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Topic: Debris

  Debris - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In discussions of space flight, debris usually refers to the remains of spacecraft that have either fallen to Earth or are still orbiting Earth, and is generally known as space debris.
In a general sense, the term debris is used to refer to man-made garbage.
In medicine, debris usually refers to biological matter that has accumulated or lodged in surgical instruments and is referred to as surgical debris.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Debris   (956 words)

 Space debris - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Space debris has become a growing concern in recent years, since collisions at orbital velocities can be highly damaging to functioning satellites and can also produce even more space debris in the process, called Kessler Syndrome.
In order to mitigate the generation of additional space debris, a number of measures have been proposed: The passivation of spent upper stages by the release of residual fuels is aimed at decreasing the risk of on-orbit explosions that could generate thousands of additional debris objects.
In a Gabbard diagram the perigee and apogee altitudes of the individual debris fragments resulting from a collision are plotted with respect to the orbital period of each fragment.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Space_debris   (1200 words)

 Space-Based Missile Interceptors Could Pose Debris Threat
Debris from these tests is unlikely to cause problems on Earth, as it would probably burn up upon re-entering the atmosphere or land in an ocean or otherwise unpopulated area, the report said.
Debris from one-tenth of a millimeter to 1 millimeter across could cause significant damage, and anything larger could penetrate a critical spacecraft component, like a flight computer or propellant tank, and lead to loss of the spacecraft, the report said.
The debris could pose a significant threat of impact with a spacecraft even in the course of one orbital pass, and that threat is multiplied if there is repeated testing, said Hitchens, who has publicly opposed the use of space-based weapons.
www.space.com /spacenews/business_monday_040913.html   (1001 words)

 CDI Fact Sheet:  Space Debris   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Space debris is the inevitable consequence of the global uses of space; every space launch will create some amount and form of debris, just as every kind of transportation on Earth creates some amount and form of pollution.
Indeed, space debris is now of such a concern that there is an effort underway, with NASA playing a leading role, to create U.N.-sanctioned international guidelines for space operators designed to minimize the creation of debris during routine space operations.
Debris in LEO travel at 10 times the speed of a rifle bullet; a marble-sized bit of junk would slam into a satellite with the energy equal to a 1-ton safe hitting the ground if dropped from a five-story building.
www.cdi.org /program/document.cfm?DocumentID=3106&from_page=../index.cfm   (928 words)

 NASA Orbital Debris FAQs
Regions of debris concentration are found near 800 km, 1,000 km and 1,500 km.
The risk of a critical ISS component being struck by debris 1 to 10 cm in diameter is slight and ways to reduce this risk are being investigated.
Debris shields can also protect spacecraft components from particles are large as 1 cm in diameter.
www.orbitaldebris.jsc.nasa.gov /faqs.html   (1616 words)

 CVO Website - Mudflows, Debris Flows, and Lahars
Destructive mudflows and debris flows began within minutes of the onset of the May 18 eruption, as the hot pyroclastic materials in the debris avalanche, lateral blast, and ash falls melted snow and glacial ice on the upper slopes of Mount St. Helens.
Debris flows may be either hot or cold, depending on their manner of origin and temperature of their constituent debris.
Debris flows produced during an eruption of Cotopaxi volcano in Ecuador in 1877 traveled more than 320 kilometers down one valley at an average speed of 27 kilometers per hour (Macdonald, 1972).
vulcan.wr.usgs.gov /Glossary/Lahars/description_lahars.html   (2805 words)

 Debris stirs concerns on shuttle safety - The Boston Globe - Boston.com - Science - News
Debris falls off during every shuttle launch, although the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has worked to minimize it on Discovery.
The falling debris was more apparent this time because more than 100 cameras were trained on Discovery during liftoff and the early part of the flight.
Another piece of debris also appeared to fall off the external fuel tank, according to video footage, but did not strike anything.
www.boston.com /news/science/articles/2005/07/27/debris_stirs_concerns_on_shuttle_safety   (1185 words)

 Space Debris Basics
Orbital debris generally refers to material that is on orbit as the result of space missions, but is no longer serving any function.
Another source of debris is spacecraft and mission operations, such as deployments and separations.
At altitudes of 2,000 km and lower, it is generally accepted that the debris population dominates the natural meteoroid population for object sizes 1 mm and larger.
www.aero.org /capabilities/cords/debris-basics.html   (365 words)

 NASA WSTF  Orbital Debris and Micrometeoroids   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Debris hits spacecraft and satellites and to minimize the potential hazard of debris impacts it is necessary to understand the current orbital debris environment.
Orbital debris in the near-Earth space environment is made up of micrometeoroids and man-made debris.
The man-made debris or space junk consists mainly of fragmented rocket bodies and spacecraft parts created by 40 years of space exploration.
www.wstf.nasa.gov /Hazard/Hyper/debris.htm   (434 words)

