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Topic: Dentate gyrus


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In the News (Mon 22 Jul 19)

  
  Neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus of the Adult Tree Shrew Is Regulated by Psychosocial Stress and NMDA Receptor ...
are observed in the dentate gyrus, predominantly in the sgz.
BrdU in the dentate gyrus of the subordinate animal.
Kuhn HG, Dickinson-Anson H, Gage FH (1996) Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult rat: age-related decrease in neuronal progenitor population.
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/full/17/7/2492   (5597 words)

  
 Dentate gyrus - Psychology Wiki - A Wikia wiki
The granule cells, principal excitatory neurons in the dentate gyrus, receive inputs from areas in the neocortex.
The dentate gyrus is also one of the few regions of the brain where neurogenesis takes place.
parietal lobe: postcentral sulcus, postcentral gyrus (1, 2, 3, 43), superior parietal lobule (5), inferior parietal lobule (39-angular gyrus, 40), precuneus (7), intraparietal sulcus
psychology.wikia.com /wiki/Dentate_gyrus   (595 words)

  
 BioMed Central | Full text | An extrahippocampal projection from the dentate gyrus to the olfactory tubercle
The dentate gyrus (Dt) may be known best for its input from the entorhinal cortex and its mossy fiber projection to the CA3 [1-3].
Extrahippocampal projections from the dentate gyrus, however, are not known with the exception from some septal projecting neurons in the DtHi [22-25] usually considered displaced cells of CA3 [1,21].
Mott DD, Turner DA, Okazaki MM, Lewis DV: Interneurons of the dentate-hilus of the rat dentate gyrus: Morphological and electrophysiological heterogeneity.
www.biomedcentral.com /1471-2202/6/38   (4147 words)

  
 CA3-Released Entorhinal Seizures Disclose Dentate Gyrus Epileptogenicity and Unmask a Temporoammonic Pathway -- ...
ictal and interictal discharges in the entorhinal cortex, dentate
in the entorhinal cortex and the dentate gyrus (Fig.
Jones, R.S.G., and Lambert, J.D.C. The role of excitatory amino acid receptors in the propagation of epileptiform discharges from the entorhinal cortex to the dentate gyrus in vitro.
jn.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/83/3/1115   (4560 words)

  
 A light and electron microscopic analysis of the mossy fibers of the rat dentate gyrus.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Except for an occasional collateral that is given off by a mossy fiber in the proximal part of field CA3 of the hippocampus, the collaterals of the granule cell axons are confined to the hilar region; they are rarely seen in the granule cell layer itself and have never been observed in the molecular layer.
In the longitudinal dimension of the dentate gyrus, most of the collaterals are contained within a zone about 400 microns wide.
A diagram of the dentate gyrus and proximal portion of the hippocampus to summarize the major synaptic relationships of the mossy fibers.
www.utsa.edu /claibornelab/Compneuro_1986.html   (1962 words)

  
 Olympus FluoView Resource Center: Confocal Gallery - Rat Brain Tissue Sections
The dentate gyrus is one of the components of the hippocampal formation, a telencephalic structure chiefly situated in the temporal lobe that functions in learning and memory consolidation.
The strata of the dentate gyrus include molecular, granule cell, and polymorphic layers, though the rest of the hippocampal formation features a pyramidal layer in place of the granule cell stratum.
The granule cells of the dentate gyrus primarily receive input from the entorhinal cortex, a part of the limbic association cortex that accepts signals from higher-order association areas of the cerebral cortex and other areas of the limbic association cortex.
www.olympusfluoview.com /gallery/ratbrain/dentategyrus.html   (663 words)

  
 Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus - Nature Neuroscience
Kuhn, H. G., Dickinson-Anson, H. and Gage, F. Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult rat: age-related decrease of neuronal progenitor proliferation.
Gould, E. and Cameron, H. Regulation of neuronal birth, migration and death in the rat dentate gyrus.
Dentate granule neurogenesis is increased by seizures and contributes to aberrant network reorganization in the adult hippocampus.
www.nature.com /neuro/journal/v2/n3/full/nn0399_266.html   (3867 words)

  
 Dentate gyrus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The dentate gyrus is part of the hippocampal formation.
The major input to the dentate gyrus (the so-called perforant pathway) is from layer 2 of the entorhinal cortex, and the dentate gyrus receives no direct inputs from other cortical structures.
The medial perforant path synapses onto the proximal dendritic area of the granule cells, while the lateral perforant path does so onto the distal dendrites of these same cells.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Dentate_gyrus   (452 words)

  
 Quantitative, three-dimensional analysis of granule cell dendrites in the rat dentate gyrus.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The dendritic tree was organized so that, on average, 30% of the length was in the granule cell layer and proximal third of the molecular layer, 30% was in the middle third, and 40% was in the distal third.
Comparisons were made between the dendrites of granule cells in the suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal blades of the dentate gyrus.
In a1 and b1, the cells are viewed in the transverse plane of the dentate gyrus (i.e.
www.utsa.edu /claibornelab/Compneuro_1990.html   (1053 words)

