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Topic: Democracy Wall Movement


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In the News (Sun 21 Jul 19)

  
  Democracy Wall Movement - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Democracy Wall was a long brick wall on Chang'an street in the Xidan District of Beijing, which became the focus for democratic dissent.
Beginning in December 1978, in line with the Chinese Communist Party's policy of "seeking truth from facts," activists in the democracy movement recorded news and ideas, often in the form of big-character posters (dazibao), during a period known as the Beijing Spring.
After the establishment of democracy in 1990, the square became a rallying point for protesters; but the wall itself was demolished by the city government in August 2005, six months after Gyanendra of Nepal dismissed the elected government and assumed direct power himself.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Democracy_Wall_Movement   (294 words)

  
 Democracy Wall Movement   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Democracy Wall movement activists were silenced, and the rights to publish, speak, associate, and assemble freely guaranteed in the constitution were treated as criminal acts.
Although the Democracy Wall activists employed the same methods of wall posters, pamphlets, open debates and establishing their own networks, that they had used when Mao summoned them to rebel against authority in the Cultural Revolution, their goals were different.
Several of the participants in the Democracy Wall movement joined the 1986 movement for political rights, which started at the University of Science and Technology in Anhui and moved up the coast until it was suppressed when it sought to enter Tiananmen Square, the symbolic center of political authority in China.
www.fas.harvard.edu /~asiactr/haq/199903/9903a007.htm   (3265 words)

  
 Free-TermPapers.com - Democracy Movements In China
Many of the views expressed during the Democracy Wall movement regarding the corruption of the party and its lack of legitimacy as a representative of the people are directly related to the main concerns of the Cultural Revolution Rebels and indeed many of the same people, both workers and former students were involved.
When questioned about democracy wall by overseas visitors he reaffirmed more than once that the Chinese people had every right to express their views and that the CCP was not in the least concerned with the criticism in the posters.
Democracy Wall activists had stood for election to the local people's congresses in 1980 and had made a very good showing despite party harassment and intimidation of them and their supporters.
www.free-termpapers.com /tp/36/pwr130.shtml   (4282 words)

  
 Walls   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The wall was intended to replace Hadrians Wall 160 km (100 miles) to the south, but while the Romans did establish temporary forts and camps north of the wall, they never managed to conquer the Picts and Celtic tribes, and the Antonine Wall suffered many attacks.
The Antonine Wall was inferior to Hadrians Wall in terms of scale and construction, but it was still an impressive achievement, considering that it was completed in only two years, at the northern edge of the Roman empire in a cold and hostile land.
The wall was typically an earth bank, about 4 meters high, with a wide ditch on the north side, and a Roman road or road on the south.
read-and-go.hopto.org /Walls   (359 words)

  
 Chinese Democracy in 1989
Although the movement crossed a major watershed in 1989, when many intellectuals gave up hope that the regime of Deng Xiaoping was capable of reforming itself politically from within, both before and after June 4, the democratic movement of 1989 retained strong continuities in personnel, goals, and tactics with its predecessors.
That the democracy movement's mainstream was not anti-communist does not, however, gainsay the fact that a fundamental conflict existed between the democrats and the regime over the nature of socialist democracy, as well as over the pace of progress toward it.
The student movement thus emerged against the background of a general crisis in the regime and a specific crisis in relations between the regime and the intellectuals.
www.tsquare.tv /themes/Nathan.html   (7967 words)

  
 Charlie Hore: China - Whose Revolution? (China since Mao)
They built the movement around a set of general demands: for greater democracy, the release and rehabilitation of all those imprisoned during the Cultural Revolution, the sacking of those responsible for the suppression of the 1976 riots, and an end to censorship.
The “Democracy Wall” at the centre of this area became an arena for non-stop debates on politics, art and culture.
The history of previous opposition movements has shown that while the state has been able to contain and to crush them, their ideas and aspirations have survived in memory to become inspirations for the next round of struggle.
www.marxists.de /china/hore/04-since.htm   (3936 words)

