html   (419 words)

The result of his research was a series of studies on The languages of the Eastern Hindu Kush (Yazyki vostochnogo gindukusha), the first of which to be published was on the Munji language (1972), based on the texts he had recorded in 1966-67 in the Monja@n valley of Afghanistan.
Edelman, of the comprehensive study on Pashto, including the chapter on Pashto historical phonology, in "Fundamentals of Iranian linguistics." During the 1970s and 1980s he was engaged in the study of Baluchi language and literature and wrote an article on the Dardic language (1971).
Yazyk severoazerbaidzhanskikh tatov (The language of the Tats of northern Azerbaijan), Leningrad, 1963.
www.iranica.com /articles/v11f4/v11f4009.html   (681 words)

 AllRefer.com - Dardic languages (Language And Linguistics) - Encyclopedia
AllRefer.com - Dardic languages (Language And Linguistics) - Encyclopedia
Dardic languages [dAr´dik] Pronunciation Key, group of languages belonging to the Indo-Iranian subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages.
More articles from AllRefer Reference on Dardic languages
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/D/Dardicla.html   (133 words)

 Kashmir Sentinel
Kashmiri, he insists is "a mixed language, having as its basis a language of the Dard group of the Pishacha family allied to "Shina’.
Born in the early decades of the 14th century when Kashmir was in the throes of an unprecedented political upheaval with a collision between two cultures, the indigenous and Islamic, thretaening to tear the entire social fabric apart, Lal Ded played the dual role of a poet and spiritual leader to ensure continuity and stability.
In fact she shaped and enriched the Kashmiri language in a manner that it formed the basis on which a new Kashmiri identity was forged.
www.kashmirsentinel.com /june2003/2.html   (2682 words)

 Vitasta Annual Number: A Kashmir Sabha, Kolkata Publication
Kashmiri language is primarily spoken in the Kashmir valley of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.
It is only in the absence of reliable comparative data about Dardic languages, a geographic or ethnographic label is frequently applied to a group of languages or dialects.
Kashmiri is therefore characterized as a verb 2 language.
vitasta.org /1999/6a.html   (1935 words)

 Richard Strand's Nuristân Site: Peoples and Languages of Nuristan
Within the Indo-European linguistic family the Nuristâni languages form a third sub-group of the Indo-Iranian group, alongside the Iranian and Indo-Âryan sub-groups.
Speakers of the precursors of the Nuristâni languages appear to have been on the outer edge of the wave of Âryan expansion that placed the Iranian-speaking peoples in their present locations.
In the millennium since the Nuristânis entered Nuristân, those in northern Nuristân have assimilated processes from the neighboring Iranian languages across the Hindu Kush, while those in southern Nuristân have remained closer to the Indo-Âryan languages to the south (see the linguistic map).
users.sedona.net /~strand/Nuristani/Nuristanis1.html   (2161 words)

The fundamental word-hoard of Kashmiri Language, its syntax, its noun and verb forms and more than most words related to the agricultural operations and names of tools and implements used during such operations owe their origin to the Sanskritic word-hoard.
Clusters subsumed under the nomenclature of Dardic languages are metamorphosed forms of old vedic sanskrit.
Chitrali, Kafri, Shina, Kashmiri and Kohistani are the Dardic group of languages which in terms of linguistics are directly related to Paishachi, which is a recognised prakrita having a sufficient quanta of literature.
www.dailyexcelsior.com /01apr30/mail.htm   (1145 words)

 Kashmiri language --  Encyclopædia Britannica
Reflecting the history of the area, the Kashmiri vocabulary is mixed, containing Dardic, Sanskrit, Punjabi, and Persian elements.
Speakers of the various Indo-Aryan languages live mainly in northern India, and speakers of Dravidian tongues are concentrated in the south.
Of the Indo-Aryan languages, Hindi, the official national language, is the most important.
www.britannica.com /eb/article?tocId=9044802   (796 words)

 Spoken Kashmiri: A Language Course
There is a general consensus amongst historical linguists that Kashmiri belongs to the Dardic branch of the Indo-Aryan family.
The Devanagari script with additional diacritical marks is used for Kashmiri by writers and researchers in representing the data from Kashmiri texts in their writings in Hindi related to language, literature and culture.
Kashmiri is being taught as a second language at the Northern Regional Language Centre (CIIL) Patiala since 1971.
www.koshur.org /Kashmiri/introduction.html   (1707 words)

 Ethnologue report for Afghanistan
The language is close to Mesopotamian Spoken Arabic.
Radio Afghanistan broadcasts are promoting a standardized pronunciation of the literary language which is based on the old dictional tradition of the country, with its archaic phonetic characteristics.
Zargari (Morghuli) is a secret language used among goldsmiths and perhaps others, based on a dialect of Persian.
www.ethnologue.com /show_country.asp?name=Afghanistan   (1366 words)

