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# Topic: Deduction

###### In the News (Thu 25 Apr 19)

 Schloss Dagstuhl : Seminar Homepage The conviction that mathematical logic is a unifying principle in computer science and that methods from different theoretical areas as well as application domains should be brought together has lead to a successful new conference: FLoC, the Federated Logic Conferences, which was held in 1999 for the second time after its initiation in 1996. The 2001 seminar is intended to contribute to the interdisciplinary view of logic in computer science by bringing together leading scientists from various disciplines within the area of automated deduction, as well as from application areas, this time in particular from planning and program analysis and verification. Firmly based on inter-related logic and algorithmic concepts, these areas are in the process of extending their scope from finite domain-based fixpoint computation to infinite systems where more complex forms of deductive computation are required, and where the gap to traditional forms of program verification based on induction needs to be closed. www.dagstuhl.de /01101   (505 words)

 Deduction - LoveToKnow 1911   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17) In logic it is generally used in contradiction to "induct:on" for a kind of mediate inference, in which a conclusion (often itself called the deduction) is regarded as following necessarily under certain fixed laws from premises. This, the most common, form of deduction is the syllogism (q.v.; see also Logic), which consists in taking a general principle and deriving from it facts which are necessarily involved in it. This use of deduction is of comparatively modern origin; it was originally used as the equivalent of Aristotle's arra-ywyr t (see Prior Analytics, B xxv.). www.1911encyclopedia.org /Deduction   (204 words)

 deduction - HighBeam Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17) deduction in logic, form of inference such that the conclusion must be true if the premises are true. Logicians contrast deduction with induction, in which the conclusion might be false even when the premises are true. The famous Aristotelian syllogism is one species of deductive reasoning, which was greatly extended by the development of symbolic logic. www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-deductio.html   (312 words)

 Health Insurance Deduction of Little Help to The Uninsured -- Revised 10/18/00 The deduction would be available to taxpayers that pay at least 50 percent of the cost of their health insurance. Because the deduction provides a far-deeper percentage subsidy for the purchase of insurance to higher-income business owners and executives than to lower-income wage earners, it could encourage small business owners to drop, or fail to institute, group coverage and to rely instead on this deduction to help defray the cost of their own coverage. The deduction is worth more than twice as much to individuals in the top tax brackets (the 31 percent, 36 percent, or 39.6 percent brackets) than to moderate- and middle-income families in the 15 percent bracket. www.cbpp.org /8-30-00tax2.htm   (1943 words)

 Publication 970 (2005), Tax Benefits for Education You cannot claim this deduction if your filing status is married filing separately or if another person can claim an exemption for you as a dependent on his or her tax return. Generally, the deduction is allowed for qualified education expenses paid in 2005 in connection with enrollment at an institution of higher education during 2005 or for an academic period beginning in 2005 or in the first 3 months of 2006. For purposes of the tuition and fees deduction, qualified education expenses are tuition and certain related expenses required for enrollment or attendance at an eligible educational institution. www.irs.gov /publications/p970/ch06.html   (3551 words)

 Proposal For New HSA Tax Deduction Found Likely to Increase the Ranks of the Uninsured, 5/10/04 The proposed deduction would be of significant benefit to high-income taxpayers; they would receive the largest tax benefit from the deduction because they are in the highest tax brackets. But while the proposed deduction would be valuable for high-income individuals, it would be unlikely to have large effects in enabling uninsured people to gain coverage, since it would do little to make insurance affordable for most people who lack it. This high-deductible plan includes a deductible of \$3,350, zero percent cost-sharing after the deductible is met, and a maximum out-of-pocket limit of \$3,350. www.cbpp.org /5-10-04health.htm   (4413 words)

 Sales tax deduction could cut your tax bill (Page 1 of 4) Deductions help millions of filers reduce their taxable income; less taxable income generally means a lower tax bill. One of the most-claimed federal deductions is for income taxes paid to a filer's state. For 2005 filing purposes, the standard deduction is \$5,000 for single filers or married couples filing separately, \$7,300 for head of household filers and \$10,000 for married couples who file a joint return. www.bankrate.com /brm/itax/tips/20050218a1.asp   (572 words)

 CHURCHES, POLITICS, AND THE CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTION DEDUCTION The deduction for charitable contributions is one of the oldest deduction provisions in the tax laws. The charitable contribution deduction has remained part of the Internal Revenue Code ever since, with the percentage of adjusted gross income that can be deducted as charitable contributions in a single year eventually being raised to 50% for churches and other public charities for contributions of cash and ordinary income property. The impact of the charitable contribution deduction should be of particular concern to religious congregations, both because many espouse a moral belief in equality of all and because this system favors the charitable activities favored by the wealthy. www.bc.edu /bc_org/avp/law/lwsch/journals/bclawr/42_4/04_TXT.htm   (7116 words)