 City of College Station - Landslides / Debris Flows   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Debris and mud flows are rivers of rock, earth, and other debris saturated with water.
Be particularly observant of your surrounding area before and during intense storms that could heighten the possibility of landslide or debris flow from heavy rains.
Debris flow may be covered by flood insurance policies from the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).
www.cstx.gov /home/index.asp?page=1986   (991 words)

 Debris Mgt Sample Plan
The quantity and type of debris generated from any particular disaster is a function of the location and kind of event experienced, as well as its magnitude, duration, and intensity.
The quantity and type of debris generated, its location, and the size of the area over which it is dispersed directly impacts the type of collection and disposal methods used to address the debris problem, associated costs incurred, and the speed with which the problem can be addressed.
33,800,068 (cy of debris / 16,133 (cy/ac) = 2,095 acres of debris.
www.ohsep.louisiana.gov /disrecovery/debrismgtsampleplan.htm   (2903 words)

 NASA - Detecting Orbital Debris
Orbital debris refers to the man-made items, such as fragments of rocket bodies, stray nuts and bolts lost on a space walk, paint chips, and other leftovers from human activity.
Orbital debris averages 9 kilometers per second and meteoroids average 20 kilometers per second, which is much faster than a rifle bullet in both cases.
In the Shuttle's case, evidence of contact with debris has been found from high-resolution photo surveys while in orbit and inspections after the vehicle is safely home on the ground.
www.nasa.gov /missions/shuttle/f_debris.html   (586 words)

 RedOrbit - Space - Shining the Spotlight on Space Debris   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Typical of the debris impact assessment work done at ESA, Dr Gerhard Drolshagen, at ESA/ESTEC, has analysed micro-debris impacts on the solar arrays used by the Hubble space telescope; the arrays were supplied by ESA and retrieved in March 2002 after more than 8 years in space.
Debris studies are a growing field of space science attracting a lot of interest.
Requirements include limiting debris during normal operations, suppressing deliberate break-up of rockets or payloads, and properly disposing of spacecraft and upper stages, typically by moving them to "graveyard" orbits or by deorbiting them into the atmosphere, where most burn up.
www.redorbit.com /news/display?id=108540   (1206 words)

 Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Debris flow advisories and warnings
Debris flows are rapidly moving landslides, commonly destroying almost everything in their paths and sometimes traveling for well over a mile.
In contrast, debris flow advisories should serve as a reminder to landowners and other road managers of the responsibility to check drainage systems and to conduct needed maintenance in case a warning situation does occur.
Advisories, which alert general locations on the possibility of severe weather which could trigger debris flow, are issued when rainfall is expected to reach a specific threshold for either a 6 hour, 12 hour or 24 hour period.
www.oregon.gov /DOGAMI/Landslide/debrisflow1.shtml   (698 words)

 EPA > Water > Wetlands, Oceans, & Watersheds > Oceans, Coasts, and Estuaries > Habitat Protection > Marine Debris ...
The second source of marine debris is from ocean sources, and this type of debris includes galley waste and other trash from ships, recreational boaters and fishermen and offshore oil and gas exploration and production facilities.
The NMDMP is designed to identify trends in the amounts of marine debris affecting the U.S. coastline and to determine the main sources of the debris.
Reducing marine debris means reducing the amount of waste generated on land and disposing of it properly.
www.epa.gov /owow/oceans/debris/index.html   (2081 words)

 USGS Photo Glossary: Debris avalanche or volcanic landslide
A debris avalanche rushes down the side of a volcano to the valley floor.
Debris avalanches are moving masses of rock, soil and snow that occur when the flank of a mountain or volcano collapses and slides downslope.
Debris avalanches may travel several kilometers before coming to rest, or they may transform into more water-rich lahars, which travel many tens of kilometers downstream.
volcanoes.usgs.gov /Products/Pglossary/DebrisAvalanche.html   (149 words)

 Space Debris
The total amount and mass of debris is still rising, since rate of removal of debris by natural mechanisms, such as air-drag perturbations, is exceeded by the rate of deposition in space of man-made objects.
An inherent difficulty is to distinguish betweeen the impacts of meteoroids and man-made debris.
In response to the objectives relating to space debris formulated by the ESA Council in 1989, the Agency is conducting research with the aim of achieving a better understanding of critical issues.
esapub.esrin.esa.it /pff/pffv4n4/ppfflunr4.htm   (901 words)