 The U of MT -- Mansfield Library LangFing Indo-Iranian pt. 4
You have reached the fourth page of Indo-Iranian languages, which is just one part of the "Language Finger" homepage, which is an index by language to the holdings of the Mansfield Library of The University of Montana.
Languages on this page so far are Dardic Languages, Gaddi, Garhwali, Indic Languages (Branch), Kalasha, Khowar, and Shina.
updated 8-7-2003 The Dardic languages (Indo-Hittite) comprise one sub-branch of the Indic sub-branch of the Indo-Iranian sub-branch of the Indo-European branch of the Indo- Hittite family of languages.
www.lib.umt.edu /guide/lang/indirn4h.htm   (526 words)

 Iranian languages --  Britannica Concise Encyclopedia - The online encyclopedia you can trust!
Nearly all the Modern Iranian languages have been written—if at all—in adaptations of the Arabic alphabet.
Iranian languages are spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and parts of Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan, and scattered areas of the Caucasus Mountains.
The Slavic languages are most closely related to the languages of the Baltic group (Lithuanian, Latvian, and the now-extinct Old Prussian), but they share certain linguistic innovations with the other eastern Indo-European...
www.britannica.com /ebc/article?eu=393471   (980 words)

 Kashmiri language - Enpsychlopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Kashmiri is a Dardic Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in Kashmir, a formerly independent state now occupied in part by India and Pakistan.
Kashmiri writing is one of the dying arts due to various political reasons and lack of formal education in the kashmiri language.
The songs in kashmiri language, also known as kashur to its native speaker, are called 'ge(gue-ss)wu(wo-lf)n' and the chorus songs are known as 'won(one)wu(wo-lf)n'.
www.grohol.com /psypsych/Kashmiri   (223 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Pashtu (Pashto) and Dari,, are Indo-European languages; they are the official languages of the country.
The Nuristanis, who speak Western Dardic, inhabit an area of some 5,000 square miles in Laghman, Nangarhar, and Konar provinces, north and east of Kabul.
Dravidian languages are spoken by the Brahuis, residing in the extreme south.
www.sabawoon.com /afghanpedia/EthnolinguisticGroups.shtm   (502 words)

 http://www.khowar.com :: khowar Lnguage of Chitral   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Geographically Kafiristan is located in the middle of India and Iran and thus linguistically the group of languages has similarities with the Indo-Aryan and Iranian groups.
Also the dialect of the Kafir languages (like Kati and Waigali) coincides with the distribution of the tribes.There are 10 languages which are indigenous to Chitral, a valley in the extreme Northwest corner of Pakistan with a population of around 210,000 to 250,000.
In 1932 the Norwegian linguist Georg Morgenstierne said that “Chitral was the region with the highest linguistic diversity in the world”.
www.khowar.com /khowar.htm   (357 words)

 TITUS Personalia: Sonja Gippert-Fritz
Typologische Betrachtung des Verbalaspekts in den Sprachen der Sowjetunion (Typological observations on verbal aspect in the languages of the Soviet Union).
Lecture within a course on "The languages of South Asia" at the University of Heidelberg, Germany (Dept. of Modern Indology, 4.7.1995).
My work was generously supported by members of the National Institute for Linguistic and Historical Research in Male and by many private persons in the southernmost atolls of the Maledives, who helped me as informants on their particular dialects and ideolects.
titus.uni-frankfurt.de /personal/fritzs.htm   (2015 words)

 List of Dardic languages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The Dardic languages include some 27 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about many people in Asia ; this language family is a part of the Northwestern Indo-Aryan language family.
Each subfamily in this list contains subgroups and individual languages.
This page was last modified 21:26, 5 June 2005.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/List_of_Dardic_languages   (76 words)

 LINGUIST List 15.887: Genetic and Areal Classification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
R�my Viredaz sent an explanation for the confusion over the classification of Dardic languages in Ruhlen's source.
Richard Strand's paper ''Notes on the Nuristani and Dardic languages'' JAOS 93, 1973, 297-305 was the source for Ruhlen, but errors made by the editor in publication of the paper have led to mistakes in the classification of Dardic languages being published in Ruhlen and other sources.
Languages of the Himalayas: An Ethnolinguistic Handbook of the Greater Himalayan Region, containing an Introduction to the Symbiotic Theory of Language (2 vols.).
www.sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de /linguist/issues/15/15-887.html   (303 words)

 Richard Strand's Nuristân Site: Bibliography
A Bibliography of the Languages and Cultures of Nuristân and Environs
Hallberg, Daniel G. 1992 "The Languages of Indus Kohistan." In Languages of Kohistan, by Calvin R. Rensch, Sandra J. Decker, and Daniel G. Hallberg.
Radloff, Carla F. 1992 "The Dialects of Shina." In Languages of Northern Areas, by Peter C. Backstrom and Carla F. Radloff.
users.sedona.net /~strand/bibliography.html   (1610 words)

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