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Topic: Depletion

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In the News (Mon 22 Jul 19)

  Ozone depletion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Prior to the beginning of the depletion trend, the amount of ozone in the stratosphere was kept even by a stable balance in the amount of creation and destruction of ozone molecules by UV light.
The role of sunlight in ozone depletion is the reason why the Antarctic ozone depletion is greatest during spring; during winter, even though PSCs are at their most abundant, there is no light over the pole to drive the chemical reactions.
Any measures against ozone depletion which have a negative economic impact will remain a controversial issue due to the strong economic interests involved, with key questions regarding whether the scientific understanding is strong enough to warrant the proposed countermeasures.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ozone_depletion   (4108 words)

 Publication 535 (2004), Business Expenses
Your depletable natural gas quantity is 6,000 cubic feet multiplied by the number of barrels of your depletable oil quantity that you choose to apply.
For purposes of percentage depletion, gross income from the property (in the case of oil and gas wells) is the amount you receive from the sale of the oil or gas in the immediate vicinity of the well.
To figure cost depletion on a bonus, multiply your adjusted basis in the property by a fraction, the numerator of which is the bonus and the denominator of which is the total bonus and royalties expected to be received.
www.irs.gov /publications/p535/ch10.html   (5265 words)

 Ozone depletion -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Ozone depletion has been observed all over the globe but is greatest at high (An imaginary line around the Earth parallel to the equator) latitudes (that is, near the poles).
Since the ozone layer absorbs ultraviolet light from the Sun, ozone layer depletion is expected to increase surface UV levels, which could lead to damage, including increases in (A malignant neoplasm of the skin) skin cancer.
Any measures against ozone depletion which have a negative (Click link for more info and facts about economic) economic impact will remain a controversial issue due to the strong economic interests involved, with key questions regarding whether the scientific understanding is strong enough to warrant the proposed countermeasures.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/o/oz/ozone_depletion.htm   (3714 words)

 Ozone Depletion FAQ Part III: The Antarctic Ozone Hole
From: rparson@spot.colorado.edu (Robert Parson) Newsgroups: sci.environment Subject: Ozone Depletion FAQ Part III: The Antarctic Ozone Hole Date: 24 Dec 1997 20:50:47 GMT Message-ID: <67rsj7$2un@peabody.colorado.edu> Reply-To: rparson@spot.colorado.edu Summary: This is the third of four files dealing with stratospheric ozone depletion.
Depletion of the ozone layer therefore cools the stratosphere, and in this sense the hole is self-stabilizing.
Large ozone depletions, ~10-20%, were reported for high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere; these still do not qualify as an "ozone hole" but they do seem to indicate that the same physics and chemistry are operating, albeit with much less efficiency.
www.faqs.org /faqs/ozone-depletion/antarctic   (6371 words)

 [Ganoksin] Jewelry Making - Some Notes on Depletion Gilding
Depletion gilding usually hinges on the conversion of the base metals near the surface of the gold alloy to chlorides (salts) or oxides using chemical attack and/or heat.
The purpose of depletion gilding can be stated quite simply: goldsmiths find it necessary to remove alloy additions from gold alloys in order to obtain pure gold with which to work or to change the color of alloy surfaces for aesthetic or economic reasons.
Depletion gilding offers the opportunity to enrich the gold content at the surface of the object or to preferentially attack one of the alloy constituents thus tilting the surface color to the tones given by the remaining alloy addition.
www.ganoksin.com /borisat/nenam/depletio.htm   (9382 words)

 Nearctica - Geophysics - Global Change - Ozone Depletion
Ozone depletion is caused by the release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODS), which were used widely as refrigerants, insulating foams, and solvents.
An introduction to ozone depletion with chapters on the basic science of the atmosphere, the ozone layer, the importance of the ozone layer in filtering out ultraviolet light, and current efforts to curtail the continued degredation of the ozone layer.
An introduction to the problem of ozone depletion with separate sections on a variety of topics including measuring ozone, an overview of the problem, the effect on volcanic eruptions on ozone depletion, natural ozone cycles, and much more.
www.nearctica.com /geology/global/ozone.htm   (836 words)

