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Topic: Deductive reasoning

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In the News (Sun 18 Aug 19)

  Anxiety Zone - Deductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning is the process of reaching a conclusion that is guaranteed to follow, if the evidence provided is true and the reasoning used to reach the conclusion is correct.
Deductive reasoning was first described by the ancient Greek philosophers such as Aristotle.
Deductive reasoning is fundamentally in the form of an assertion of idea to materialisation, while inductive reasoning is from empirical evidence to formulate the generalise knowledge of the observation thereof.
www.anxietyzone.com /glossary/deductive_reasoning.html   (342 words)

 [No title]
Deductive reasoning was first developed by Thales, Pyuthagoras, Aristotle, and other Greeks of the Classical Period (600 to 300 BC).
The 'truth' of the conclusions reached by deductive profiling is a contingent truth; that is, it depends upon the truth, or the basis for the truth, for theories formed when the investigator first arrives on scene or during interviews.
In contrast to the deductive process, which starts with assumptions about behavior, inductive profiling relies on data gathered from the crime scenes, police reports, psychological evaluations, method examiners' reports and victimology reports in order to be empirically analyzed and subsequently to support a theory.
www.investigativepsych.com /inductive.htm   (1011 words)

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Deductive reasoning has proved useful in estimating the efficacy of pneumococcal vaccine in the United States (Ref. 9).
In another investigation, testing only six principles of deductive logic, it is possible to compare the results when data are interpreted from the standpoint of ordinary logic with what happens when it is assumed that respondents employ deviant rules of inference.
The controversy about whether people reason by relying on models or on inference rules has been long but fruitful: it has led to better experiments, to explicit theories implemented in computer programs, and to developments of the mental model theory of thinking and reasoning in novel domains.
www.lycos.com /info/deductive-reasoning.html   (684 words)

Deduction: reasoning from general premises, which are known or presumed to be known, to more specific, certain conclusions.
Both deductive and inductive arguments occur frequently and naturally…both forms of reasoning can be equally compelling and persuasive, and neither form is preferred over the other Hollihan and Baske, 1994).
Deductive reasoning is either "valid" or "invalid." A deductive argument can’t be "sort of" valid.
commfaculty.fullerton.edu /rgass/newpage22.htm   (382 words)

 DEDUCTIVE REASONING AND WEATHER FORECASTING   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Deductive reasoning is coming to a logical conclusion based on a set of facts.
Deductive reasoning will lead to the truth ONLY if the original facts are correct.
As mentioned, to use deductive reasoning it is important to have as many facts as straight as possible.
www.theweatherprediction.com /habyhints/88   (481 words)

 Deductive reasoning Summary
Deductive reasoning is the primary method of reasoning used in mathematical proof, whereas, inductive reasoning, or reasoning from specific empirical facts to more general conclusions, is the method most often practiced in the natural sciences.
Deductive reasoning is a way of reasoning that relates two or more general concepts or conditions to a specific case.
Deductive reasoning may also be defined as inference in which the conclusion is of no greater generality than the premises or inference in which the conclusion is just as certain as the premises.
www.bookrags.com /Deductive_reasoning   (2277 words)

 Deductive Reasoning Skills
Deductive reasoning is one of the most valuable skills a student can have when working to prove a mathematical theorem, analyzing literature, or taking a standardized test.
Deductive reasoning is what allows a student to discover the correct answer to a question he or she may not have been anticipating.
Deductive reasoning is how theorems are proven in mathematics and how Sherlock Holmes was able to see through the shroud of mystery that always surrounded his cases.
www.criticalthinking.com /company/articles/deductive-reasoning-skills.jsp   (307 words)

 Deductive methods - WikEd
In a conclusion, when we use deduction we reason from general principles to specific cases, as in applying a mathematical theorem to a particular problem or in citing a law or physics to predict the outcome of an experiment.
In a valid deductive argument, all of the content of the conclusion is present, at least implicitly, in the premises.
It is the chief type of reasoning used by early elementary students, and students must be shown the flaws in it by the use of cognitive conflict in order to learn to move past intuition towards induction and deduction.
wik.ed.uiuc.edu /index.php/Deductive_methods   (821 words)