 Space station crew spots bits of debris - Space News - MSNBC.com
And experts on space debris say that because the crew is looking out only a small fraction of the time, what they see is likely only a small fraction of the material being shed by the station as it orbits 235 miles (375 kilometers) above the planet.
NASA has been sensitized to the issue of debris lost by space vehicles because it was a small piece of debris from the space shuttle Columbia that might have been a timely warning of the fatal damage to the wing’s thermal protection system.
During the Apollo missions, debris flaking off spacecraft became such a common occurrence that astronauts and ground controllers nicknamed them "moon pigeons." At that time, NASA created an aggressive safety program to detect and identify all such objects in case any were indicative of some unexpected failure mode of the space vehicles.
www.msnbc.msn.com /id/4285550   (1289 words)

Debris' was quickly launched and by September, they had the first of the four live gigs of their short existence.
With early negative reviews and no local support, Debris' disbanded, ahead of their time and in the wrong place.
Debris' is required listening in the modern musicology class I teach to aspiring new freeform radio DJ's.
www.myspace.com /debris1975   (526 words)

 Construction and Demolition Debris
Construction and demolition (CandD) debris is nonhazardous, uncontaminated material resulting from construction, remodeling, repair, or demolition of utilities, structures, and roads.
Although it can be difficult, you can reduce the amount of CandD debris you generate by carefully estimating the amount of raw materials needed for construction activities at your site and making sure that the correct amount of materials are brought to the site.
Clean CandD debris can be used as below-grade fill material outside of a setback zone if (1) covered by sufficient uncontaminated soil to support vegetation within 30 days after completion of filling or (2) covered by a road or structure.
www.epa.state.il.us /small-business/construction-debris/index.html   (873 words)

 CNN - Shuttle Challenger debris washes up on shore - Dec. 17, 1996
Debris has washed ashore periodically in the years since the explosion.
The debris will be brought to a warehouse at the Kennedy Space Center for examination, NASA said.
Early next year, Malone said, the debris will be put into a silo where other pieces of the shuttle are buried.
www.cnn.com /TECH/9612/17/challenger.debris/index.html   (304 words)

 Spacecraft operations Portal - Home - Space Debris
For the small-size debris current research concentrates on better estimates of the spatial distribution, and on improved mathematical fragmentation models to generate such a population.
Currently, space debris between 1 cm and 10 cm are neither observable, nor are they shieldable with available on-orbit technology.
Long-term forecasts of future trends in the evolution of the space debris population can be performed with softwares like CHAINEE and SDM, which allow to study the effectiveness of debris mitigation measures (e.g.
www.esa.int /spacecraftops/ESOC-Article-fullArticle_par-40_1092735450198.html   (923 words)

 The Orbital Debris Problem
Because this debris is travelling at orbital speeds (7-8 km/s!), it poses a significant threat to the space shuttle, the International Space Station, and the many satellites in Earth orbit.
Recent studies of the interaction of satellite constellations with the space debris environment have concluded that, without debris mitigation measures, "the debris environment cannot sustain the long-term operation of [large constellations but]....
In order to prevent old satellites, spent rockets, and the orbital debris that they generate from making low-Earth-orbit unusable, satellite users must begin to provide a means of removing their old satellites and spent rockets from orbit.
www.tethers.com /OrbitalDebris.html   (638 words)

 Commercial landscape equipment, commercial lawn and garden equipment from Debris Systems commercial lawn care ...
Debris Systems Plus truck and trailer units give the lawn and landscape contractor the finishing touch to all his or her power equipment needs.
The debris system is operated from a toggle switch control panel, giving you total control of the hydraulic components at your fingertips.
Debris Systems Plus is family owned and operated, focusing on building a quality product and serving the lawn and landscape industry.
www.debrissystems.com /index.html   (294 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The absence of a negotiated outcome on the two sections on marine debris and on coordination or cooperation, and the unresolved question of regional versus global frameworks, which resulted from the lack of time allocated for negotiations, was seen as the major shortcomings of this meeting.
Marine debris, also referred to as marine litter, is any persistent, manufactured or processed solid material discarded, disposed of or abandoned in the marine and coastal environment.
Therefore, the entities that are addressing the problem of marine debris in a variety of contexts should cooperate in order to ensure that the battle against marine debris is waged in a comprehensive and effective manner at the national, regional and global levels” (A/60/63, para.
nommune.com /index.php?s=debris   (4665 words)

 CNN.com - NASA grounds shuttle fleet - Jul 28, 2005
A piece of debris falls off the external fuel tank during the launch.
Pieces of debris tore away from the shuttle Discovery during liftoff Tuesday -- despite NASA spending hundreds of millions of dollars trying to prevent a repeat of the problem that caused the 2003 Columbia disaster.
A piece of insulating foam falling from the external fuel tank during Columbia's launch was blamed for the deaths of its seven crew.
www.cnn.com /2005/TECH/space/07/27/space.shuttle/index.html   (714 words)

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