  
 How brain injury leads to seizures, memory problems
The dentate gyrus is a gatekeeper in maintaining a balance between two systems of neurotransmitters in the brain: the glutamate system and the gamma-aminobutyric acid system, abbreviated GABA(A).
In addition to its role in inhibiting seizures, the dentate gyrus is also believed to be important in memory formation.
Therefore, said Dr. Cohen, "Interfering with normal function in the dentate gyrus may impair memory formation--especially antegrade memory, the ability to learn new things." Epileptic seizures and impaired memory are two of the disabilities caused by TBI.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2006-10/chop-hbi101806.php   (566 words)

  
 NEUROSCIENCE : Daniel Lowenstein   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
First, we are studying the factors that influence the remodeling of dentate granule cells and their axons, a phenomenon that occurs both in human temporal lobe epilepsy as well as different experimental models of epilepsy.
We have recently determined that seizures induce the birth of new neurons in other brain regions beyond the dentate gyrus, and we are exploring the determinants of neuronal birth, migration and survival in this setting.
Dentate granule cell neurogenesis is increased by seizures and contributes to aberrant network plasticity in the adult rat hippocampus.
www.ucsf.edu /neurosc/faculty/neuro_lowenstein.html   (753 words)

  
 Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus - Nature Medicine
The presence of progenitor cells in the human dentate gyrus, reported here, indicates that these cells also may be used for in vitro and in vivo studies of cell differentiation and possibly subsequent transplantation studies.
Kuhn, H.G., Dickinson-Anson, H. and Gage, F.H. Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult rat: Age-related decrease of neuronal progenitor proliferation.
Cameron, H.A., Woolley, C.S., McEwen, B.S. and Gould, E. Differentiation of newly born neurons and glia in the dentate gyrus of the adult rat.
www.nature.com /nm/journal/v4/n11/full/nm1198_1313.html   (3679 words)

  
 Reelin Controls Granule Cell Migration in the Dentate Gyrus by Acting on the Radial Glial Scaffold -- Frotscher et al. ...
dentate gyrus, as is known for the dentate gyrus of rodents.
Houser CR (1990) Granule cell dispersion in the dentate gyrus of humans with temporal lobe epilepsy.
Stanfield BB, Cowan WM (1979) The morphology of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus in normal and reeler mice.
cercor.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/13/6/634   (3959 words)

  
 Medical Dictionary: Dentate gyrus - WrongDiagnosis.com
Dentate gyrus : gray matter situated above the gyrus hippocampi; composed of three layers; molecular layer is continuous with the hippocampus in the hippocampal fissure; granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called granule cells, whose axons pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the dendrites of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus.
The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure.
The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called granule cells, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus.
www.wrongdiagnosis.com /medical/dentate_gyrus.htm   (289 words)

  
 Experience-Induced Neurogenesis in the Senescent Dentate Gyrus -- Kempermann et al. 18 (9): 3206 -- Journal of ...
New neurons are continuously born in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation in adult mammals.
Gould E, McEwen BS, Tanapat P, Galea LAM, Fuchs E (1997) Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult tree shrew is regulated by psychosocial stress and NMDA receptor activation.
Kuhn HG, Dickinson-Anson H, Gage FH (1996) Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult rat: age-related decrease of neuronal progenitor proliferation.
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/full/18/9/3206   (5507 words)

  
 Lipopolysaccharide Inhibits Long Term Potentiation in the Rat Dentate Gyrus by Activating Caspase-1 -- Vereker et al. ...
The addition of KCl to synaptosomes prepared from untetanized dentate gyrus of LPS-injected rats failed to enhance release, whereas the response was attenuated in synaptosomes prepared from tetanized tissue.
that LTP in dentate gyrus in vivo was inhibited by hydrogen peroxide.
Several reports indicate that LTP in dentate gyrus is accompanied by an increase in release of glutamate (26, 43-45).
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/275/34/26252   (5438 words)

  
 Entorhinal cortex of the monkey: V. Projections to the dentate gyrus, hippocampus, and subicular complex.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Entorhinal cortex of the monkey: V. Projections to the dentate gyrus, hippocampus, and subicular complex.
The topographic and laminar organization of entorhinal projections to the dentate gyrus, hippocampus, and subicular complex was investigated in the Macaca fascicularis monkey.
Injections of the retrograde tracers Fast blue, Diamidino yellow, and wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) were also placed into the dentate gyrus, hippocampus, and subicular complex, and the distribution of retrogradely labeled cells in the entorhinal cortex was plotted using a computer-aided digitizing system.
brainmeta.com /neuroanat/a104.html   (264 words)

  
 Impaired long-term potentiation induction in dentate gyrus of calretinin-deficient┬ámice -- Schurmans et al. 94 (19): ...
layer of the dentate gyrus or in the stratum radiatum of the CA1
Induction of LTP Is Impaired in the Dentate Gyrus of Cr
excitability in dentate gyrus was not affected by the absence
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/94/19/10415   (4623 words)