 Stratospheric Ozone Depletion tutorial
Stratospheric ozone depletion is a concern because the ozone layer in the stratosphere keeps 95-99% of the suns ultraviolet radiation from striking the earth.
Stratospheric ozone depletion has become very much a controversial political and economic issue as well as a complex scientific issue.
Scientific models of the atmosphere are being constructed in order to assist scientists in looking for other factors in Ozone depletion, evaluate their importance and predict what may happen to our atmosphere in the future.
www.nas.nasa.gov /About/Education/Ozone   (620 words)

 Consequences (vol. 1, No. 2) - Impacts of a Projected Depletion of the Ozone Layer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Something the atmospheric models had not forecast was the dramatic, early springtime depletion of stratospheric ozone over the South Pole of the Earth, later termed the "ozone hole," that was discovered almost through accident in routine measurements taken in Antarctica.
Further measurements established that the phenomenon was the result of increased amounts of chlorine in the stratosphere in its most reactive form, intensified by the unique circulation of air near the Earth's poles and the presence of ice crystals in the peculiar stratospheric polar clouds.
The UNEP Panel on Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion concludes in its 1994 report that present reality is far from the goal of defining impacts, and that funding of research on UVB effects is still very low and does not even allow full utilization of the existing research capacity.
www.gcrio.org /CONSEQUENCES/summer95/impacts.html   (5432 words)

 U.S. EPA: Ozone Depletion
Unlike long-term ozone depletion, however, this effect is short-lived.
One example of ozone depletion is the annual ozone "hole" over Antarctica that has occurred during the Antarctic Spring since the early 1980s.
Thus, ozone depletion is a global issue and not just a problem at the South Pole.
www.epa.gov /docs/ozone/science/sc_fact.html   (1547 words)

Ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere is the result of human-produced chemicals, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons.
Depletion is especially severe over Antarctica in spring, causing the highly publicised "ozone hole".
However, at all latitudes away from the equator, the layer of ozone that protects us from the harmful radiation of the sun is thinner that it was in the late 1970s.
www.dar.csiro.au /information/ozone.html   (337 words)

 Ozone Depletion - By Mithcell Robinson   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Robert Parson says in his article "Our ozone shield" that "Stratospheric ozone depletion is a concern because the ozone layer in the stratosphere keeps ninety-five to ninety-nine percent of the suns ultraviolet radiation from striking the earth".
According to "Ozone Action" in their article "The Health Effects of Ozone Depletion", that "An estimated seven hundred thousand new cases of skin cancer and nine thousand deaths a year have been caused by the increased UV exposure".
"Stratospheric ozone depletion is a concern because the ozone layer in the stratosphere keeps ninety-five to ninety-nine percent of the suns ultraviolet radiation from striking the earth".
www.netterra.com /reports/ozone.html   (1206 words)

 Environmental effects of ozone depletion: Interim Summary, August, 2000   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
However, the vertical extent of depletion in the Arctic was slightly less than in the record-setting years of 1993, 1995 and 1996; and the peak integrated column ozone loss in 2000 was less than in those years.
Interactions between global warming and ozone depletion could delay ozone recovery by more than a decade, and this topic remains an area of intense research interest.
depletion, as well as both increases and decreases due to tropospheric cloud cover, scattering and absorbing aerosols, and pollutant gases.
www.gcrio.org /ozone/unep2000summary.html   (2964 words)

 biology - Oxygen depletion
Oxygen depletion is a phenomenon that occurs in aquatic environments as dissolved oxygen (DO; molecular oxygen dissolved in the water) becomes reduced in concentration to a point detrimental to aquatic organisms living in the system.
Dissolved oxygen is typically expressed as a percentage of the oxygen that would dissolve in the water at the prevailing temperature and salinity (both of which affect the solubility of oxygen in water; see oxygen saturation and underwater).
Oxygen depletion could be the result of a number of factors including natural ones, but is of most concern as a consequence of pollution and as a highly detrimental outcome of a process known as eutrophication.
www.biologydaily.com /biology/Oxygen_depletion   (605 words)

