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# Topic: Deictic expression

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 Deixis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Pro-forms are generally considered to be deictics, but a finer distinction is often made between personal pro-forms such as I, you, and it (commonly referred to as personal pronouns) and pro-forms that refer to places and times such as now, then, here, there. Spatial deictics are often reused as anaphoric pro-forms that stand for phrases or propositions (that is, items of discourse, not items of the outside reality). Empathetic deixis: where different forms of the deictic are used to indicate the speaker's emotional closeness or distance from the referent. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Deixis   (733 words)

 Weblogs as Deictic Systems: Deixis The first two of these expressions are familiar ones; circulation itself has circulated as a key term in our field following the 2001 publication of John Trimbur's "Composition and the Circulation of Writing," and the canons remain one of our rhetorical inheritances from ancient Greece and Rome. Deictic terms address the immediate circumstances of their utterance, and as such, they are both immediate and temporary. Deictic terms do indeed address a specific time or place, and are thus transitory, but they must also address an audience capable of sharing that reference. inventio.us /deixis/archives/2005/06/deixis.html   (501 words)

 [No title] For example, the utterance of this in the expression of the communicative act "Speaker suggests the initiation of a joint activity +/- focussed on an object" was considered a fixed proform, although the word expressed the element of the "object" which potentially changes with specific circumstances. In many sentences, however, the expression chosen is a pronoun (mostly ze 'this'), namely, yet another expression that remains fixed despite changes in the specifics of the communicative situation. Expression of communicative intents in the single-word period and the vocabulary spurt. www.cs.huji.ac.il /~ninio/anat/pragmatic_keyword.txt   (8486 words)

 Bilyana Martinovski, Gothenburg University, Dept. of Linguistics, 1996. This paper offers a short analysis of the interactive functions of some deictic signs used in www in relation to written and spoken languageas well as a discussion on the semiotic nature of deictic signs used in world-wide-web pages and their educative functions. In this regard it is interesting to see how the www-deictic expressions or tools are related to the written and spoken language deictic expressions and what can there educative function be. Examples of these are deictic expressions such as "...as I mentioned above...", "...later in the text...", "shortly", "further on", etc. Their main function is to guide the listener or the reader through the narrative content by providing information about the organization of a text, usually by means of anaphoric and cataphoric cross-references. www.ling.gu.se /~biljana/web.html   (2658 words)

 Paper Template for ICSLP 2002 For some of the user’s referring expressions, the system corrected the user by using the expression that was to be modelled in an implicit or explicit confirmation. For example, descriptions like “the red apartment” or expressions like “this apartment” (including a mouse-click) were counted in the analysis, since they could be used to shift focus, but expressions like “it” (without a mouse-click) were not counted. The users in the deictic group used deictic expressions in 50% of their referring expressions, but that doesn’t mean that they alternated between different types of expressions; instead different users used different types consequently. www.speech.kth.se /~gabriel/publications/ICSLP2002/icslp_2002_gabriel_skantze.htm   (2984 words)

 Journal of Seventeenth-Century Music | Vol. 9 No. 1 | Calcagno: Monteverdi's parole sceniche   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01) Deictics do not characterize or qualify an object or a person, but, as the etymology of the word says, they “point to” someone or something, their function being that of situating human discourse. This gesture is embodied by human voice through deictics, i.e., words linking a linguistic utterance to its situation and anchoring the speaker and the hearer to the spatial and temporal coordinates of the speech event. Madrigalisms or expressions of the emotional content of single words or sentences must be complemented by an emphasis on those words of the text which point to the dramatic situation—who is singing, when, and where—occurring at the moment in which the sung words are uttered. sscm-jscm.press.uiuc.edu /jscm/v9/no1/Calcagno.html   (4716 words)

 Introduction For example, a deictic gesture accompanying the spoken words "that folder" may substitute for an expression that encodes all of the necessary information in the speech channel, such as "the folder on top of the stack to the left of my computer." Deictic gestures may provide the canonical example of the distribution of semantic information across the speech and gestural modalities but iconic gestures also demonstrate this propensity. For example, one might imagine the expression "she walked to the park" being replaced by the expression "she went to the park" with an accompanying walking gesture (i.e. www.soc.northwestern.edu /justine/publications/wigls.paper.html   (5284 words)

