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Topic: Dependency grammar


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In the News (Sat 15 Dec 18)

  
  Syntax - FrathWiki
Dependency grammar is a class of syntactic theories separate from generative grammar in which structure is determined by the relation between a word (a head) and its dependents.
Systemic-functional grammar is related both to feature-based approaches such as Head-driven phrase structure grammar and to the older functional traditions of European schools of linguistics such as British Contextualism and the Prague School.
Tree adjoining grammar is a grammar formalism which has been used as the basis for a number of syntactic theories.
wiki.frath.net /Syntax   (644 words)

  
 Dependency grammar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dependency grammar (DG) is a class of syntactic theories developed by Lucien Tesnière.
It is distinct from phrase structure grammars, as it lacks phrasal nodes.
Dependency grammars are not defined by a specific word order, and are thus well suited to languages with freer word order, such as Czech.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Dependency_grammar   (197 words)

  
 Syntax - Psychology Wiki - A Wikia wiki
A modern approach to combining accurate descriptions of the grammatical patterns of language with their function in context is that of systemic functional grammar, an approach originally developed by Michael A.K. Halliday in the 1960s and now pursued actively in all continents.
Another meaning of the term syntax has been evolved in the field of computer science, especially in the subfield of programming languages, where the set of allowed reserved words and their parameters and the correct word order in the expression is called the syntax of language.
The analysis of programming language syntax usually entails the transformation of a linear sequence of tokens (a token is akin to an individual word or punctuation mark in a natural language) into a hierarchical syntax tree (abstract syntax trees are one convenient form of syntax tree).
psychology.wikia.com /wiki/Syntax   (821 words)

  
 G. Schneider: Learning to Disambiguate Syntactic Relations   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Dependency Grammar (DG) is essentially a valency grammar in which the valency concept is extended from verbs to nouns and adjectives and finally to all word classes.
The version of DG used here retains syntactic functions as dependency labels, like in LFG, which means that the dependency analyses returned by the parser are also a simple version of LFG f-structures, a hierarchy of syntactic relations between lexical heads which serves as a bridgehead to semantics.
Tapanainen, Pasi/Järvinen, Timo (1997): "A non-projective dependency parser".
www.linguistik-online.de /17_03/schneider.html   (5083 words)

  
 Citebase - Dependency Grammar and the Parsing of Chinese Sentences
Dependency Grammar and the Parsing of Chinese Sentences
Dependency Grammar has been used by linguists as the basis of the syntactic components of their grammar formalisms.
The practice of augmenting Dependency Grammar with functional labels is also discussed in the light of building functional structures when the sentence is parsed.
citebase.eprints.org /cgi-bin/citations?id=oai:arXiv.org:cmp-lg/9412001   (203 words)

  
 UCL Phonetics & Linguistics
Word Grammar is a theory of language structure which Richard (= Dick) Hudson has been building since the early 1980's.
As the latter title indicates, Chomsky's transformational grammar was very much `in the air', and both books accepted his goal of generative grammar but offered other ideas about sentence structure as alternatives to his mixture of function-free phrase structure plus transformations.
Another fairly accessible site is the set of handouts for a course on Dependency Grammar (especially WG) that I gave in August 2000 at a summer school for research students (ESSLLI).
www.phon.ucl.ac.uk /home/dick/wg.htm   (1311 words)

  
 Introduction
The restricted space of possible dependencies allows transition probabilities to be infered from the data and stored in a look-up table with relatively little technical sophistication.
Syntactic dependencies in natural language are unboundedly non-local, in the sense that no fixed amount of context is guaranteed to contain the members of a given constituent.
This intuition is based on the formal notion that a string with non-local dependency is obtained from a dependency tree via a recursive linearization procedure.
www.eecs.harvard.edu /~pesha/Public/parse/AAAI05/node1.html   (457 words)

