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Topic: Decision problem

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  Decision problem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In complexity theory, we attempt to categorize decision problems based on how "difficult" they are, in terms of the computational resources needed by the most efficient algorithms for that decision problem.
In this sense, a decision problem is equivalent to a formal language.
Nearly every problem can be cast as a decision problem by using reductions, often with little effect on the amount of time or space needed to solve the problem.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Decision_problem   (702 words)

 Knapsack problem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Both the general knapsack problem and the subset sum problem are NP-hard, and this has led to attempts to use subset sum as the basis for public key cryptography systems, such as Merkle-Hellman.
This does not contradict the fact that the knapsack problem is NP-complete, since C, unlike n, is not polynomial in the length of the input to the problem.
The length of the input to the problem is proportional to the number of bits in C, not to C itself.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Knapsack_problem   (804 words)

 Decision problem Info - Encyclopedia WikiWhat.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
A decision problem is a problem where all the answers are YES or NO. A typical example of a decision problem is the question: "Is a given integer prime?" One instance of this decision problem would be "Is 17 prime?".
A decision problem is usually formalized as the problem of deciding whether a given string belongs to some specified set of strings, also called a formal language.
The above prime decision problem could be formalized as the language of all those strings over the alphabet {0, 1} which are the binary representation of a prime number.
www.wikiwhat.com /encyclopedia/d/de/decision_problem.html   (506 words)

 Problem Solving, Decision Making and Critical Thinking
Problem solving is a process whereby a dilemma is identified and corrected.
Problem solving involves diagnosing a problem in an attempt to eliminate it with decision making being a step in the process.
Decision making and problem solving involve critical thinking which can be described as a complex reasoning and analytical process with both evaluative and affective components.
www52.homepage.villanova.edu /maureen.sullivan/coursematerial/leadmanage/05ProblemSolving.htm   (507 words)

 Halting problem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The historical importance of the halting problem lies in the fact that it was one of the first problems to be proved undecidable.
One such consequence of the halting problem's undecidability is that there cannot be a general algorithm that decides whether a given statement about natural numbers is true or not.
With three theorems he answers the “decision problem”: "I shall show that there is no general method which tells whether a given formula U is provable in K [Principia Mathematica], or what comes to the same, whether the system consisting of K with -U adjoined as an extra axiom is consistent" (p.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Halting_problem   (4384 words)

 The Decision Problem   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Decision problems are stated as questions where the answer is binary, 0 or 1, False or True, No or Yes, Reject or Accept and so forth.
The decision problem in mathematics is to determine whether various propositions concerning mathematical objects are true or false.
The decision problem in computer science is to determine whether there is an algorithm or effective computational procedure for solving various problems.
cs.wwc.edu /~aabyan/CII/Decision.html   (413 words)

 Decision Making and Problem Solving, by Herbert A. Simon
Increasingly, research is being directed at decision making that takes realistic account of the compromises and approximations that must be made in order to fit real-world problems to the informational and computational limits of people and computers, as well as to the inconsistencies in their values and perceptions.
Human problem solving is usually studied in laboratory settings, using problems that can be solved in relatively short periods of time (seldom more than an hour), and often seeking a maximum density of data about the solution process by asking subjects to think aloud while they work.
Decision making in organizational settings, which is much less well understood than individual decision making and problem solving, can be studied with great profit using already established methods of inquiry, especially through intensive long-range studies within individual organizations.
dieoff.org /page163.htm   (8402 words)

 Problem Solving and Decision Making:
Problem solving is a process in which we perceive and resolve a gap between a present situation and a desired goal, with the path to the goal blocked by known or unknown obstacles.
Decisions made in this manner are more likely to be effective since individuals can consciously attend to both personal strengths and weaknesses, while groups are more likely to select solutions that will both solve the problem and be acceptable to individual group members.
While it may be impossible to have a single process that is applicable to all problems or decisions by all individuals, it is important to have a generalizable, though flexible, process that individuals believe fits with their unique styles and that can be used to capitalize on strengths and support weaknesses.
chiron.valdosta.edu /whuitt/papers/prbsmbti.html   (6828 words)

