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Topic: Decentralization

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  Decentralization and Local Public Goods | ISERP
Access to services such as safe drinking water, sanitation, health care and education remains inadequate for much of the world's population.
Decentralization is one policy idea whose effectiveness in improving the provision of services is hotly debated in academic and policy literatures.
The objective is to categorize conditions under which decentralization, i.e.
www.iserp.columbia.edu /research/funded_research/dhb.html   (482 words)

  Decentralisation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Decentralisation (American: decentralization) is any of various means of more widely distributing decision-making to bring it closer to the point of service or action.
The more decentralized a system is, the more it relies on lateral relationships, and the less it can rely on command or force.
Decentralization of training and inspection, through the standards themselves, and related schedules of standardized testing and random spot inspection, achieves a very high statistical reliability of service, i.e.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Decentralization   (1132 words)

 Devolution and decentralization of forest management in Asia and the Pacific
Decentralization and devolution are dominant themes in the contemporary discussion of forest policy throughout Asia and the Pacific, as throughout the world, and many countries have now created legislation or policies for implementing these two processes in one way or another.
The International Seminar on Decentralization and Devolution of Forest Management in Asia and the Pacific, held in Davao, the Philippines, from 30 November to 4 December 1998, aimed to explore experiences and issues surrounding the implementation of decentralization and devolution approaches in the region.
Decentralization can be defined as the relocation of administrative functions away from a central location, and devolution as the relocation of power away from a central location.
www.fao.org /docrep/x3030E/x3030e03.htm   (2057 words)

 Decentralization: Why, How, and Toward What Ends? Report 1, 1993
Decentralization is designed to bring decision-making closer to the student and the learning environment of the classroom.
However, decentralization brings with it the possibility of extreme inequalities - the possibility that local communities, including parents and educators, may not have the knowledge and resources to adequately protect the quality of education provided to their children.
Decentralization should be used as a tool for improving the quality and equality of schooling - a tool for redesigning the core activities of teaching and learning and a tool for restructuring the school/community environment so that children succeed.
www.ncrel.org /sdrs/areas/issues/envrnmnt/go/93-1comm.htm   (916 words)

 Political Decentralization
Political decentralization often requires constitutional or statutory reforms, the development of pluralistic political parties, the strengthening of legislatures, creation of local political units, and the encouragement of effective public interest groups.
the constitutions should be used to enshrine the broad principles on which decentralization is to operate, including the rights and responsibilities of all levels of government; the description and role of key institutions at central and local levels; and, the basis on which detailed rules may be established or changed.
As decentralization is a complex social experiment a good case may be made for there to be more flexibility in the ability to change the specificity of implementation instruments, while enshrining the political and philosophical principles in the Constitution and the operating structures in the laws.
www1.worldbank.org /publicsector/decentralization/political.htm   (1589 words)

 Perspective: Tech's big challenge: Decentralization | CNET News.com
In the coming decade, decentralization will be the critical challenge for the technology, media and telecommunications industries.
To better understand and respond to decentralization, this is the kind of data we need to examine in more detail.
Although decentralization is a long-term challenge, the good news is that it's also an opportunity.
news.com.com /2010-1071-963113.html   (1444 words)

 index   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Decentralization concerns the processes by which people and their institutions are empowered throughout an entire societal system whether at the global, national, local or household level.
Decentralizing governance at the country level includes the whole system of the national legal and institutional framework and the empowerment of sub-national institutions at provincial, district, city, town and village levels in terms of fiscal, administrative and legal processes.
In addition, effective decentralization involves the flow of information and resources between and among the various levels of governance from national to local and local to national.
www.undp.org /governance/decentralization.htm   (376 words)

 Health Care Decentralization   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Proponents of decentralization argue that placing policy-making authority and operating control closer to the client level will eliminate some of the inefficiencies and lack of responsiveness to local needs believed to be present with a centrally-controlled system.
MEASURE Evaluation is undertaking an evaluation of the impact of the decentralization policy in Paraguay.
One of the major objectives of this study is to determine for which types of health services centralized and decentralized systems spend their scarce resources.
www.cpc.unc.edu /measure/research/decentralization.html   (524 words)

 Self-Determination and Decentralisation in the Caribbean: TOBAGO and NEVIS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Generally, decentralized autonomy to be credible or meaningful tends to be extensive in the devolution of both administrative and political powers.
Decentralization of this kind is rarely conceded peacefully and for this reason it is not frequently found among states.
Territorial decentralization may militate against the growth of unifying bonds with other communities it is often argued but countered by the riposte that by protecting the identity of a community, such decentralization may enable a minority to evolve confidence and dignity enabling a healthier relationship with other groups.
www.uwichill.edu.bb /bnccde/sk&n/conference/papers/RRPremdas.html   (8336 words)

