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Topic: Declarative memory

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In the News (Tue 19 Mar 19)

  Memory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Although traditional studies of memory began in the realms of philosophy, the late nineteenth and early twentieth century put memory within the paradigms of cognitive psychology.
Declarative memory can be further sub-divided into semantic memory, which concerns facts taken independent of context; and episodic memory, which concerns information specific to a particular context, such as a time and place.
Autobiographical memory - memory for particular events within one's own life - is generally viewed as either equivalent to, or a subset of, episodic memory.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Memory   (2061 words)

 Declarative memory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Declarative memory is the aspect of human memory that stores facts and events.
Declarative memories are best established by using active recall combined with mnemonic techniques and spaced repetition.
Physically speaking, declarative memory requires the medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus and related areas of the cerebral cortex.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Declarative_memory   (215 words)

 Memory (psychology) - ninemsn Encarta
Memory is so important to our lives that it is not surprising that its nature and mechanisms are a major theme of research in both psychology and neuroscience.
Normal human memory was studied experimentally by Hermann Ebbinghaus, who asked people to remember lists of words or nonsense syllables and noted that a large proportion were forgotten within the first hour or so, but that after that those items that remained persisted in memory—giving rise to the short-term, long-term distinction.
Declarative memory may further be subdivided into semantic (for example, knowing the names of days of the week) and episodic, or autobiographical (for example, remembering that I went on a bicycle ride last Tuesday).
au.encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761578303/Memory_(psychology).html   (1601 words)

 Development and Neurobiology: Genetics of Childhood Disorders: XLVI. Autism, Part 5: Genetics of Autism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Declarative memory is dependent on the integrity of the hippocampus and anatomically related structures in the medial temporal lobe and diencephalon.
Declarative memory provides the ability to associate the various aspects of a context that are present at a particular time and place, thereby creating a memory of an episode.
With respect to declarative memory, neuroscience is approaching a time when it will be possible to study representations directly in neocortex with single-cell recording, to observe directly the development of neural plasticity, and to determine how the medial temporal lobe interacts with neocortex during learning, the consolidation of memories, and their retrieval.
info.med.yale.edu /chldstdy/plomdevelop/genetics/03aprgen.htm   (2106 words)

Both semantic and episodic memories, whether linguistically expressed or not, usually aim at truth, and are together sometimes called ‘declarative memory’, in contrast to nondeclarative forms of memory, which don't seem to represent the world or the past in the same sense.
But to say that psychologists of memory have turned their research efforts to the study of suggestibility, misinformation, and distortion is not, of course, to say that accuracy in memory has suddenly been shown by science to be impossible or unlikely.
Engel (1999) and Schacter (1996) are reliable and well-written introductions to the psychology of memory in general: Tulving and Craik (2000) is a thorough handbook on the cognitive psychology and neuropsychology of memory.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/memory   (11302 words)

Declarative memory is the storage and recall of information available to the conscious mind, which can therefore be expressed (declared) using language.
Declarative memory is also referred to as explicit memory, because it can be explicitly recalled; it seems to be localized solely in the neocortex.
Declarative memory is subdivided into 2 types: semantic memory (facts and knowledge) and episodic memory (memory for specific events and experiences).
www.unr.nevada.edu /~goodman/brain/memory_tutorial.html   (1975 words)

 Declarative memory: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Memory is a property of the human mind: the ability to retain information....
Declarative memories are best established by using active recall active recall quick summary:
Episodic memory, or autobiographical memory, is the explicit memory of events....
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/d/de/declarative_memory.htm   (411 words)

 [No title]
Declarative memories are best established by using active recall combined with mnemonic techniques and spaced repetition (http://en.wikipedia.org).
While previous studies looking at the relationship between emotion and memory involved different forms of emotion, the present study used a “depressing” photo with the thought that the sad mood of the photo would enhance the factor of depression.
helps facilitate declarative memory, it is important to look at this in different groups of individuals, particularly individuals with depression or another condition that inhibits memory and learning in order to see emotions true effect.
web.sbu.edu /psychology/lavin/katie.htm   (2171 words)

 Week 2 The Different Forms of Memory
A functional dissociation in memory processes is found when the encoding and retrieval of a particular object in one type of memory task does not benefit or interfere with the encoding or retrieval of that same object in another type memory task.
The declarative vs non-declarative division was proposed by Larry Squire from a synthesis of the work on HM and his own studies with primates.
Animals with lesions to the medial temporal lobe would perform poorly in memory tasks that required a flexible context (declarative memory) but performed normally is a series of other memory tasks such a motor skills, fear learning, classical conditioning and procedural learning.
socrates.berkeley.edu /~psy114/week1_lecture.htm   (1563 words)