 P&TS - Payment Options: Payroll Deduction Deductions for all permit purchases will continue until the full price of the permit is paid or until the permit is returned (Daily 'scratcher' purchases occur as a one-time deduction, and permits are non-returnable). All deductions for Stanford University employees puchasing Transit Passes will occur on the second pay period of the month (appearing on paychecks issued on the 22nd), and will continue until all payments are completed. Employees are responsible for monitoring their paychecks to ensure that proper deductions are being made for the transit pass or commuter checks. transportation.stanford.edu /payment_options/PayrollDeduction.shtml   (1921 words)

 Restoration of the IRS Sales Tax Deduction The deduction of state and local sales taxes was one of the last (and most contentious) items considered by the Senate, but the final efforts to restore at least some vestige of the deduction, led in part by Senator Phil Gramm, ultimately failed. Although the sales tax deductions were eliminated in part for reasons of tax simplification, the proposed legislation before Congress would add only one more line to Schedule A, for those taxpayers electing to itemize on their Form 1040. Reinstatement of the deduction for sales taxes would eliminate the fundamental disparity created by TRA86, when citizens in states with a personal income tax were permitted to deduct such taxes, but citizens in states without an income tax had no corresponding deduction. www.window.state.tx.us /specialrpt/deduction04   (1802 words)

 Publication 17 (2006), Your Federal Income Tax The standard deduction for most taxpayers who do not itemize their deductions on Schedule A of Form 1040 is higher in 2006 than it was in 2005. The amount of the standard deduction for a decedent's final tax return is the same as it would have been had the decedent continued to live. You should first figure your itemized deductions and compare that amount to your standard deduction to make sure you are using the method that gives you the greater benefit. www.irs.gov /publications/p17/ch20.html   (2001 words)

 Deduction Deduction presents classical first-order logic as efficiently and elegantly as possible. It presents a truth tree system based on the work of Jeffrey, as well as a natural deduction system inspired by that of Kalish and Montague. The definition of a formula excludes free variables, and the deduction system uses Show lines; the combination allows rules to be stated very simply. www.utexas.edu /cola/depts/philosophy/faculty/bonevac/deduction   (167 words)

 Home Office Tax Deduction Starting with tax year 1999, the home-office deduction requirements were relaxed somewhat which could allow more self-employed people to take a deduction for businesses they operate from their homes. Under the earlier requirements it was possible to take a deduction if the home-office was your principal place of business, a place where you regularly met with clients or customers, or was located in a separate structure on your property. For those that qualify, deductions can be taken for repairs, mortgage interest, taxes, utilities and depreciation (as a percentage based on proportionate usage of the office space to the home). www.usboomers.com /home_office.htm   (451 words)

 Colorado - State Income Tax Deduction Addback Brown's total itemized deductions for federal purposes (\$11,000) and the standard deduction taken (\$5,150) is \$5,850 — less than the \$9,000 she claimed as a state income tax deduction. In the case of a married couple filing separate returns and itemizing deductions for federal income tax purposes, the allowable standard deduction for Colorado income tax purposes is zero unless it is to the advantage of each spouse to claim a standard deduction for Colorado income tax purposes. Should the state income tax deduction addback on line 2 of the Colorado Form 104 include the local tax portion of the state and local taxes deducted on line 5 of the federal Schedule A? There are no local income taxes in Colorado. www.revenue.state.co.us /fyi/html/income04.html   (1008 words)

 Deduction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17) Deductive arguments are those in which the conclusion follows from the premisses because of the agreed meaning of the syncategorematic words used to express the argument. For this reason, deduction gives us no new information about the world; but this also makes deduction the most powerful type of reasoning. In deduction, the major premiss of the argument is a RULE, or general statement, while the minor premiss is a CASE - a class or instance subsumed under the rule. www.cuyamaca.net /bruce.thompson/Fallacies/deduction.asp   (143 words)

 Notional Interest Deduction (NID), PwC Belgium The principle of the notional interest deduction is based on the traditional financial theory demonstrating that it is relatively easy to isolate a risk-free interest rate component embedded in a return on risk capital. The notional interest deduction is compliant with EU “state aid” rules, as it is accessible to all Belgian tax-resident companies and Belgian branches of non-resident companies, irrespective of their activities. Finally, in order to benefit from this new regime, it was initially foreseen that the amount of the notional interest deduction allowance for a given financial year should remain on a separate account of the company’s or branch’s balance sheet for the financial year at hand and the 3 financial years to come. www.pwc.com /Extweb/manissue.nsf/docid/7E66B08E06DBC90380257137003206DF   (2947 words)

 Department of Revenue: Personal Income Tax Sales Tax Deduction Individuals who claim sales tax as an itemized deduction on their federal return in 2005 and later must reduce their itemized deductions on the Oregon return for the sales tax deduction claimed. Individuals who reduce their total federal itemized deductions because of income limits will need to complete a worksheet to determine the amount to subtract from their Oregon itemized deductions. Their total itemized deductions are limited to \$20,831 based on the federal itemized deductions worksheet. www.oregon.gov /DOR/PERTAX/sales_tax_deduction.shtml   (548 words)