 © Knowledge Solutions LLC 1997 - 2002 / Deductive Criminal Profiling
A Deductive Criminal Profile is one that is deduced from the careful forensic examination and behavioral reconstruction of a single offender's crime scene(s).
This is deductively suggested by the vehicle, the use of a secondary scene to dispose of the body to avoid transfer evidence, the removal of the victim's genitals, and the deliberate cutting to the victim's nipples intended to cause pain but not seriously injure.
Deductive Criminal Profiling is also useful for thoroughly establishing Modus Operandi behavior, as well as offender signature behavior, which assists in the linkage of seemingly unrelated crimes.
www.corpus-delicti.com /Profiling_law.html   (3446 words)

 Question Corner -- Deductive and Inductive Reasoning
Deductive reasoning is logically valid and it is the fundamental method in which mathematical facts are shown to be true.
Deductive reasoning, on the other hand, is the method you would use to demonstrate with logical certainty that the principle is true.
Although this principle is a form of reasoning that gets you to a general principle from some individual cases (which is the reason for the name "induction"), it does so in a precise and logically valid way that is really a form of deductive reasoning if viewed in the correct way.
www.math.toronto.edu /mathnet/plain/questionCorner/deductive.html   (751 words)

 Deductive reasoning
In traditional Aristotelian logic, deductive reasoning is inference in which the conclusion is of no greater generality than the premises, as opposed to abductive and inductive reasoning, where the conclusion is of greater generality than the premises.
Other theories of logic define deductive reasoning as inference in which the conclusion is just as certain as the premises, as opposed to inductive reasoning, where the conclusion can have less certainty than the premises.
In both approaches, the conclusion of a deductive inference is necessitated by the premises: the premises can't be true while the conclusion is false.
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/d/de/deductive_reasoning.html   (1487 words)

 Deductive reasoning
Deduction is used by scientists who take a general scientific law and apply it to a certain case.
Deductive reasoning assumes that the basic law from which you are arguing is applicable in all cases.
Using deductive reasoning usually is a credible and 'safe' form of reasoning, but is based on the assumed truth of the rule or law on which it is founded.
changingminds.org /disciplines/argument/types_reasoning/deduction.htm   (274 words)

 Deductive and Inductive Arguments [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
A deductive argument is an argument in which it is thought that the premises provide a guarantee of the truth of the conclusion.
For this reason, deductive arguments are usually limited to inferences that follow from definitions, mathematics and rules of formal logic.
Because the difference between inductive and deductive arguments involves the strength of evidence which the author believes the premises to provide for the conclusion, inductive and deductive arguments differ with regard to the standards of evaluation that are applicable to them.
www.iep.utm.edu /d/ded-ind.htm   (953 words)

 Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
"Deductive reasoning" refers to the process of concluding that something must be true because it is a special case of a general principle that is known to be true.
"Inductive reasoning" (not to be confused with "mathematical induction" or and "inductive proof", which is something quite different) is the process of reasoning that a general principle is true because the special cases you've seen are true.
If his steps and reasons were so far removed from anything remotely approaching GOOD algebraic reasoning, we may be quite tempted to feel that he did not use algebra but merely what he mistakenly thought was algebra.
www.ms.uky.edu /~rayens/USP00/terminology.html   (1247 words)

Deductive reasoning is reasoning from a set of known facts to a logical conclusion.
Furthermore, the reason subjects are inclined to use denying the antecedent is because in many cases that works, as in a rebate for a purchase.
Essentially, inductive reasoning is the process of drawing conclusions about broad classes of objects or events from a small number of examples.
www.andrew.cmu.edu /course/85-211b/Reasoning.html   (413 words)

 Clear Direction : Self-Understanding Made Simple
Deductive reasoning is narrower in nature and is focuses on testing or confirming hypotheses.
As a law from deductive reasoning, it is a few clearly defined elements making a simple equation that is universally applicable in thousands of different ways and to thousands of different situations.
These people are familiar with tools derived from deductive reasoning (like factor analysis or statistical validation) but because they have been unable to define the elements or the relationships pertaining to their disciplines with precision, they have all employed inductive reasoning to collect and develop useful tools.
www.cleardirection.com /docs/articles/indvdeduct.asp   (1673 words)

 What is Deductive Reasoning?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Deductive reasoning is one of the two basic forms of valid reasoning.
While inductive reasoning argues from the particular to the general, deductive reasoning argues from the general to a specific instance.
Because of the validity of deductive reasoning, we may make an assumption that is both useful and efficient.
www.wisegeek.com /what-is-deductive-reasoning.htm   (341 words)