 Psychological Science : Chapter 7: Home   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Researchers agree that memory is served by multiple systems; some psychologists focus on memory content as the basis for defining the different systems and others focus on the process of memory storage as the way to differentiate among systems.
Explicit memory involves the effortful storage and retrieval of declarative information and takes two forms: episodic memory, which is our memories of our personal experiences, and semantic memory, which is our memories of facts and information.
This enhancement of memory appears to be related to the release of glucose that accompanies the increase in epinephrine levels and the associated increase in arousal.
www.wwnorton.com /psychsci/ch7_overview.htm   (1122 words)

 Pathways to Declarative Long Term Memory
There is a common belief that declarative memory is further broken down into two components: Episodic memory (memory for past and personally experienced events), and Semantic memory (knowledge for the meaning of words and how to apply them).
The two additional areas that are associated with declarative memory are the peripheral cortex and the amygdala (Long, 2000).
Further evidence for the existence of declarative memory is shown by priming experiments, such as the one by Jacoby and Witherspoon (1982).
ahsmail.uwaterloo.ca /kin356/ltm/declarative.htm   (731 words)

 Declarative memory at opensource encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Declarative memory is the aspect of memory that stores facts and events.
Declarative memory is subject to forgetting and requires repetition to last for years.
Declarative memory can be divided into episodic memory (knowledge about the event of learning something) and semantic memory (knowledge independent of context).
www.wiki.tatet.com /Declarative_memory.html   (144 words)

 Declarative Memory in Rodents: Place Cells
More recently, researchers are trying to unify the role of the hippocampus in spatial maps with its role in other forms of declarative memories.
OF neurons exhibit many coding properties that are compatible with their role in olfactory memory: a) Odor coding affected by previous odor, b) coding affected by association to reward and c) coding affected by predictive associations.
Again the function of the hippocampus in spatial navigation in rodents might not be the same as its function in other forms of declarative memories.
socrates.berkeley.edu /~psy114/week6_lecture.htm   (1077 words)

 Physiological Psychology, 24. Memory
Recent memories are more vulnerable than remote, but it is remarkable that recent memories for important events should be so completely obliterated from memory as they often are.
While the exact nature of memory formation can't be observed in the brain, the general consensus of both cognitive psychologists and neuropsychologists is that memories are established in the brain as patterns of neuronal activity.
Memory consolidation (the ability to form new memories) increases with recovery of the diencephalon and is reflected in a gradual decrease in the level of PTA.
neuro.psyc.memphis.edu /ugp/css024.html   (3982 words)

 Continual-Activation Theory of Dreaming
By introducing a temporary memory stage into the memory process to bridge the gap between short-term memory and the long-term memory, Zhang proposed that during our waking time, the memory formed from the working memory is not saved directly into the long-term memory; instead it is saved into a temporary memory.
Corresponding to the type of memory been transferred, Zhang proposed that, sleep has two different stages: NREM (non rapid eye movement) sleep for processing the declarative memory, and REM sleep for processing the procedural memory.
The type I dream, a thought-like dream, is the result of the memory replay when the declarative memory is transferred from the temporary memory to the long-term memory during NREM sleep.
www.goertzel.org /dynapsyc/2005/ZhangDreams.htm   (2021 words)

 Memory Research Lab at UCSD | Larry Squire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Squire, L.R. and Paller, K.A. Biology of Memory.
Bayley, P.J. and Squire, L.R. The medial temporal lobe and declarative memory.
Levy, D.A., Stark, C.E.L., and Squire, L.R. Intact conceptual priming in the absence of declarative memory.
whoville.ucsd.edu /2000.htm   (1831 words)

 Harlene Hayne   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of researchers have argued that memory is not a unitary process, but rather is comprised of two or more neural systems that serve different functions and operate according to different principles.
Amnesics, for example, perform normally on a variety of procedural memory tasks, but fail to perform normally on tasks that are thought to require declarative memory.
Despite the prevalence the infant/amnesic analogy, the verbal nature or motor sophistication of most declarative memory tasks has precluded direct coparison between the memory performance of preverbal infants and the memory performance of adult amnesics.
psy.otago.ac.nz /memory/research/harlene-hayne.htm   (598 words)