 Overcoming Serious Indecisiveness
Decisions are at the heart of leader success, and at times there are critical moments when they can be difficult, perplexing, and nerve-racking.
Decisions are at the heart of success, and at times there are critical moments when they can be difficult, perplexing, and nerve racking.
Therefore making a decision implies that there are alternative choices to be considered, and in such a case we want not only to identify as many of these alternatives as possible but to choose the one that best fits with our goals, desires, lifestyle, values, and so on.
home.ubalt.edu /ntsbarsh/opre640/partXIII.htm#rdecido   (16575 words)

 decision processes: Metalogic B - abelard
Yet, if we do apply the decision process, the decision process now becomes an act [6] or a choice in the real world; it is no longer just a ‘plan’ or a ‘good intention’.
A decision may be considered to be a mental act, but must not be confused with the act decided upon, herein called a choice.
To define ‘decision’ or ‘act’ is likewise inclined to cause confusion, if it is attempted to restrict the definition to live things, or even to humans.
www.abelard.org /metalogic/metalogicB1.htm   (6186 words)

 Kepner-Tregoe, Inc.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Problem Solving and Decision Making (PSDM) method is a deliberate, step-by-step process that organises information, judgement and experience to solve complex problems and make efficient decisions.
Problem Analysis: Participants learn to resolve problems by first describing the problem in detail.
Decision Analysis: Teaches a decision-making procedure that is applicable when the choice between alternatives is unclear.
www.kepner-tregoe.com /uk/ExpertiseUK/training/expertise-training-psdm.cfm   (296 words)

 Training & Workshops - Problem Solving & Decision Making - Kepner-Tregoe, Inc.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Our acclaimed process for problem solving and decision making is used and taught in major organizations worldwide.
Employees and support staff who participate substantially in problem solving and decision making within their work units are also encouraged to attend.
Potential Problem Analysis enabled a new computerized production line to be installed and employees—none of whom were computer literate—to be trained in just seven days.
www.kepner-tregoe.com /Services/training/Training-PSDM.cfm   (387 words)

 The decision problem
The sentences in (6.10) and (6.11) lead to an interesting problem.
This is called the decision problem for the first-order theory of the reals.
This idea could be applied to the decision problem, but the resulting lack of completeness would be similar.
msl.cs.uiuc.edu /planning/node289.html   (167 words)

 The decision problem
You may think such problems aren't particularly important, though physicists would disagree, at least concerning the equivalence of manifolds.
In the 1920s, he posed the decision problem (also known as the entscheidungsproblem, from the German), as part of his programme for the foundation of mathematics.
Gödel had answered part of this for arithmetic, but the general problem - whether for any logical system, you could prove every statement - was still unresolved.
www.j-paine.org /students/lectures/lect7/node12.html   (590 words)

 decision problem   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Definition: A problem with a "yes" or "no" answer.
For instance, the traveling salesman problem is an optimization problem, while the corresponding decision problem asks if there is a Hamiltonian cycle with a cost less than some fixed amount k.
Algorithms and Theory of Computation Handbook, CRC Press LLC, 1999, "decision problem", from Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures, Paul E. Black, ed., NIST.
www.nist.gov /dads/HTML/decisionProblem.html   (177 words)

 Decision Problem Proposal:
To be able to bring this project to a good end, we will need to set the scope and environment of the problem itself first.
In this case this is: to determine whether or not the loan applicant is eligible for credit at the specified bank.
The application should be able to give decision support to the decision-maker (the bank-representatives in this case), based on the appropriate screening information.
www.sis.pitt.edu /~thijssen/proposal.html   (755 words)