 Discourse, Knowledge and Ideology. Reformulating old questions.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01) Applied to his actual expressions and opinions, both his denial and his main standpoint can be found to be consistent with the ideological background of the newspaper and its writers. That is, even mere lexicalization is not just an expression of conceptualization based on knowledge, but more profoundly controlled by the ideologies that underlie such group or national knowledge on the one hand, and the ideologically controlled interpretation of the event, on the other hand. Finally, the expression the deadliest attack on the United States presupposes (historical) knowledge about previous attacks, and their victims, an item of knowledge that is public, but probably intertextual, having been used by experts (politicians, journalists or historians) before. www.discourse-in-society.org /LAUD2002.htm   (8246 words)

 [No title] Although the expressions for restricted quantifiers are an improvement over the simple connectives of classical logic, they do not provide an interpretation via truth tables. Deictic there be sentences pick out the location of the NP relative to the speaker. Deictic there is a locative adverb in that it specifies a location. www.ku.edu /~pyersqr/Ling331/Kearns4.htm   (2611 words)

 [No title] Several different approaches to this problem are outlined; one measure of their relative complexity is the complexity of the expressions which are allowed to fill the slots in the open sentences which formally specify the meaning of a markup language. A suitable set of deictic expressions, or a suitable small language for the construction of deictic expressions, will make it possible to capture, in sentence skeletons, the meaning of various common markup idioms which cannot be captured by the straw-man model. some set of deictic expressions which can be associated with the blanks in the sentence skeletons; in the discussion above, we have seen the need for expressions meaning "the contents of this element", "the value of this attribute", "the nearest ancestor of type bibl", etc. www.w3.org /People/cmsmcq/2000/mim.html   (6934 words)

 Speaking of Speech Acts The view that verbal expressions can be considered referring expressions would certainly not be supported by all linguists and philosophers including Searle, whose reference act only draws on nominals. Here is still used as an auto-deictic expression that expresses an identity relation with the speaker's co-ordinates, but it is the temporal standpoint of the speaker that is identified, i.e. The use of local expressions to convey temporal relations is not as unusual as it may at first seem. webdoc.sub.gwdg.de /edoc/ia/eese/artic97/lenz/5_97.html   (4776 words)

 Drawing inferences on the basis of markup Since these expressions typically âpointâ to other nearby markup structures, we refer to them as âdeictic expressionsâ; they express notions like âthe contents of this elementâ or âthe value of the âlangâ attribute on the nearest ancestor which has such a valueâ or âthe value of the â One experimental syntax for skeleton sentences uses Prolog notation for the structure of the sentences, a small XML vocabulary for the framework and for filling the blanks, and XPath as the language for the deictic expressions. The experimental syntax allows the creator of the skeleton sentences to specify the node from whose context the XPath expressions should be evaluated, by embedding the skeleton sentences within larger structures, which themselves identify element types by means of XSLT match patterns. www.mulberrytech.com /Extreme/Proceedings/xml/2002/CMSMcQ01/EML2002CMSMcQ01.xml   (7313 words)

 Early / Emergent Literacy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01) It is noticeable that in order to describe the conversational implicature involved in Laura's statement, we had to appeal to some background knowledge (about exams, studying and partying) that must be shared by the conversational participants. Deictic Expression: words that cannot be interpreted at all unless the context, especially the physical context of the speaker, is known. Presupposition: when a speaker uses a deictic expression like "here" in a normal sentence, she is working with an assumption that the hearer knows which location is intended. hsc.unm.edu /cdd/module_1/3.shtml   (2399 words)

 Indexicality and Deixis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01) To say that demonstrations are part of the deictic component of these expressions means that they are associated with the index or demonstratum rather than the referent. If anything, the point should be more obvious with these expressions, since it is well known that their references are generally regions of indefinite extent that include the time or place of speaking. In fact contextual expressions are often not properly indicative, in that even when their values are determined by the utterance context, their meanings may figure in the utterance content. www-csli.stanford.edu /~nunberg/deix.html   (12745 words)

