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Topic: Decline of the Ottoman Empire


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In the News (Tue 20 Aug 19)

  
  Wikipedia: Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire (sometimes referred to in diplomatic circles as the "Sublime Porte" or simply as "the Porte") was a Turkish state that comprised Turkey, part of the Middle East, North Africa and south-eastern Europe in the 14th to 20th centuries, established by the Seljuq Turkish tribe of Söğüt in western Anatolia.
The Empire reached its apex under Suleiman the Magnificent in the 16th century when it stretched from the Persian Gulf in the east to Hungary in the northwest; and from Egypt in the south to the Caucasus in the north.
The Empire had suffered hard from the Interregnum; the Mongols were still at large in the east, even though Timur Lenk had died in 1405; many of the Christian kingdoms of the Balkans had broken free of Ottoman control; and the land, especially Anatolia, had suffered hard from the war.
www.factbook.org /wikipedia/en/o/ot/ottoman_empire.html   (6149 words)

  
 Britain.tv Wikipedia - Ottoman Empire
Earlier historiography of the empire was based largely on analysis of Ottoman military victories and defeats; current approaches take a wider perspective, the scope of which includes the social dynamics of territorial growth and dissolution, and examination of economic factors and their role in the empire's eventual stagnation and decline.
Their victory over the Ottomans at the naval Battle of Lepanto (1571) hastened the end of the empire's primacy in the Mediterranean; and in fact, this battle was considered by some earlier historians to signal the beginning of Ottoman decline.
Ultimately, the Ottoman Empire's relatively high degree of tolerance for ethnic differences proved to be one of its greatest strengths in integrating the new regions until the rise of nationalism (this non-assimilative policy became a weakness during the dissolution of the empire that neither the first or second parliaments could successfully address).
www.britain.tv /wikipedia.php?title=Ottoman_Empire   (7523 words)

  
 Royalty.nu - Sultans of the Ottoman Empire - History of Turkey
The Ottoman Empire arose from a Turkish principality founded in Anatolia (Asia Minor) at the end of the 13th century, when the empire of the Seljuk Turks had collapsed and the Byzantine Empire was crumbling.
The modernization of the empire during the 19th and early 20th centuries, the spread of nationalism, the empire's demise, and the rise of the Republic of Turkey.
Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire by Bernard Lewis.
www.royalty.nu /history/empires/Ottoman   (2595 words)

  
 History of the Ottoman Empire - Decline and Fall
Decline was not only slow, gradual, interrupted, lasting rnore than three centuries, but also it was relative only to its own Golden Age and to the remarkable progress of its Christian European neighbors.
In the 1850s-60s, intellectuals known as the New Ottomans” engaged in a liberal critique of Tanzimat policies with emphasis on fatherland (vatan), freedom (hurriget), and constitutionalism.
With even the heartlands of the Empire partitioned and Istanbul occupied by the victorious allies, the Turks of Anatolia under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) rejected the terms of the dictated Treaty of Sevres.
www.turizm.net /turkey/history/ottoman3.html   (1378 words)

  
 The Ottomans and their dynasty - All About Turkey
Although the Ottoman Empire is not considered a European kingdom per se, Ottoman expansion had a profound impact on a continent already stunned by the calamities of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and the Ottoman Turks must, therefore, be considered in any study of Europe in the late Middle Ages.
The conquest of Thrace gave the Ottomans a foothold in Europe from which future campaigns into the Balkans and Greece were launched and Adrianople (Edirne) became the Ottoman capital in 1366.
Some historians consider that this policy of imprisonment contributed to the decline of the Ottoman Empire as mentally unstable and politically inexperienced sultans were rescued from prison and placed upon the throne.
www.allaboutturkey.com /ottoman.htm   (1769 words)

  
 Ottoman Empire: Rise and Fall: Explanations
While it is difficult to find exact reasons for the rise of the Ottoman empire, except that there must have been skilled leaders, sufficient economic backing and probably weaknesses among the enemies; it is much easier to point at when the fall of the empire commenced, and its causes.
The actual rise of the empire was gradual, and for half a century their own forces were enough to gain more land and then keep it.
The Ottoman Empire tried to correct all the weaknesses, but it proved to be too late.
i-cias.com /e.o/ottomans_3.htm   (325 words)