 The Home Office Deduction Now, you may have heard that the home office deduction is either one of the greatest money-savers available to American small business, or that it is major red flag that will make you audit bait for the IRS. The common denominator among these deductions is that the IRS has devised a single test to determine whether you qualify for all of them. There are different forms that you must use to claim a home office deduction depending on whether you are self-employed, or are claiming home office expenses associated with working for someone else. www.uschamber.com /sb/business/P07/P07_2700.asp   (783 words)

 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Deduction The typical expression of deductive inference is the syllogism. The essential feature of deduction is the necessary character of the connexion between the antecedent or premises and the consequent or conclusion. The material aspect of the deductive argument is the truth or falsity of the judgments which constitute it. www.newadvent.org /cathen/04674a.htm   (533 words)

 Interest Deduction The deduction is limited initially to \$1,000, then will be increased annually by \$500 each year until reaching the maximum level of \$2,500 in the year 2001, where it will remain. However, a student cannot file for the deduction if he or she is claimed as a dependent on his or her parent's income tax return. The borrower can only deduct interest paid for the first five years of the loan's repayment period, not including deferment or forbearance periods. www.fafsa.com /interest.htm   (490 words)

 The K-12 Education Deduction and Credit: An Overview - House Research In tax year 2007 (fiscal year 2008), an estimated 225,000 returns will claim the deduction at a cost to the state of \$16.0 million. The same expenses qualify for the credit as for the deduction, except nonpublic school tuition does not qualify for the credit. The constitutionality of the dependent education expense deduction was challenged in Mueller v. www.house.leg.state.mn.us /hrd/issinfo/sseducdc.htm   (968 words)

 Natural deduction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In mathematical logic, natural deduction is an approach to proof theory that attempts to provide a formal model of logical reasoning as it "naturally" occurs. Natural deduction in its modern form was independently proposed by the German mathematician Gentzen in 1935, in a dissertation delivered to the faculty of mathematical sciences of the university of Göttingen. The sequent calculus is the chief alternative to natural deduction as a foundation of mathematical logic. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Natural_deduction   (4791 words)

 FAQs - Payroll Deduction - Virginia Credit Union When you started your payroll deduction, you chose an account (checking or savings) to place your funds in so the credit union could get your payments. Your payroll deduction continues to be placed in that account, even after the loan is paid off, until you authorize your payroll office to stop it. Continuing the deduction is a good way to build your savings. www.vacu.org /faqs/payroll_deduction.asp   (370 words)

 Indiana Department of Revenue - Indiana Deductions from Individual Income All other recovered itemized deductions should be reported on the line called 'Recovery of deductions' on the deduction schedule (IT-40 Schedule 1, or IT-40PNR Schedule D). You may be eligible to take a deduction of up to \$2,500 of the Indiana property taxes (residential real estate taxes) paid during the year on your principal place of residence. She deducted \$200 Indiana property tax as an expense on her federal Schedule C. She paid a total of \$1,200 Indiana property tax on her home. www.in.gov /dor/individual/deductions.html   (1708 words)

 Quicken.com Tax Deduction Finder   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17) Lets you know if your deductions are subject to any limitations under the tax law. Access to the TurboTax Deduction Finder application is provided as a convenience to help you calculate an estimate of your federal and state income tax liabilities for the tax year indicated. Access to the TurboTax Deduction Finder is provided free of charge on an "AS-IS" basis, and Intuit makes no warranty with regard to the accuracy of the calculations, tax rates or results. www.quicken.com /taxes/deductionfinder   (400 words)

 Deduction Games Deduction is not only important in card games. Even though many games have at least some element of deduction, only recently have games appeared in which deduction is the central element. Experience shows that this sort of deduction almost always makes a difference, and allows a quicker solution if he can keep from confusing the elaborate notes required. www.thegamesjournal.com /articles/DeductionGames.shtml   (2804 words)

 EPAct 2005 Offers Accelerated Tax Deduction for Lighting Systems The amount of the deduction is the lesser of \$1.80 per square foot or the costs incurred/paid for the energy-efficient property. This individual system deduction is the lesser of \$0.60 per square foot or the costs incurred or paid for the energy-efficient system. The tax deduction is allowable in the year in which the energy-efficient property is placed in service. ecmweb.com /mag/electric_epact_offers_accelerated/index.html   (1243 words)

 Deduction Deductions Most taxpayers have a choice of taking a standard deduction or itemizing... Figuring the Deduction Your student loan interest deduction for 2005 is generally... Figuring the Deduction The maximum tuition and fees deduction in 2005 is \$4,000,... www.cclib.lib.pa.us /irs/taxmap/ts0/tp8019.htm   (519 words)

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