  
 Events
Like Wei, he resumed his advocacy of democracy and was arrested once again, held incommunicado for 17 months, and then sentenced to 11 years imprisonment in a pro forma trial that characteristically violated normal standards of justice.
Wang Dan is an advocate of a "peaceful and rational" democracy movement based upon the recognition that "the realization of democracy is a long-term and difficult process" requiring patience and tenacity.
For this reason, and for their courage and steadfastness in the cause of democracy, the National Endowment for Democracy is proud to present its Democracy Award to Wei Jingsheng and Wang Dan.
www.ned.org /events/demaward/demaward1998.html   (325 words)

  
 Meaning of 1989 Democracy Movement   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The 1989 Democracy Movement did not constitute the beginning of China's journey toward democracy but a mark of progress on that journey.
Past democracy movements in China always focused on governmental authority, risked the expansion of authority to achieve the goal of promoting democracy, or petitioned the government in hopes of triggering a top-down reform.
As a result, past movements have neglected the fact that the construction of the civil society can affect the autonomy of the movement itself.
www.fas.harvard.edu /~asiactr/haq/199903/9903a008.htm   (695 words)

  
 Washingtonpost.com: China Special Report
Most scholars trace the beginnings of China's modern democracy movement to the decline and death of Mao Zedong in 1976.
The crushing of the democracy movement in Tiananmen Square left its leadership severely weakened.
China released Democracy Wall activist Wei Jingsheng in 1993 only to arrest him again in 1994 for plotting to overthrow the government.
washingtonpost.com /wp-srv/inatl/longterm/china/overview/democracy.htm   (945 words)

  
 Untitled Document
Wei's Democracy Wall movement manifesto, "Democracy: The Fifth Modernization," posted on December 5, 1978, is one of the most cogent and uncompromising documents to come out of the movement.
Democracy is not what Lenin says, a mere consequence of a certain stage of development of society.
The fact that democracy succeeds in defeating all these obstacles shows how dear it is to the people; it is the embodiment of all their hopes, which endows it with the irresistible impetus of a tidal wave.
www.upf.es /materials/huma/central/historia/xinaXXI/blochist/docums/jingshen.htm   (3401 words)

  
 BBC News | Special Reports | China's Communist Revolution
Beijing democracy activists were allowed to record news and ideas on a designated wall in the city from December 1978.
In line with the party's new policy of "seeking truth from facts," the activists were encouraged to criticise the Gang of Four and failed government policies.
Two of the more prominent leaders of the poster movement were placed on public trial and given heavy jail sentences.
news.bbc.co.uk /hi/english/static/special_report/1999/09/99/china_50/democ.htm   (109 words)

  
 XVth EACS-Conference - Abstracts - Section D: Modern History and Society
The Democracy Wall Movement in Beijing 1978-1980 is generally regarded as the starting point of the contemporary mainland Chinese democracy movement.
Thus far, most Western research made on the Movement has concentrated on the nature of democratic reforms the Movement’s activists were proposing and emphasised the influence liberal democratic ideas had in the Democracy Wall Movement.
The findings indicate that the public image of the individual participants used in the justification of the Democracy Wall Movement was closely connected to the modes of self-perception and its public display that had been dominant during the Cultural Revolution and belonged to the longer Chinese communist folklore of revolutionary heroism.
sun.sino.uni-heidelberg.de /eacs2004/content/abstracts/section-d.php?section=6   (7543 words)

