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Topic: Decomposition


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  Decomposition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Decomposition is a phenomenon common in the sciences of biology and chemistry.
In biology, decomposition refers to the reduction of the body of a formerly living organism into simpler forms of matter.
In extremely dry or cold conditions the normal process of decomposition is halted, by either lack of moisture or temperature controls on bacterial and enzymatic action, causing the body to be preserved as a mummy.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Decomposition   (1224 words)

  
 Chapter 1
The process of decomposition -- the breakdown of raw organic materials to a finished compost -- is a gradual complex process, one in which both chemical and biological processes must occur in order for organic matter to change into compost.
Anaerobic decomposition takes place in nature, as in the decomposition of the organic muds at the bottom of marshes and in buried organic materials to which oxygen does not have access.
Considerable cellulose and lignin decomposition by actinomycetes and fungi can occur near the end of the composting period when the temperatures have begun to drop and the environment in a larger part of the pile is satisfactory for their growth.
aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu /extension/compost/chapter1.html   (5727 words)

  
 Decomposition
Decomposition is the natural process of dead animal or plant tissue being rotted or broken down.
During the process of decomposition, the decomposers provide food for themselves by extracting chemicals from the dead bodies or organic wastes; using these to produce energy.
Decomposition reduces these leaves first into a compost and then into nutrients which return to the soil and enable new plant growth to take place.
www.countrysideinfo.co.uk /decompos.htm   (870 words)

  
 Decomposition (disambiguation) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The term decomposition is also found in chemistry: chemical decomposition.
For prime decomposition of integers, see fundamental theorem of arithmetic (for the mathematics), integer factorization (for applications), or prime factorization algorithm (for an algorithm).
In computer science, decomposition, otherwise known as factoring, refers to the process of breaking a complex problem down into easily-understood and achievable parts.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Decomposition_(disambiguation)   (168 words)

  
 PlanetMath: Cholesky decomposition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
A symmetric and positive definite matrix can be efficiently decomposed into a lower and upper triangular matrix.
Cholesky decomposition is often used to solve the normal equations in linear least squares problems; they give
This is version 10 of Cholesky decomposition, born on 2002-01-05, modified 2006-01-20.
planetmath.org /encyclopedia/CholeskyDecomposition.html   (187 words)

  
 Tremolite Decomposition on Venus
Decomposition rate constants were measured using the mass loss of the heated samples.
We propose a decomposition mechanism and suggest that decomposition and dehydroxylation occur simultaneously.
We experimentally determined that the greater stability of F-bearing tremolite, suggested by thermodynamics, is reflected in its decomposition kinetics.
solarsystem.wustl.edu /03abstracts.htm   (579 words)

  
 Function Decomposition 
The most obvious example of this form of decomposition is with respect to the three stages of typical program execution, namely, input, processing, and result output.
We illustrate the general functional decomposition paradigm by considering the hypothetical simulation of an aircraft consisting of multiple interrelated and interacting, functionally decomposed subalgorithms.
Parallelism is achieved in two respects-by the concurrent and independent execution of modules as in functions 2 through 6, and by the simultaneous, pipelined, execution of modules in a dependency chain, as, for example, in functions 1, 6, 8, and 9 .
www.netlib.org /pvm3/book/node33.html   (429 words)

  
 FRACTINT Decomposition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
If you use 4 as the parameter, points ending up in each quadrant are given their own color; if 2 (binary decomposition), points in alternating quadrants are given 2 alternating colors.
Remember, for the M-set all points whose final values exceed 2 (by any amount) after, say, 80 iterations are normally the same color; under decomposition, Fractint runs [bailout-value] iterations and then colors according to where the actual final value falls on the complex plane.
When using decomposition, a higher bailout value will give a more accurate plot, at some expense in speed.
spanky.triumf.ca /www/fractint/decomposition.html   (250 words)

  
 12.5 Domain Decomposition
An additional problem for 2d domain decomposition which is not indicated in Figure 12.1c is that the equations are not symmetric with respect to latitude and longitude.
Whether 1d or 2d decomposition is better depends on the the latency involved in issuing a communication call versus the time taken to transfer the data.
A 2d domain decomposition would in principle more easily allow computation over land to be skipped by not assigning processors to areas containing all land cells.
www.gfdl.noaa.gov /~smg/MOM/web/guide_parent/s3node24.html   (862 words)

  
 Bottle Biology | Decomposition Column   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Nature's recyclers are tiny bacteria and fungi, which break down plant and animal waste, making nutrients available for other living things in the process.
Decomposition involves a whole community of large and small organisms that serve as food for each other, clean up each other's debris, control each other's populations and convert materials to forms that others can use.
The bacteria and fungi that initiate the recycling process, for example, become food for other microbes, earthworms, snails, slugs, flies, beetles and mites, all of which in turn feed larger insects and birds.
www.bottlebiology.org /investigations/decomp_main.html   (260 words)