  
 The Ottomans: Suleyman
Islamic historians believe that the decline was due to two factors: the decreased vigilance of the Sultan over the functions of government and their consequent corruption, and the decreased interest of the government in popular opinion.
The decline in the Ottoman Empire in the Western tradition is also considerably determined by the ever-increasing expansion of the European powers.
How much this played a direct part in the decline of the Ottomans in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries is difficult to determine, but there is no question that the last century of the Ottomans (19th), the principle historical factor in Ottoman decline was the hyper-aggressive expansion of European colonial powers.
www.wsu.edu:8080 /~dee/OTTOMAN/SULEYMAN.HTM   (1729 words)

  
 The Ottoman Empire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The end of the Ottoman Empire came in the nineteen twenties, the Empire was abolished with the Treaty of Sevres in 1920.
The founder of the Ottoman Empire Osman’s father, Ertugrul Gazi, is buried in Sogut.
The Ottomans had fallen far behind all of the European countries, sultans like Selim III and Mahmut II, came through in accomplishing with the promoting of Ottoman government, along with society and culture, though these goals were achieved not all off the problems held by the Ottoman Empire were fixed.
members.tripod.com /ottoman_empire0   (2849 words)

  
 End of Europe's Middle Ages - Ottoman Turks
The ease with which the Ottoman Empire achieved military victories led Western Europeans to fear that ongoing Ottoman success would collapse the political and social infrastructure of the West and bring about the downfall of Christendom.
A Hungarian-Polish army was decimated at Varna in 1444 by Murad II (c.1403-1451) and Ottoman conquests were virtually unchecked during the reign of his son, Mehmed II the Conqueror (1432-1481).
Although Ottoman expansion was greatly feared in the late Middle Ages, the Ottomans generally allowed religious groups to continue to practice their own faiths within the conquered territories.
www.ucalgary.ca /applied_history/tutor/endmiddle/ottoman.html   (1146 words)

  
 Decline of Islamaic and Ottoman Power
The Ottoman Empire - the greatest empire in the world in the 1500s - was ruled by sultans, and a sultan was commander-in-chief of the military and a member of the Janissaries.
In the 1600s the Ottoman historian, Haji Khalifa (1608-1657), saw Ottoman society resting on four pillars: the mullahs (Islamic clerics) the army, the merchants and the farmers, and he saw Ottoman society as sick because of corruption, high taxation and oppression of the masses.
The Ottomans were expanding their control on the island of Crete, but the glorious days of Islamic conquest were over, never to be replicated.
www.fsmitha.com /h3/h21-ot.html   (1587 words)

  
 The Decline of the Ottomans
The history of the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth century is one of increasing internal weakness and deterioration in the machinery of Government and of sustained external pressure by the Great Powers, which ultimately led to the dissolution of that Empire.
The twenty years which followed the Crimean War were a period of comparative calm in the field of international rivalry in the Ottoman Empire, with two exceptions: the civil war of 1860 in Lebanon and the sanguinary insurrections of 1866-1868 in Crete, an island with a Christian majority of Greeks and a privileged Muslim minority.
With the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the Eastern Question, as far as it concerned the question of which Power or Powers would inherit the vast and rich possessions of the "Sick man" upon its dissolution, i.e.
www.naqshbandi.org /ottomans/decline_main.htm   (2318 words)

  
 Ottoman Empire: History
The Ottoman siege of Constantinople was lifted at the appearance of
The Activities of the Union for the Liberation of Ukraine in the Ottoman Empire during the First World War.
The desperate Ottoman: Enver Pasa and the German Empire.
www.infoplease.com /ce6/history/A0860176.html   (1031 words)

  
 Decline of the Ottoman Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Decline of the Ottoman Empire covers the military and political events between 1828 to 1908.
Empire was directly affected by Russian expansion during this time.
In 1839, Mahmud resumed the war, hoping to recover his losses, but at the very time he died, the news was on its way to Constantinople that the empire's army had been signally defeated at Nezib by an Egyptian army led by Mehemet Ali's son, Ibrahim Pasha.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Decline_of_the_Ottoman_Empire   (390 words)

  
 Ottoman   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Some of the Historians blame someone Selim II (1566-1574), the son of Suleiyman I for the decline of the Ottoman Empire,.
The sons of the Sultan were expected to participate in government and military training and campaigns; only this period of apprenticeship would make them worthy of the Sultanate.
Selim II reigned for only eight years, but he set the precedent for Ottoman rule for the next two centuries and the great Empire, the great Caliphate that stood as a lion before the advancing mercantile and military expansion against Europe, slowly crumbled under European pressure.
www.theottomans.org /english/history/history1600.asp   (258 words)

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