  
 WEI JINGSHENG
His first visit filled him with inspiration: in a single night he wrote his celebrated essay, "The Fifth Modernization-Democracy." With virtually no revisions, it was posted on Democracy Wall by a friend at 2 o'clock in the morning of December 5, 1978.
But as Democracy Wall activists began to go beyond the limited role he had envisaged for them and to criticize China's whole political system, Deng began to reconsider this alliance of convenience.
This was "The Fifth Modernization-Democracy," signed with the pen-name Wei Jingsheng was to use throughout the Democracy Wall movement, Jin Sheng (golden voice).
www.echonyc.com /~wei/Story.html   (1076 words)

  
 mainland China - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about mainland China   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In April 1998, Wang Dan, a leader of the dissident student protest movement in 1989, was released from prison on medical grounds and allowed to leave for the USA.
In July 1999, China banned the Falun Gong (‘Wheel of Law’), a spiritual movement founded in 1992 that preached salvation from an immoral world and practised a form of martial arts and meditation known as qigong.
The ban followed a silent vigil in Beijing in April, by 10,000 members of the movement in protest against what they claimed was official harassment.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /mainland+China   (6058 words)

  
 Essay Depot - Ideologies of the Democracy Movement in China
Democracy had two major components in China: ‘democratic dictatorship,’ and ‘democratic centralism.’ The former aspect held that “the people” were the ruling class, while the “others” were the enemies--democracy would be granted to the people, while dictatorship would be held over the enemy.
Without a comprehensive understanding of democracy, ‘like their predecessors at the turn of the century, the students seemed to have an overly optimistic view of what democracy could deliver.” It is argued that the students were merely dissatisfied with the country’s slow pace in change.
Also, the democracy movement of 1989 was based on the same notion of democracy as the previous movements.
www.essaydepot.com /essayme/1069   (3037 words)

  
 Human Rights Watch Interview with Wang Juntao (June 1999)
He stayed active in reform politics, including the Democracy Wall Movement (1979-81), while a student in the physics department at Beijing University.
Captured in late October 1989, Wang was sentenced in February 1991 to a thirteen-year prison term as a "fl hand" of the democracy movement.
The good side is that the focus on civil and political rights in line with international standards has meant support from the international community and thus some space to dissidents to expand their understanding and ideas.
www.hrw.org /campaigns/china-99/wangjuntao.htm   (906 words)

  
 [No title]
Veteran activist of 1978-79 Democracy Wall movement and signatory of "Blood" petition.
Lu, 28, is a former student of the Hainan Mining Institute and was an active participant in the 1989 pro-democracy movement.
Veteran activist of the 1979 Democracy Wall Movement and member of the April 5 Forum, Xu, 45, has been imprisoned twice for his pro-democracy activities for a total of 12 years.
www.christusrex.org /www1/sdc/victims.html   (1274 words)

  
 Democracy Wall - China Mainland - June 4th Tiananmen Memorial
Democracy is not a moral state of people consciousness, it is only the overstructure of the result of an high economical development.
Democracy is an unavoidable conseguence of a " pure " model of an even (smooth) economic development, it is her most suitable political folder.
Democracy is not a safely guarantteed gift of the Comunist Party of China for the Chinese people and it is currenly an orphane unless nurtured with care by the Chinese people themselves.
books.dreambook.com /vead/tiananmen2.html   (8962 words)

  
 PEN American Center - Liu Jingsheng
He was born around 1950, and played a leading role in the Democracy Wall movement of the late 1970s; this involvement led to a theft charge and his arrest, along with Wei, for producing and distributing their journal.
On May 28, 1992, Liu was arrested as one of the "Beijing Fifteen," the largest group of Chinese labor and democracy activists to be tried since the prosecutions of the 1989 protestors came to be known.
Liu and the others were detained incommunicado for two years until their trial in July 1994, at which he was found guilty of membership in counter- revolutionary organizations, most notably the Chinese Progressive Alliance, Liberal Democratic Party of China, and Free Labor Union of China (a group which calls for increased workers' rights).
www.pen.org /page.php/prmID/416   (317 words)