  
 Decomposition Always Endothermic
If you mean reactions in which gas is given off, as frequently happens in the detonation of explosives, there is no intrinsic reason for the reaction to absorb heat from the surroundings.
Decomposition of NO to N2 and O2 is exothermic (-90.25kJ/mole) N2O4 is too (-9.16 kJ/mole) as is N2O (-82.05 kJ/mole).
There is one kind of decomposition reaction which is always endothermic; the decomposition of a gas-phase diatomic molecule (or for that matter a polyatomic molecule) into gas-phase atoms.
www.newton.dep.anl.gov /askasci/chem00/chem00987.htm   (526 words)

  
 Fungal decomposition
Over time, without decomposition, so much nitrogen would be locked up in leaves and other tissues that there would not be enough nitrogen available for the plant to make new leaves, stems and wood.
Finally, at the end of the processes of decomposition, they have become fine fl particles of soil organic matter, and their original shape no longer exists.
The speed at which the decomposition occurs, called the "rate of decomposition", depends on the temperature, moisture and chemical composition of the organic matter.
herbarium.usu.edu /fungi/funfacts/Decay.htm   (1931 words)

  
 Sago Pondweed: A Literature Review   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Litter bag experiments of Byren and Davies (1986) in another South African wetland showed how important shredding and grazing invertebrates were for increasing surface area for microbial colonization and attack of sago.
They estimated complete decomposition in 145 days; listed the animals that dominated the litter bag fauna; graphed the changes in ash, N, and P content of the plant material; and provided micrographs showing changes in microorganisms with time.
Decomposition caused by microbes probably is hastened by cuticular damage from periphyton (Howard-Williams et al.
www.npwrc.usgs.gov /resource/literatr/pondweed/decomp.htm   (343 words)

  
 Decomposition Rates in the Test Cells
In the test cells, decomposition rates were measured using a standard method known as cotton strip assay.
The frames were inserted into the soil to a depth of 15 cm for one week exposing about half of the strip to the sediment and half to the overlying water column.
Preliminary results suggest that decomposition rates increased as phosphorus loads increased, where as at lower nutrient loads, decomposition rates were not affected.
www.sfwmd.gov /org/erd/ecp/etweb/main_template/decomp.html   (165 words)

  
 Decomposition: Stages of Decomposition
Decomposition of a corpse is a continual process that can take from weeks to years, depending on the environment.
To illustrate the process of decomposition, we use the piglet as the model corpse.
A 40 kg pig resembles a human body in its fat distribution, cover of hair and ability to attract insects.
www.deathonline.net /decomposition/decomposition   (166 words)

  
 The MSDS HyperGlossary: Decomposition
Decomposition is the breakdown or change of a material or substance (by heat, chemical reaction, or other processes) into other chemical compounds.
New substances may be formed, some or all of which are explosive, flammable or toxic.
Decomposition may result in the release of a large amount of heat, possibly resulting in a fire or explosion.
www.ilpi.com /msds/ref/decomposition.html   (327 words)

  
 module mpp_domains_mod: a domain decomposition programming interface for f90
The domain decomposition is a key operation in the development of parallel codes.
I have assumed that domain decomposition will mainly be in 2 horizontal dimensions, which will in general be the two fastest-varying indices.
There is a separate implementation of 1D decomposition on the fastest-varying index, and 1D decomposition on the second index, treated as a special case of 2D decomposition, is also possible.
www.gfdl.noaa.gov /~vb/mpp_domains.html   (2294 words)

  
 I-0450: Appropriate Levels Of Decomposition
The CC requires that the TSF be decomposed into subsystems and modules; a trivial decomposition is one in which the number of subsystems and modules are relatively few in number compared with the size of the system (for example, two: kernel and non-kernel).
Although judging the "goodness" (or usefulness) of a decomposition is subjective, it is relatively easy to identify grossly trivial decompositions.
Thus, the suggestion is to require that, at each level of decomposition (HLD and LLD), there shall be interfaces exposed and documented that are not present at previous levels (FSP for HLD; HLD for LLD) of decomposition.
niap.nist.gov /cc-scheme/PUBLIC/0450.html   (339 words)

  
 Matrix Decomposition Methods
Performs LU decomposition on a square matrix, i.e., the matrix A is decomposed as,
On decomposition, the matrix A is replaced by both L and U. The new changed row index is returned in the valarray ri for performing the back substitution later.
After successful decomposition, the original matrix A is replaced by the orthogonal matrix Q, and the upper triangular matrix R is returned in r.
www.techsoftpl.com /matrix/doc/matdcmp.htm   (995 words)