 SparkNotes: Inductive and Deductive Reasoning: Deductive Reasoning
Deductive reasoning, unlike inductive reasoning, is a valid form of proof.
An instance of deductive reasoning might go something like this: a person knows that all the men in a certain room are bakers, that all bakers get up early to bake bread in the morning, and that Jim is in that specific room.
Deductive reasoning is the method by which conclusions are drawn in geometric proofs.
www.sparknotes.com /math/geometry3/inductiveanddeductivereasoning/section2.rhtml   (556 words)

 20th WCP: ‘Probabilist’ Deductive Inference in Gassendi's Logic
He proposes (quite reasonably) that our inductive inferences lack the information we would need to be certain of claims they suggest, and (a bit more surprisingly) that not even deductivist inference can insure our certainty about empirical claims because the experientially attained premises we adduce in support of such claims are no greater than probable.
And so he understands those cases as 'probabilistic' deductive reasoning which incorporates complete enumerations—where it is perhaps the key 'probabilistic' feature of such cases that the enumeration is truly tendered as complete.
The suggestion that a bit of reasoning is 'probabilistic' if it is deductivist in form and its premises have contingent truth-values has a curious result for Gassendi's picture of scientific method, namely, that all our empirical claims—even those he believes we reach by deductive inference—are probable at best.
www.bu.edu /wcp/Papers/Logi/LogiFish.htm   (2833 words)

 Logic Comes in Two Flavors
Deductive reasoning is the use of necessary inference to draw sure conclusions from premises.
Deductive reasoning is useful for proving things for sure — prove your doctrines from the Bible.
Inductive reasoning is useful, deductive reasoning is indispensable.
www.christianlogic.com /articles/logic_comes_in_two_flavors.htm   (1543 words)

 Deductive Reasoning « WordPress.com
In cases where deductive analysis leads to a logical dead end, thinking probabilistically is much better than giving up.
I prefer to start with deductive logic and then compliment with a probabilistic … more »
: In cases where deductive analysis leads to a logical dead end, thinking probabilistically is much better than giving up.
wordpress.com /tag/deductive-reasoning   (88 words)

 Deductive reasoning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Deductive reasoning is the kind of reasoning in which the conclusion is necessitated by, or reached from, previously known facts (the premises).
It is occasionally taught that deductive reasoning proceeds from the general to the particular, while inductive reasoning proceeds from the particular to the general.
There are deductively valid arguments that proceed from the particular to the general (Oscar is grouchy, therefore something is grouchy) and inductive arguments that proceed from the general to the particular (most Rice University students are smart, therefore this particular Rice University student is smart).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Deductive_reasoning   (1617 words)

 Inductive and Deductive Reasoning   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Deduction is in some sense the direct application of knowledge in the production of new knowledge.
In general, induction is more difficult than deduction because of both the addition of new semantic information and because the inferred concept may not be the correct one.
Combinations of inductive and/or deductive reasoning are present in most cognitive architectures that utilize a symbolic world model and are described in the individual architecture document with more specific capabilities such as planning and learning.
ai.eecs.umich.edu /cogarch0/common/capa/reason.html   (254 words)

In deductive reasoning, both the major premise and the minor premise are worded in such a way that the conclusion naturally and logically derives from combining a general statement with a more particular statement in reference to the same common terms.
o properly apply the process of deductive reasoning to legal analysis, we must carefully understand the techniques by which the major and minor premises are constructed.
The reason for this is that the transitory term (men) as used in BOTH premise statements is NOT universal.
www.samford.edu /schools/netlaw/dh2/logic/deductive.htm   (2893 words)

 Deductive Reasoning Ability, Error, and Education
Thus, to use an example from the empirical work on deductive competence by Ennis and Paulus (1965), one constructs a set of questions embodying what we know to be valid examples of modus ponens or contraposition and uses performance on these items as a measure of mastery or lack of mastery of these principles.
In another investigation, testing only six principles of deductive logic, it is possible to compare the results when data are interpreted from the standpoint of ordinary logic with what happens when it is assumed that respondents employ deviant rules of inference.
Educational debates about the existence of generalized reasoning skills seem to presuppose that if it were discovered, or established by argument, that unaccommodated man lacks such things that would be the end of the argument.
www.cavehill.uwi.edu /bnccde/epb/issa.html   (1804 words)

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