  
 International Day of Action for Tibet
This action later led to the Democracy Wall movement and was the precursor of the more widely known 1989 Tiananmen Square Democracy Movement.
Xu Wenli, re-arrested in the recent crackdown on Chinese dissent, was originally imprisoned in the late seventies through the early nineties for being intimately involved in the Democracy Wall Movement and for publishing "The April 5th Forum" out of his home during this time.
In Reebok's words, "she is a symbol of freedom of expression, an extraordinary woman who continues to non-violently advance the cause of humans rights at the cost of her own personal freedom and safety." Phuntsog Nyidron is currently suffering from kidney problems.
www.rtis.com /reg/bcs/pol/touchstone/april99/tibet.html   (715 words)

  
 Brief Profiles of Some Notable Chinese Dissidents   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Liu was involved in the 1989 student-led pro-democracy movement.
He was jailed for 10 years for counter-revolutionary activities stemming from his role in the 1978-79 democracy movement, but had already served three years before his sentence was handed down.
Xu was arrested in 1981 for calling for democracy in China and for defending Wei after his arrest in 1979.
www.pacificnet.net /jue/chopsuey/docs/profiles.html   (1400 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Originally jailed in 1979 for his participation in the Democracy Wall movement, it was his direct, unrepentant challenges to the Communist Party that drew the attention of the populace, as well as the authorities.
Days were spent writing long, critical letters to the political leadership and, upon his brief release in 1993, he immediately continued his work for the democracy movement through publications and interviews with the media.
Wei Jingsheng, now forced to live in exile, continues to work abroad on human rights and democracy issues in China, for the sake of those in prison, and for the sake of those denied their freedom of statement in his own homeland.
www.artsforamnestyinternational.org /Pict026.htm   (226 words)

  
 DON’T ROCK THE BOAT
Xu earlier served 12 years in prison, much of it in solitary confinement for his involvement in the Democracy Wall movement of the late 1970s.
The crackdown intensified last month when police arrested Xu and Qin Yongmin, another veteran of the Democracy Wall movement, and announced charges against Wang, who was already in custody.
Wei Jingsheng, Xu's colleague from the Democracy Wall era, protested the sentences during a visit to Taiwan on Monday, saying "The Chinese Communist authorities' behaviour is totally unrestrained and irrational."
www.lockstockandbarrel.org /news/dont_rock_the_boat.htm   (861 words)

  
 Chinese activist opposes Nobel prize for dissident   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
He said any prize should be shared by the people of China as a whole for their role in the struggle for greater political freedom.
Wei, serving a 14-year jail term, is regarded as the father of China's modern democracy movement and has been nominated several times in recent years for the Nobel Peace Prize.
Wei's first jail term stemmed from his role in the Democracy Wall movement, a 1978-79 campaign that was used and then crushed by the late paramount leader Deng Xiaoping.
www.christusrex.org /www2/news-old/4-97/wei.html   (373 words)

  
 II Journal: An ii Interview with Visting Artist Bei Dao: Poet in exile
It enabled him to say: ``Here are the voices of the people, and they are on my side.'' And so Deng encouraged the Democracy Wall movement for a while, but once he came into power he stopped the movement.
But part of it is probably that the authorities saw a continuity between the 1978 Democracy Wall Movement, when Jintian was launched, and the events of 1989.
Some of my poems were circulated by students during the democracy movement in 1989, and this might have also played a part.
www.umich.edu /~iinet/journal/vol2no1/v2n1_Bei_Dao.html   (3581 words)

  
 Introducing Wei Jingsheng: A Chinese Voice of Conscience
This piece, entitled "The Fifth Modernization - Democracy," rejected the idea that the Chinese people could entrust change to enlightened leaders, asserting that only with real participation in the political process could the people come to enjoy the rights and freedoms to which they were entitled.
By the time Wei's last piece appeared almost five months after the Democracy Wall movement had begun, he was convinced that the authorities intended to suppress the dissident voices to which it had given rise.
One of his first visits was to Ding Zilin, a People's University professor who had lost her 17-year-old son in the 1989 military assault on Tiananmen Square and was working both to collect the names of the dead and wounded and to help them and their families.
www.echonyc.com /~wei/Intro.html   (1005 words)

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