  
 BillNet.org -> Dependency Grammar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Dependency parsing attempts to get around the word order limitations of other methods of representing and parsing syntax.
A phrase structure grammar, for example, is defined in terms of constituents.
In a dependency grammar, each word is linked directly to other words that it relates to.
www.billnet.org /ling/dep.php   (123 words)

  
 G.J.M. Kruijff - A Categorial-Modal Architecture of Informativity (PhD, 2001)
A dependency relation determines how the meaning of a dependent contributes to the overall (linguistic) meaning of the head it modifies.
Dependency Grammar Logic (DGL) is a dependency-based grammar framework in which a categorial calculus is used to analyze form and deliver the kind of representation of a sentence's linguistic meaning as discussed in the previous chapters.
In this chapter we develop grammar architectures that model the use of word order as structural indication of informativity on the basis of the distinctions of rigid, mixed and free word order as discussed in Chapter 6.
www.dfki.de /~gj/dissertation.html   (1157 words)

  
 Publisher description for Library of Congress control number 76000604
The goal of daughter-dependency theory is the same as that of Chomskyan transformational grammar—to generate syntactic structures for all (and only) syntactically well-formed sentences that would relate to both the phonological and the semantic structures of the sentences.
Hudson's strong arguments for a non-transformational grammar stress the capacity of daughter-dependency theory to reflect the facts of language structure and to capture generalizations that transformational models miss.
In the appendixes, the author outlines a partial grammar for English and a small lexicon and distinguishes his theory from standard dependency theory.
www.loc.gov /catdir/enhancements/fy0608/76000604-d.html   (304 words)

  
 Broeker
Proof theories view a grammar as a set of axioms and deduction rules, and the question of grammaticality is equivalent to the question of provability within the calculus.
The dependency tree is the backbone of the syntactic representation.
In dependency-based accounts, the construction is represented by the dependency relation, which is typed or labelled to indicate constructional distinctions which are configurationally defined in PSG.
csli-publications.stanford.edu /LFG/3/broeker/paper.html   (4697 words)

  
 The innateness of a Universal grammar principle in L2 users of English
The existence of this principle in the L1 is often taken to demonstrate the innateness of Universal Grammar.
Universal Grammar is, however, a theory of grammars not of languages; that is to say, the aim is to account for the grammar in the mind of an individual, not the social construct of a language shared by a community of speakers: "The grammar in a person's mind/brain is real...
Since Universal Grammar theory concerns individual minds not a collective body of language, the results were stated in terms of individuals as well as groups.
homepage.ntlworld.com /vivian.c/Writings/Papers/SD&UG.htm   (5204 words)

  
 Dependency grammar (via CobWeb/3.1 planet03.csc.ncsu.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Tree-based linguistic representations of natural language syntax treat non-local dependencies as local in the two-dimensional tree structure, of which the string is a one dimensional projection.
The dependency grammar representation of (1) captures the dependency between the subject, the object and the verb, and the dependency between the determiners and their respective nouns (Figure 1).
More formally, a dependency grammar consists of a lexicon of terminal symbols (words), and an inventory of dependency relations specifying inter-lexical requirements.
people.csail.mit.edu.cob-web.org:8888 /pesha/Public/parse/parse/node2.html   (171 words)

  
 [No title]
To simplify the presentation of this example, the grammar uses a single role, the governor role, which is denoted as G in the constraint network in Figure 6.
In useful grammars, we would also include several needs roles (e.g, need1, need2) to make certain that a head word has all of the constituents it needs to be complete (e.g., a singular count noun needs a determiner to be a complete noun phrase).
To determine whether the sentence, The dog eats, is generated by the grammar, the CDG parser must be able to assign at least one role value to each of the n * p roles that satisfies the grammar constraints (n=3 is sentence length, and p=1 is the number of roles).
cs.washington.edu /research/jair/volume5/helzerman96a-html/node5.html   (1184 words)