 078: Inverse / Topic The deictic nature of these patterns is self-evident--in both Nocte and Cree, verbal morphology is obligatorily responsive to a fundamental distinction between the speech act participants and all other participants. Inverse marking languages came into theoretical prominence during the heyday of Relational Grammar, for which their peculiar use of verb agreement, which is normally thought of as a perquisite of subjecthood, and the formal similarity of inverse and passive constructions, formed a particularly intriguing puzzle, which still captures the attention formal theoreticians. The typological patterns exemplified above vary in their structural expression, which is some combination of case marking on A arguments, indexation in the verb or a pronominal clitic bundle, and morphological marking of the verb for inverse (and, sometimes, direct and local) status. darkwing.uoregon.edu /~delancey/sb/LECT7-8.htm   (5030 words)

 HLW: Word Meanings: Deixis and Person There are question marks in the Location and Time roles because we don't know what these are, and the number at the end of "utterance" is meant to indicate that this a particular utterance, not the general prototype for utterances shown in the previous two figures. You is an example of a deictic expression, an expression that gets its meaning directly from the utterance context, that make reference to one or more of the roles in the utterance context: the Speaker, the Hearer, the location, or the time. None of these references seems to be deictic either since their meanings do not seem to depend on the utterance context, on who says the sentence to whom and on when and where it is said. www.indiana.edu /~hlw/Meaning/deixis.html   (1805 words)

 a deictic expression (1 May 2006, Interconnected) Deictic signs are often useful--"you are here," "next bus in 10 minutes," "campground 200 yards ahead on the right"--but so too are less indexical representations ("4421 Hingston Avenue; 5.13 A.M. Wednesday, November 29, 1950"). In particular, the problem with deictic signs in that the original difficult recurs: as soon as you drive off and become separated from the sign, it can no longer be immediate [...] As a result, complex cascades of registration, more and less deictic, are often useful, and sometimes essential. Or, more fully: you remember where the map is; the map "remembers" the directions to the road that runs by the lake; once there, effectively accessible (encounterable) road signs indicate the turnoff for the campground; at the campground addition (deictic) signs indicate exactly where to pitch your tent. interconnected.org /home/2006/05/01/a_deictic_expression   (420 words)

 [No title] The expression of spatial location would appear to be one of the most fundamental semantic notions common to all humans. The deictic phrase in (2) points to a located object relative to a reference object – the speaker. The distance between the located and reference objects in expressions of proximity depends on the properties of the objects. www.ku.edu /~pyersqr/Ling331/Space2.htm   (2410 words)

 LINGUIST List 6.11: Names for days Upon further examination, I discovered that the Japanese deictic system for diurnal units does seem to be symmetrical; it has +3 and -3 either side of the present diurnal span. The expression siasatte/yanoasatte' meaning +3 days from "today" is not known to quite an number of native speakers of Japanese. A language with an asymmetrical temporal deictic system may be in the process of historical change and the gap' plugged in due time. www.ling.ed.ac.uk /linguist/issues/6/6-11.html   (1563 words)

 [No title] Deixis and its expression in various linguistic categories is an old and well©known concept in semantic analysis, but it is seldom invoked in syntactic analysis. Inverses have both typological and diachronic connections with other phenomena which are fundamentally concerned with the functional domain of deictic orientation. Viewed from this perspective, the "semantic" inverse can be seen to be primary, and to the extent that some "pragmatic" constructions may be connected to the classic inverse pattern, it is probable that they represent extension of an originally deictic pattern. darkwing.uoregon.edu /~delancey/sb/LECT7-8.DOC   (7845 words)