 Analytic Prowess: Customized Workshops On Problem Solving & Decision Making Techniques
Analytic Prowess was formed in 1995 to advance understanding of the natural impediments to effective decision making and to identify, research, and teach practical techniques to overcome them.
The company's founders believe that, as organizations of all types are under increasing pressure to produce more results with fewer resources, one of the most effective ways to strengthen organizational performance is to improve the quality of decision making at all levels.
WORDS content problem solving training, problem solving training materials, decision making software, decision making negotiation seminar, decision making tools and techniques, decision making techniques, rational problem solving and decision making training, comparing decision making and problem solving, guide manual group critical thinking tools and quantitative insight methodology multi-criteria sample.
www.analyticprowess.com   (271 words)

 decision problem - OneLook Dictionary Search
Tip: Click on the first link on a line below to go directly to a page where "decision problem" is defined.
Decision Problem : Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics [home, info]
Decision Problem : The Computational Beauty of Nature [home, info]
www.onelook.com /cgi-bin/cgiwrap/bware/dofind.cgi?word=decision+problem   (125 words)

 Decision Problem : Big Games
There are a lot of challenging design problems to solve: How do you inform the players about the current state of a game that's too large to see?
In reality, because getting rid of your card meant you were no longer a carrier, player-base growth was too slow (linear, not exponential).
This was a problem we solved all too well with next year's game, Leviathan.
www.decisionproblem.com /big   (1204 words)

 CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING/DECISION-MAKING   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
This step is listed first because it usually occurs with each of the other steps in the decision making process.
A working engineer might be assigned a problem after the company conducts an extensive market survey; in response to an RFP; as a sub-component of a larger problem the company is working on; or see's a problem and convinces the company to pursue it.
The basic objective focuses your thoughts on the problem to be solved.
gaia.ecs.csus.edu /~dabaghil/creative.html   (423 words)

 The Decision Problem (ResearchIndex)
It Is Helpful Decision making using computer simulators M. Goldstein University of Durham...
Abstract: is to build the full models for the outputs y as a function y(x) of the inputs x and optimise our forecasts for some utility based function of the future.
The main issue, given that we can line up the forecasting and decision formulations (which we explain below), is the searching for optimum choices in the high dimensional space.
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /437151.html   (196 words)

 Creativity, Thinking Skills, Critical Thinking, Problem solving, Decision making   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In solving a problem of this sort, the grand thing is to be able to reason backward.
The biggest problem in the world could have been solved when it was small.
Intuitive decisionmaking more appropriate for the vast majority of tactical/operational decisions: A 1989 study by Gary A. Klein (based on 1985 observations) estimated that decision makers in a variety of disciplines use intuitive methods 87 percent of the time and analytical methods 13 percent of the time.
www.maxwell.af.mil /au/awc/awcgate/awc-thkg.htm   (7241 words)

 decision problem from FOLDOC   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Determining whether some potential solution to a question is actually a solution or not.
This is in contrast to a "search problem" which must find a solution from scratch, e.g.
Nearby terms: decidable system « decidable wff « decidibility « decision problem » decision procedure » decision theory » deconstruction
www.swif.uniba.it /lei/foldop/foldoc.cgi?decision+problem   (50 words)

 PlanetMath: decision problem   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
is sometimes said to be a decision problem, and a Turing machine which decides it is said to solve the decision problem.
This is version 9 of decision problem, born on 2002-09-05, modified 2002-09-07.
(Computer science :: Theory of computing :: Analysis of algorithms and problem complexity)
planetmath.org /encyclopedia/Decides.html   (104 words)

 A Framework for the Analysis of Sophisticated Control
The framework is based on two formalisms, the Interpretation Decision Problem (IDP), which models the characteristics and problem structure of a domain, and the \upc formalism, which provides a general model of control and problem solving.
Using these models, the problem structures of disparate domains and the problem solving architectures constructed to exploit these structures can be viewed from a unified perspective where control and problem solving actions can be considered a single class of problem solving activity.
Use of the IDP and \upc formalisms also supports the synthesis of new, more flexible problem solving architectures.
mas.cs.umass.edu /research/idp   (258 words)

 Problem solving/Decision making
These steps simply provide a structure for working on the problem.
They overlap, and you may have to return to earlier steps or work them simultaneously as you find the best solution.
Information gathering occurs in all steps—from recognition of the problem to implementation of its solution
www.studygs.net /problem   (144 words)

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