  
 ESSLLI 2004 - Introductory Course: A comparative introduction to extensible dependency grammar
It is not obvious to see where dependency grammar (DG) fits in the modern landscape of grammatical frameworks or how to "make it work" for the practising computational linguist, either in the service of language modeling or as a computational tool.
Our course addresses both concerns and aims (1) to give a comparative introduction to modern DG frameworks, and (2) to present XDG (eXtensible Dependency Grammar), a multi-dimensional lexicalized constraint-based formalism that explains macroscopic linguistic phenomena as arising from the interactions of linguistic dimensions through simple constraints and principles.
Our lectures will be illustrated with working XDG grammar fragments for various languages that will also serve to familiarize the students with the metagrammatical formalism of XDG.
esslli2004.loria.fr /giveabs.php?56   (183 words)

  
 Link Grammar
The Link Grammar Parser is a syntactic parser of English, based on link grammar, an original theory of English syntax.
Given a sentence, the system assigns to it a syntactic structure, which consists of a set of labeled links connecting pairs of words.
An introduction to link grammars and the Link Parser 4.0; detailed documentation of the current dictionary; documentation of the Link Parser API, for installing the link parser into your own programs.
www.link.cs.cmu.edu /link   (435 words)

  
 [No title]
dependencies for which a head or dependent is expected but not yet found on a left-right parse (this needs some explanation, but I think it makes sense; it can actually be made more interesting by weighting the dependencies as complements, adjuncts, etc.).
And in (b) it is quite clear that "that (he was late)" is a dependent of "fact", because it follows the same rules for extraposition as a relative clause like "that he reported" in (2); but at the same time it is clear that it is in apposition to "fact".
Link grammar is a lexically-based dependency-type formalism in which we have written a large and wide coverage English grammar, and for which we have invented and implemented efficient parsing algorithms.
www.cs.cmu.edu /Groups/AI/pubs/lists/dg/dg.log   (16097 words)

  
 DGA
Dependency Grammar Annotator (DGA) is a tool conceived in order to facilitate the syntactic annotation of texts (of a corpus) within the formal framework of Dependency Grammars.
Thus, the XML files produced by DGA can be easily transformed, by means of XSLT, into XML files which are based on a different vocabulary (tag set) meeting the requirements of the user or being in conformity with a future standard.
The latter may easily define and at any time modify his own parts of speech and dependency relations sets, which will be used in annotation.
phobos.cs.unibuc.ro /roric/DGA/dga.html   (402 words)

  
 Dependency Phonology & Notional Grammar
Depending on one’s conception of the universe, this may or may not be entirely accidental, for – as the DPNG(alapagos) have it – their concern is with the “...
While DP enjoys some familiarity among workers in phonology (as witnessed by the fact that it has found its way into a number of phonology textbooks), the community has been somewhat slow in embracing its theoretical analogue in syntax, Notional Grammar.
NG's basic tenet has it that the categories of the syntax are semantically or notionally 'grounded', just as phonological categories are phonetically.
www.fb10.uni-bremen.de /linguistik/dpng   (198 words)

  
 PAC Learning Constraint Dependency Grammar Constraints (ResearchIndex)
Abstract: Constraint Dependency Grammar (CDG) [11, 13] is a constraint-based grammatical formalism that has proven effective for processing English [5] and improving the accuracy of spoken language understanding systems [4].
Therefore, a recent trend in CDG research has been to try to ease the burden of grammar writers by developing methods for automatically learning CDG grammars from annotated...
14 Extensions to constraint dependency parsing for spoken langu..
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /52379.html   (467 words)

  
 ESSLLI2000: Dependency Grammar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Dependency grammar (DG) contrasted with phrase structure grammar; a very brief history; the main theories in the 'dependency' family; the ambiguity of categorial grammar; is DG 'just a notational variant' of PSG?
Pros: essential endocentricity; free word order; simplicity of structures; easy treatment of valency (= subcategorisation plus government); generation as constraint-satisfaction; dependencies as constructions; measurement of memory load.
2a) Discontinuous phrases and multiple dependency; the No-tangling Principle and Adjacency Concord; raising; extraction; extraposition.
www.phon.ucl.ac.uk /home/dick/esslli.htm   (216 words)