 Memory Function and hippocampal formation volume
Declarative/non-declarative memory: In order to measure declarative memory, a list of 12 word-pairs is presented to the subject (Lussier and Lupien, in preparation).
Immediate and delayed memory are measured using presentaiton of 15 non-complex line-drawings of objects of everyday use.
Moreover, it has further been shown that hippocampal atrophy and mild memory changes in non-demented elderly subjects are both sensitive and specific predictors over 4 years of future clinical decline to the status of dementia and a diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (de Leon et al., 1993; Flicker et al., 1991).
www.macses.ucsf.edu /Research/Allostatic/notebook/memory.html   (2116 words)

 TIP: Theories
Declarative memory takes the form of a semantic net linking propositions, images, and sequences by associations.
Procedural memory (also long-term) represents information in the form of productions; each production has a set of conditions and actions based in declarative memory.
The nodes of long-term memory all have some degree of activation and working memory is that part of long-term memory that is most highly activated.
tip.psychology.org /anderson.html   (450 words)

 Pathways to Procedural Long Term Memory
Procedural memory is memory storage of skills and procedures.
Memories and learning of conditioned reflexes such as pulling your hand away from a hot fire is related to the cerebellum.
Most of the evidence of a separate procedural long-term memory area in the brain is through studies involving patients with Korsakoff’s psychosis or amnestic confabulatory syndrome.
ahsmail.uwaterloo.ca /kin356/ltm/procedural.htm   (468 words)

 NYU/CNS : Faculty : Core Faculty : Wendy A. Suzuki
This form of memory is termed declarative memory in humans and relational memory in animals.
One form of declarative/relational memory we have focused on is associative memory, defined as the ability to associate two unrelated items in memory.
We are also in the process of developing a novel family of naturalistic memory tasks based on memory for social interactions that are designed to tap the natural learning and memory tasks that monkeys have evolved to solve.
www.cns.nyu.edu /corefaculty/Suzuki.php   (641 words)

 Self-Quiz on Memory
No, a chunk is any organized whole, either a whole memory or a whole component of a memory, but not a "partial memory." Chunks are often organized together and could be "part of a memory" in that sense, but there is a better answer here.
No, hierarchical organization is often used in to help memory retrieva, and you could argue that a chunk represents a node in a hierarchically ordered system, but this is a bit over the edge..
The basic idea of task-appropriate processing is that memory benefits from a good match between the type of processing and the type of testing.
www.psywww.com /selfquiz/ch06mcq.htm   (1427 words)

 Acute cortisone administration impairs retrieval of long-term declarative memory in humans - Nature Neuroscience
Whereas treatments used in previous studies generally affect more than one memory phase and therefore cannot detect possible differential effects of glucocorticoids on the distinct phases of acquisition, consolidation and retrieval, here we show that treatment of healthy humans with cortisone at acute-stress levels specifically impaired retrieval of declarative long-term memory for a word list.
Thus it is possible that such results reflect impaired memory retrieval rather than altered memory acquisition or consolidation.
Additional experiments are required to evaluate whether glucocorticoid effects on memory retrieval also contribute to the memory deficits found in human subjects with sustained elevations of glucocorticoid levels.
www.nature.com /neuro/journal/v3/n4/full/nn0400_313.html   (1332 words)

 Cerebral correlates of declarative memory dysfunctions in early traumatic brain injury -- Serra-Grabulosa et al. 76 ...
Cerebral correlates of declarative memory dysfunctions in early traumatic brain injury -- Serra-Grabulosa et al.
Cerebral correlates of declarative memory dysfunctions in early traumatic brain injury
Verbal memory was assessed by the Rey’s Auditory Verbal
jnnp.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/76/1/129   (1684 words)

 memory - Wiktionary
Memory is a facility common to all animals.
A record of a thing or an event stored in the brain of an organism.
This data passes from the CPU to the memory.
en.wiktionary.org /wiki/memory   (131 words)

 Low acetylcholine during slow-wave sleep is critical for declarative memory consolidation -- Gais and Born, ...
Low acetylcholine during slow-wave sleep is critical for declarative memory consolidation -- Gais and Born, 10.1073/pnas.0305404101 -- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Low acetylcholine during slow-wave sleep is critical for declarative memory consolidation
during SWS is necessary for the replay of new memories in the
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/abstract/0305404101v1   (425 words)

 Declarative memory consolidation: Mechanisms acting during human sleep -- Gais and Born 11 (6): 679 -- Learning & ...
Declarative memory consolidation: Mechanisms acting during human sleep -- Gais and Born 11 (6): 679 -- Learning and Memory
memory formation is believed to be the reactivation of newly
From the Cover: Declarative memory consolidation in humans: A prospective functional magnetic resonance imaging study
www.learnmem.org /cgi/content/abstract/11/6/679   (361 words)

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