 CIESIN Ozone Home Page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The purpose of this guide is to help you find selected key documents that pertain to the issue of ozone depletion: causes, human and environmental effects, and policy responses.
This discovery, along with evidence that ozone is being lost at nearly all latitudes outside the tropics, has prompted much research into the causes of ozone depletion and the biological effects of increased ultraviolet radiation exposure.
This guide contains an Overview that provides general background on key concepts and issues related to ozone depletion.
www.ciesin.org /TG/OZ/oz-home.html   (193 words)

 Ozone Depletion FAQ Part I: Introduction to the Ozone Layer
From: rparson@spot.colorado.edu (Robert Parson) Newsgroups: sci.environment Subject: Ozone Depletion FAQ Part I: Introduction to the Ozone Layer Date: 24 Dec 1997 20:49:01 GMT Message-ID: <67rsft$2ue@peabody.colorado.edu> Reply-To: rparson@spot.colorado.edu Summary: This is the first of four files dealing with stratospheric ozone depletion.
The depletion increases with latitude, and is somewhat larger in the Southern Hemisphere.
Since reactions on sulfate aerosols are believed to play an important role in halogen-catalyzed ozone depletion, it may be advisable to concentrate on reducing the sulfur content of the fuels that are to be used in new generations of supersonic aircraft, rather than further reducing NOx emissions.
www.faqs.org /faqs/ozone-depletion/intro   (8672 words)

 Ozone Bibliography
Bentham, G. Depletion of the ozone layer: Consequences for non-infectious human diseases.
Elwood, J. Epidemiology of melanoma: Its relationship to ultraviolet radiation and ozone depletion.
Levi, B. Arctic measurements indicate the chilly prospect of ozone depletion.
www.ciesin.org /TG/OZ/oz-bib.html   (2368 words)

 Global Warming and Ozone Depletion
The ozone layer is being destroyed by certain industrial chemicals including ozone depleting refrigerants, halons, and methyl bromide, a deadly pesticide used on crops.
Ozone depletion damage gets much worse when the stratosphere is very cold.
Ozone depletion gets worse when the stratosphere (where the ozone layer is), becomes colder.
www.environ.com /GlobalWarming/globalwarmingozone.htm   (1561 words)

 Ozone Depletion
Research by GMD has been critical in determining the degree of the depletion of stratospheric ozone and the trends of the compounds causing this depletion.
GMD determines the vertical extent of depletion over Antarctica (the ozone hole), makes a significant contribution to world-wide, ground-based measurements of total-column ozone, and monitors the gases responsible for depleting stratospheric ozone.
Ozone depletion, through halogen-related chemistry, is facilitated by increased stratospheric particles as provided by stratospheric clouds in the polar regions and globally by volcanic eruptions.
www.cmdl.noaa.gov /ozone.html   (1002 words)

 The Oil Depletion Resource Page
King Hubbert developed the Hubbert curve, which has become the primary analytical tool for understanding and predicting the yield of an oil field, from its discovery to its exploitation, depletion and abandonment.
While planning for their financial future is a preoccupation of most middle-aged people, at our household we are devoting more effort to planning our energy future by reducing our demands and using renewable energy resources.
An excellent overview of the mechanisms of oil depletion (including politics) from two of the most experienced and respected geologists in the world.
www.gulland.ca /depletion/depletion.htm   (776 words)

 NRDC: The Ozone Depletion Story
Stratospheric ozone levels fluctuate naturally based on wind dynamics and interactions with trace chemicals, but Rowland and Molina's insight was that the additional chlorine introduced by CFCs would gobble up extra ozone molecules, wreaking havoc to the ozone layer and exposing the earth and its inhabitants to great risk.
The depletion above the South Pole was so severe, the British geophysicist who first measured it assumed his spectrophotometer must be broken and sent the device back to England to be repaired.
Once the depletion was verified, it came to be known throughout the world through a series of NASA satellite photos as the Antarctic Ozone Hole.
www.nrdc.org /air/pollution/hozone.asp   (899 words)

 Reports to the Nation on Our Changing Planet: Our Ozone Shield   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The discovery of the ozone depletion blindsided the scientific community, catching it totally off guard and without a suitable explanation.
In the prelude to ozone depletion, ice particles form during the polar night, when several months of darkness descend on Antarctica and temperatures plummet below -80 degrees (C)(-112F) in the stratosphere.
Even small depletions in this region would represent cause for concern, because many people live in northern latitudes potentially affected by the Arctic ozone loss.
www.ogp.noaa.gov /library/rtnf92.htm   (4717 words)