  
 SciDok - Dependency grammar as graph description
The paper introduces a generalisation of the grammar formalism of Topological Dependency Grammar (TDG) (Duchier and Debusmann 2001).
The result, eXtensible Dependency Grammar (XDG), is a description language for sets of labeled directed graphs.
As an instance of XTDG, we present Semantic Topological Dependency Grammar (STDG), a new dependency-based grammar formalism with a syntax-semantics interface to underspecified semantics.
scidok.sulb.uni-saarland.de /volltexte/2004/272   (90 words)

  
 Dependency Grammar Papers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
GULP 2.0: An extension of prolog for unification-based grammar.
The enhancement of a dependency parser for latin.
Gulp3.1: An etension of prolog for unification-based grammar.
www.essex.ac.uk /linguistics/clmt/papers/dep_gramm   (53 words)

  
 LINGUIST List 6.214: Dependency Grammar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
My draft of a booklength manuscript on "Unification Dependency Grammar" is now available via anonymous ftp from julius.ohio-state.edu.ps.gz in the directory \pub\HPSG\papers\UDG via the commands mget *.* (for all files) or get (filename) (for any one file) I am also told that the URL(whatever that is) is ftp// ling.ohio-state.edu/pub/HPSG/papers/UDG.
This means that the files are compressed and need to be uncompressed via the command "gunzip".
Even linguists not generally interested in formal syntax might want to look at chapter 1, since this is not very technical, covers general background and provides a general comparison of dependency structure and constituent structure.
www.linguistlist.org /issues/6/6-214.html   (239 words)

  
 proGRAM - natural language dependency parser
The proGRAM is an environment for writing and testing dependency grammars and providing dependency analysis of sentences of natural language according a given grammar.
Meta-rules of a grammar are described as sequences of commands checking the conditions of the applicability of the meta-rule and forming the instance of the meta-rule for the given right-hand side symbols.
The variables used in the meta-rule are: X for the left-hand side symbol of the rule, A,B for the first and second right-hand side symbol of the rule and P as a temporary variable for an element of the frameset.
ksvi.mff.cuni.cz /~holan/proGRAM.html   (1777 words)

  
 Computational Linguistics and Phonetics
The key asset of dependency grammar is that it allows for a clean separation of syntactic dependency and surface word order.
In this thesis, we try to remedy these problems in the setting of a constraint-based approach to dependency grammar based on (Duchier 1999).
TDG allows to cleanly separate the two levels of syntactic dependency and surface word order, which greatly facilitates the conception of grammars for freer word order languages.
www.coli.uni-saarland.de /publications.php?action=6&last=1&pid=385   (587 words)

  
 Citebase - An Empirically Motivated Reinterpretation of Dependency Grammar
Authors: Covington, Michael A. Dependency grammar is usually interpreted as equivalent to a strict form of X--bar theory that forbids the stacking of nodes of the same bar level (e.g., N' immediately dominating N' with the same head).
-anaphora and of the semantics of multiple modifiers require such stacking and accordingly argue against dependency grammar.
Dependency grammar can be salvaged by reinterpreting its claims about phrase structure, so that modifiers map onto binary--branching X--bar trees rather than ``flat'' ones.
citebase.eprints.org /cgi-bin/citations?id=oai:arXiv.org:cmp-lg/9404004   (152 words)

  
 SciDok - A parser system for extensible dependency grammar
XDG is a generalisation of Topological Dependency Grammar (TDG) (Duchier-Debusmann01).
The XDG parser system comprises a constraint-based parser for all possible instances of XDG, a statically typed grammar input language, and a flexible backend for handling parser output.
In the future, we will use the XDG parser system to accomodate new dependency grammar formalisms such as Semantic Topological Dependency Grammar (STDG), and to experiment with other interesting XDG instances.
scidok.sulb.uni-saarland.de /volltexte/2004/273   (131 words)

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