  
 LU Decomposition
LU decomposition is used to find the solutions of linear systems.
Notice that this is a square matrix and is not yet augmented with the vector of constants from the equations.
There is an adjustment that can be made in order to accomplish an LU decomposition is a row interchange is necessary though we will not discuss it here.
www.aspire.cs.uah.edu /textbook/LU.html   (650 words)

  
 Decomposition Reactions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The first reaction we worked with in this lesson was the decomposition of water to form hydrogen and oxygen.
When you look at the chemical formulas in an equation and see that a compound is being taken apart, you are looking at a decomposition reaction.
Still, this compound is being taken apart and this is a decomposition reaction.
dl.clackamas.cc.or.us /ch104-05/decompos.htm   (143 words)

  
 The scoop on poop: Insect feces, dead leaves may provide clues to health of world   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Barro Colorado Island, Panama--Insect feces and leaf litter in the rainforest may provide important clues to better understanding global climate change, according to a group of scientists conducting research in the Panamanian rainforest on a JASON Project expedition.
Participating schools around the world play an active role in the research through experiments they will be conducting in their local communities.
Students compare the rate of decomposition in their areas to that of the expedition site by placing bananas outside their classroom.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2004-02/si-tso020504.php   (746 words)

  
 Decomposition | International Communist Current
Understanding the decomposition of capitalism: Marxism at the roots of the concept of capitalism's decomposition
It also deals with the fact that the different expressions of decomposition today are an important obstacle to the development of working class consciousness.
We can see this today, in the way that the bourgeoisie, especially in the US but in other countries as well, is using the emotion and the fear provoked by the attacks in New York to muzzle the working class in the name of “national unity”.
en.internationalism.org /taxonomy/term/32   (3099 words)

  
 ChemTeam: Decomposition
Decomposition can also split one compound into two simpler compounds (or compound and an element) as in these examples:
This is always the case in a decomposition reaction.
Figuring out what the products are in decomposition is harder (maybe you'll think it's easier!!) because you will have to recognize several categories of decomposition reactions.
dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us /webdocs/Equations/Decomposition.html   (532 words)

  
 Batch Studies of Sodium Tetraphenylborate Decomposition on Reduced Palladium Catalyst
We based the method of quantifying the rate for NaTPB decomposition, within the first 8 hours, on a linear interpolation of the comparative amounts of 3PB and 2PB generated in each of the batch experiments.
We did not base the determination of the decomposition and generation rates in Table 5 only on the first eight hours of reaction.
NaTPB decomposition occurred for all reduced palladium on alumina catalyst concentrations evaluated (2.6, 7.8 and 26 mg/L).
sti.srs.gov /fulltext/tr2000459/tr2000459.html   (3444 words)

  
 Parallel Computing: Comparing Different Domain Decomposition Techniques
Domain decomposition is achieved by distributing the computational domain of a problem across nodes.
Functional decomposition is achieved by having nodes execute different portions of the same code simultaneously.
The final method is the master-slave model which is achieved by having one node, or the system host, assign work to the rest of the nodes used by the application.
cauchy.math.colostate.edu /Projects/Garrison/paper.html   (421 words)

  
 Decomposition
A decomposition that is not lossy-join is called a lossless-join decomposition.
In order to have a lossless-join decomposition, we need to impose some constraints on the set of possible relations.
In other words, a lossless-join decomposition is one in which, for any legal relation r, if we decompose r and then ``recompose'' r, we get what we started with - no more and no less.
www.cs.sfu.ca /CC/354/zaiane/material/notes/Chapter7/node4.html   (485 words)

  
 Polar Decomposition of a Matrix and Method of Square Roots
Proposition 6.4.1 (on the reduced singular value decomposition of a matrix).
in the form (12) is called the polar decomposition.
Hence the polar decomposition of the matrix A is
www.cs.ut.ee /~toomas_l/linalg/lin2/node26.html   (254 words)

  
 Decomposition
Human and personal reactions to death are explored elsewhere on the Death: the last taboo website.
Content for the Decomposition website was authored by Richard Major, Australian Museum Research Scientist.
Answers some frequently asked questions about decomposition and what happens to the body after death
www.deathonline.net /decomposition   (139 words)

  
 Lossless-Join Decomposition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The decomposition is a lossless-join decomposition of R if at least one of the following functional dependencies are in
This ensures that we can never get the situation where spurious tuples are generated, as for any value on the join attributes there will be a unique tuple in one of the relations.
We'll now show our decomposition is lossless-join by showing a set of steps that generate the decomposition:
www.cs.sfu.ca /CC/354/zaiane/material/notes/Chapter7/node7.html   (145 words)

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