 The Ogallala Aquifer Depletion   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Policies developed in response to depletion of the aquifer that may be technically and economically feasible must also be politically and socially acceptable.
This difference translates into varying degrees of concern about the depletion of the Ogallala Aquifer with, for example, Texas being more concerned than Nebraska (which happens to have the most favorable recharge rate of all areas throughout the region that overlays the aquifer).
By using the Ogallala Aquifer depletion as an analogue, scientists and policy makers can learn much about the process of evaluating and selecting socially acceptable policy responses to large-scale environmental issues.
www.iitap.iastate.edu /gcp/issues/society/ogallala/ogallala.html   (1299 words)

 Development vs. Depletion
Like most American county and municipal governments, it is not required to address — or even acknowledge — the impact of oil and natural gas depletion on the project, the environment, or the people who will live and work in the development after it has been completed.
Too many voices have warned that oil depletion is upon us and natural gas depletion will follow in a heart beat.
Petroleum resource depletion must be addressed in the legislative process.
www.progress.org /2005/energy38.htm   (1323 words)

 Tryptophan depletion and its implications for psychiatry -- BELL et al. 178 (5): 399 -- The British Journal of ...
Reversal of antidepressant-induced remission by rapid depletion of plasma tryptophan.
Miller, H. J., Deakin, J. and Anderson, I. Effect of acute tryptophan depletion on CO -induced anxiety in patients with panic disorder and normal volunteers.
Neumeister, A., Praschak, R. N., Hesselmann, B., et al (1997a) Effects of tryptophan depletion on drug-free patients with seasonal affective disorder during a stable response to bright light therapy.
bjp.rcpsych.org /cgi/content/full/178/5/399   (5106 words)

 Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The assessment is given in seven papers: changes in ultraviolet radiation, effects on human and animal health, effects on terrestrial ecosystems, effects on aquatic ecosystems, effects on biogeochemical cycles, effects on air quality, and effects on materials.
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer requires periodic assessments of available scientific, environmental, technical and economic information.
In comparison with the earlier assessments on effects of ozone depletion, the present report has a new section, Frequently Asked Questions.
www.gcrio.org /UNEP1998   (330 words)

 Ozone Depletion   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
If enough ozone is depleted, holes in the ozone layer such at those documented over the Antarctic and Arctic regions.
EPA: Ozone Depletion - includes the science behind ozone depletion and what the government is trying to about it; information on international treaties and proposed substitutes for ozone depleting substances; has a glossary of commonly used terms
Impacts of the Projected Depletion of the Ozone Layer - a scientific paper on the history of ozone, the potential medical effects, and the effects on an ecosystem
www.sierraclub-nc.org /medoc/environment/ozone.htm   (297 words)

 CFCs and Ozone Depletion   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
This process was known to be potentially damaging to the ozone layer, but conclusive evidence of stratospheric ozone loss was not discovered until 1984.
Announcement of polar ozone depletion over Antarctica in March 1985 prompted scientific initiatives to discover the Ozone Depletion Processes, along with calls to freeze or diminish production of chlorinated fluorocarbons.
A complex scenario of atmospheric dynamics, solar radiation, and chemical reactions was found to explain the anomalously low levels of ozone during the polar springtime.
www.ciesin.org /TG/OZ/cfcozn.html   (459 words)

 International Workshop on Oil Depletion, Uppsala, Sweden, May 23-25, 2002
The Workshop has been organised to address the impact of resource constraints and natural depletion on the global supply of oil, one of Europe 's most critical energy sources.
It will ask why governments are not better informed, and why they fail to make appropriate preparations to ease the impact of the transition from growing to declining oil supply, which is likely to be a major historical discontinuity.
The Workshop will conclude with recommendations for remedying past failures in understanding the issue, and with proposals for improving the database, and for working towards a new system for managing oil depletion, a subject too serious to be left to market forces, or the sole interests of producer countries.
www.oilcrisis.com /aspo/iwood/iwood2002.htm   (385 words)

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