  
 Reelin is a positional signal for the lamination of dentate granule cells -- Zhao et al. 131 (20): 5117 -- Development
The rat dentate outer molecular layer was co-cultured next to the reeler dentate gyrus to provide the reeler dentate gyrus with a reelin-containing zone in normotopic position.
dentate gyrus, or onto the hilar region of the wild-type mouse,
Only hilar neurons in the reeler mouse dentate gyrus are immunoreactive, indicating that these neurons do not participate in the formation of the densely packed cell layer (as a species difference, hilar mossy cells in the rat are not calretinin-positive).
dev.biologists.org /cgi/content/full/131/20/5117   (6773 words)

  
 Hippocampus - Psychology Wiki - A Wikia wiki
The main output pathways of the hippocampus are the perforant path, the cingulum bundle, and the fimbria/fornix, which all arise from field CA1 and the subiculum.
Perforant path input from EC layer II enters the dentate gyrus and is relayed to region CA3 (and to mossy cells, located in the hilus of the dentate gyrus, which then send information to distant portions of the dentate gyrus where the cycle is repeated).
Amygdala - Cingulate gyrus - Fornicate gyrus -
psychology.wikia.com /wiki/Hippocampus   (1253 words)

  
 Effects of T-588, a Cognitive Enhancer Compound, on Synaptic Plasticity in the Dentate Gyrus of Freely Moving Rats -- ...
Note that the stimulating electrode was implanted in layer II of the entorhinal cortex (A), and the recording electrode was implanted in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus (B).
Halasy K and Somogyi P (1993) Subdivisions in the multiple GABAergic innervation of granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampus.
Joy RM and Albertson TE (1993) NMDA receptors have a dominant role in population spike-paired pulse facilitation in the dentate gyrus of urethane-anesthetized rats.
jpet.aspetjournals.org /cgi/content/full/298/1/354   (5201 words)

  
 Orphanin FQ Suppresses NMDA Receptor-Dependent Long-Term Depression and Depotentiation in Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus -- ...
Physiological identification and analysis of the dentate granule cell responses to stimulation of the medial and lateral perforant pathways in the rat.
Metabotropic glutamate receptor-induced homosynaptic long-term depression and depotentiation in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampus in vitro.
Role of protein kinase C in the induction of homosynaptic long-term depression by brief low frequency stimulation in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampus in vitro.
www.learnmem.org /cgi/content/full/6/5/467   (4120 words)

  
 Stress inhibits the proliferation of granule cell precursors in the developing dentate gyrus.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The granule cell population of the dentate gyrus is produced predominantly during the postnatal period in rats.
Previous studies have shown that experimental increases in the levels of adrenal steroids suppress the proliferation of granule cell precursors during the first postnatal week, the time of maximal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.
To test this possibility, we exposed naive rat pups to the odors of a known predator, adult male rats, and examined both plasma corticosterone levels and the number of 3H-thymidine labeled cells in the dentate gyrus.
www.arclab.org /medlineupdates/abstract_9785120.html   (200 words)

  
 Pinel: Biopsychology
To date, such studies have indicated that the stem cells that give rise to new neurons in the dentate gyrus lie in the hilar region that separates the dentate gyrus from area CA4/CA3 of the hippocampus.
Many newly formed cells seem to die almost as soon as they develop; however, other cells are able to migrate into the dentate gyrus and appear to integrate themselves into the existing neural circuitry.
And lest one assumes that neurogenesis is always beneficial to an animal, Parent and his colleagues have demonstrated that seizures promote neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus and that these new neurons contribute to a pathological rewiring of the neural circuitry in this brain region.
www.abacon.com /pinel/hot_sept.html   (742 words)

  
 Diminished allopregnanolone enhancement of GABAA receptor currents in a rat model of chronic temporal lobe epilepsy -- ...
It is believed that the principal cells of the dentate gyrus, the dentate granule cells (DGCs), gate propagation of paroxysmal activity through a tri-synaptic circuit in the hippocampus: (1) enthorinal cortex to dentate gyrus, (2) dentate gyrus to CA3 pyramidal cells via mossy fibres, and (3) CA3 to CA1 via Schafer collaterals (Walther et al.
In electrophysiological studies, increased inhibition in the dentate gyrus was demonstrated by increased paired pulse depression in kindling (de Jonge and Racine, 1987), which persisted for periods of up to 8 weeks following the last seizure (Oliver and Miller, 1985).
H]muscimol was significantly increased in dentate gyrus, whereas it was decreased in the CA1 area of kindled rats (Titulaer et al.
jp.physoc.org /cgi/content/full/537/2/453   (7537 words)

  
 Apoptosis in a Neonatal Rat Model of Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia • Editorial Comment -- Pulera et al. 29 (12): 2622 -- ...
Ischemic dorsal dentate gyrus with evidence of pyknotic nuclei (arrows) and nuclear fragmentation (arrowhead) consistent with the formation of apoptotic bodies (B).
gyrus and 10% of neurons in the frontotemporal cortex exhibited
A, The inner granule cell layer of dorsal dentate gyrus 3 days after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia: 1, nonischemic inner granule cell layer of dorsal dentate gyrus; 2, apoptotic body surrounded by a membrane (arrowhead) with evidence of condensation of the cytoplasm and electron-dense nucleus.
stroke.ahajournals.org /cgi/content/full/29/12/2622   (5261 words)

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