 Rationale for Decentralization
Although the main reason for decentralization around the world is that it is simply happening, there are a multitude of design issues that affect the impact of different types of decentralization on efficiency, equity and macrostability.
Some of the "decentralization" in the 1980s, for example, was actually an offloading of fiscal imbalances by central governments to subnational governments.
The specific services to be decentralized and the type of decentralization will depend on economies of scale affecting technical efficiency and the degree of spillover effects beyond jurisdictional boundaries.
www.ciesin.org /decentralization/English/General/Rational.html   (1238 words)

 SD: Institutions : Technical Consultation on Decentralization. Patterns and Processes of Decentralization in ...
The paper focuses on the problematics of decentralization and its current challenges in Bangladesh with a view to formulate strategies for effective and sustainable local governance for development in Bangladesh.
As decentralization provokes much theoretical and conceptual debates, it demands a precise understanding for one to undertake an empirical analysis of the issues in a specific context.
Ostensibly, this objective of the effort was to supplement the rural development strategy of the state, which was known as the Comilla model of development, but in reality it was meant to serve the political objectives of the regime in power.
www.fao.org /sd/ROdirect/ROfo0034.htm   (1181 words)

 Decentralization & Subnational Economics Homepage   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
This interest parallels the increase in fiscal responsibilities of subnational governments and the evolving trend toward decentralization in both federated and unitary countries.
Achieving these objectives often requires overcoming economic and social disparities across regions, and among urban and rural areas; reforming the fiscal, political, and administrative framework in which subnational governments operate; and enhancing engagement with sub-national governments and stakeholders.
The aim of the Decentralization and Subnational Thematic Group is to share information and deepen knowledge among a wide range of practitioners -- macro, sectoral, urban, and rural -- to bring about a more informed, consistent and comprehensive approach to decentralization and subnational development in our country programs.
www.worldbank.org /publicsector/decentralization   (289 words)

 The Asian Resource Center for Decentralization   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
This Sourcebook entitled Decentralization and Power Shift: An Imperative for Good Governance (A Sourcebook on Decentralization Experiences in Asia) Volume I is part of the Working Papers Series of the Center for Local and Regional Governance (CLRG) of the National College of Public Administration and Governance, University of the Philippines.
The ARCD was launched as a culminating activity of the Second International Conference on Decentralization held on July 25-27, 2002 in Manila, Philippines.
It reviews various literature on decentralization (both print and those drawn from the Internet) which are properly attributed and cited in the reference section.
www.decentralization.ws /srcbook_main.asp   (269 words)

 UMBC Policy Sciences
His book, Academics in Court: the Consequences of Academic Discrimination Litigation, University of Michigan Press was funded by the Carnegie Corporation of New York.
His book, The Politics of School Decentralization was published by D.C. Heath.
He is the author of three encyclopedia entries: "School Decentralization," Encyclopedia of Education, "Political Science," Encyclopedia of Educational Research, and "Affirmative Action," World Book Encyclopedia.
www.umbc.edu /posi/Bios/GeorgeLaNoue.html   (508 words)

 Decentralization Support Program, Pakistan
The Decentralization Support Programme is an initiative of the Government of Pakistan, being implemented with the partial funding support of Asian Development Bank, to carry forward reforms in the areas of decentralization, fiscal restructuring and local governance.
It is an innovative, demand-driven and output oriented program, serving a range of clients at all level of governments.
Devolution in Pakistan is a study carried out by Asian Development Bank, the World Bank and the UK Department for International Development (DfID) to examine the impact of decentralization reform on the process of service delivery in Pakistan and suggest ways to further the reform process.
decentralization.org.pk   (171 words)

 Decentralization Encyclopedia Article, Definition, History, Biography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Looking For decentralization - Find decentralization and more at Lycos Search.
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Look for decentralization - Find decentralization at one of the best sites the Internet has to offer!
encyclopedia.localcolorart.com /encyclopedia/Decentralization   (1271 words)

Stephen Yates recently penned an article in which he claims that political philosophy is best broken down into a pair of basic stands from which specifics develop: centralization or decentralization of the State and its governmental powers.
The problem for those non-hawks is exactly that of decentralized government, traditional values conservatives who have allied themselves uneasily with centralizing hawks: their political bedfellows are bound and determined to drag them where they don’t want to go.
In an attempt to be found fit to teach in the tolerant and diverse world of educratdom, he soon may label himself an albino African-American considering sex change surgery and working to bring socialist justice to all.
www.lewrockwell.com /orig/cantrell1.html   (1848 words)

 Urban decentralization   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
I examined a new metric for measuring urban decentralization and found that it failed to yield useful results when applied to U.S. cities from 1910-1940.
Mills recently suggested a new metric [2] embodying only the assumption that urban population densities are related to the urban area's physical size.
Although I found the expected decentralization in West Germany, I was surprised by results indicating centralization in East German cities.
www.cs.princeton.edu /~skadron/undergrad_papers/urban.descr.html   (319 words)

 The Online Sourcebook on Decentralization and Local Development
Decentralization — Initial Experiences and Expectations of the SDC
Supporting Decentralization: The Role and Experience of the World Bank
Decentralization -- Key Issues, Major Trends and Future Developments
www.ciesin.org /decentralization/Entryway/siteindex.html   (53 words)

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