 [No title] Also used in logic, in the sense of one or more formulas joined by \glossaryterm{logical connectives}.} \item[\gn{co-reference}]{The phenomenon of two expressions in a sentence or discourse that refer to the same individual; e.g.\ {\em John} and {\em he} co-refer in {\em John entered the room. For example, \liceg{birds fly} is a default rule, because it's generally true, but there are exceptions: penguins, dead birds, birds with broken wings etc. Default reasoning is the reasoning we do with such rules. See page~\pageref{penguin-principle-page} for some intuitively compelling patterns of default reasoning, involving default rules.} \item[\gn{deictic}]{A deictic expression points'' at something in the world.} \item[\gn{defeasible}]{A conclusion is defeasible if information we acquire later may cause us no longer to believe the conclusion. www.cogsci.ed.ac.uk /~keith/HC1H/CourseText/CourseText/l2hfiles.adapted.dat   (4949 words)

 Drawing inferences on the basis of markup In existing markup systems, as in the imaginary vocabulary being used in the purchase order example, the appropriate values for variables are often to be taken from whatever occurs in the document at a specific location. Deictic expressions within the rule are marked by de elements, which carry an attribute whose value is an XPath expression. The term deictic expression comes from traditional grammar, where it is used to denote pointing expressions like “this one over here” or “that one over there” — from the Greek word deixis, for pointing. www.mulberrytech.com /Extreme/Proceedings/html/2002/CMSMcQ01/EML2002CMSMcQ01.html   (6621 words)

 YourArt.com >> Encyclopedia >> here   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01) In English, here can function as a pronoun, an adverb, and in some dialects as an adjective. It is a deictic expression involving deixis of space - that is to say, its referent is dependent on the location in which it is uttered. It comes from Old English hÄ“r, in which language it finds use in the meaning "at this time" as well as the meaning "in this place". www.yourart.com /research/encyclopedia.cgi?subject=/here   (757 words)

 NORM Pavel Tichý argues that a descriptive phrase is a genuine referring expression, but its referent is the descriptive determiner itself rather than the entity picked out by it. The full blooded reproduction of the Fregean assertive content cannot reduce the contribution of referring expressions to it to their reference but must be sensitive to their sense: and this obviously differs in (11) and (12). Provided that we analyze (14) as an identity statement and that we take the deictic expression "this man", uttered with a pointing gesture, as referring to the man picked out by the gesture, it is obvious that if (12) collapses to (13), then (14) must collapse to (13), too. nb.vse.cz /kfil/elogos/logpoint/93-2/TICHY1.htm   (6274 words)

 Meaning and Interpretation of Markup We refer to nodes with numeric path expressions. The meaning of every element type is expressed by a one-argument predicate whose argument identifies the contents of the element (in our illustrative notation, the argument is the path expression for the element or for any descendant of the element). Equivalently, we can say that the meaning of each element type can be described by an open sentence whose single unbound variable is to be bound to the contents of the element. www.gca.org /attend/2000_conferences/Extreme_2000/Papers/Sperberg-MccQueen/mimslides.htm   (993 words)

 ANTH 3/LING 3 - Exercises and Reading Explanations 30  Deictic = A word, the determination of whose referent is dependent on the context in which it is said or written. In the sentence I want him to come here now, the words I, here, him, and now are deictic because the determination of their referents depends on who says that sentence, and where, when, and of whom it is said. Quinn agrees about that general causal chain (cultureàconceptsàspeech), but she believes there to be more of a disconnect between the particular metaphor chosen and the way the speaker thinks about a topic. bernard.pitzer.edu /~cstrauss/linganth/exercises.htm   (6244 words)

 Introduction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01) The development of knowledge-based systems for natural language descriptions of image sequences includes the problem of defining a computational semantics of natural language expressions which describe spatial relations. Though path expressions have been discussed from a linguistic point of view, they have not yet been implemented in a system like those mentioned above. If the deictic expression von hier aus'' (from here) is added to the first question, CITYTOUR considers the passenger's position instead of the front side of the reference object and returns the answer Ja, die Sparkasse befindet sich direkt hinter dem Rathaus von hier aus.''(Yes, the bank is directly behind the town hall from here.). www.dfki.de /vitra/papers/ecai86/node1.html   (450 words)

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