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Topic: Desalination

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  Desalination - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Desalination of ocean water is common in the Middle East (because of water scarcity) and the Caribbean, and is growing fast in the USA, North Africa, Spain, Australia and China.
Desalination of brackish water is done in the United States in order to to meet treaty obligations for river water entering Mexico.
Nuclear-powered desalination might be economical on a large scale, and there is a pilot plant in the former USSR.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Desalination   (1173 words)

 Seawater Desalination CHAPTER ONE
Desalination plants may use seawater (directly from the ocean through offshore intakes and pipelines, or from wells located on the beach or seafloor), brackish groundwater, or reclaimed water as feedwater.
Desalination product water may be used in its pure form (e.g., for make-up water in power plant boilers) or it may be mixed with less pure water and used for drinking water, irrigation, or other uses.
Desalination plants produce liquid wastes that may contain all or some of the following constituents: high salt concentrations, chemicals used during defouling of plant equipment and pretreatment, and toxic metals (which are most likely to be present if the discharge water was in contact with metallic materials used in construction of the plant facilities).
www.coastal.ca.gov /desalrpt/dchap1.html   (2343 words)

 MBNMS Resource Management Issues: Desalination
Desalination is the process by which salts and other chemicals are removed from salt or brackish water and other impaired water resources.
It is also known as desalinization or desalting or commonly referred to as “desal.” As traditional sources of fresh water continue to be depleted and degraded, society is increasingly looking toward desalination as an option for obtaining water for both private, and municipal freshwater supply.
Desalination plants have the potential to negatively impact the marine environment through the introduction of brine waste effluent and other substances to Sanctuary waters.
www.mbnms.nos.noaa.gov /resourcepro/resmanissues/desalination.html   (1740 words)

 Optimizing the Efficiency of Reverse Osmosis Seawater Desalination
The ratio of the desalinated water volume to the seawater volume used to produce it is called the recovery ratio.
The work of desalination, P∙V, is far lower than in systems that do not apply energy recovery because now V is the volume of permeate water and not of seawater supply.
Comparison of the two tables indicates that the energy of desalination in the two processes, operated at similar permeate-water recovery ratios and throughputs, is practically the same.
urila.tripod.com /Seawater.htm   (5028 words)

  American Water Works Association   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-05)
Desalination is a water treatment process, that includes distillation, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and alternative technologies that removes dissolved mineral salts and other dissolved solids from water.
Desalination costs are decreasing as technology improves and more plants are built.
The desalination market is forecast to grow more than $70 billion in the next 20 years.
www.awwa.org /advocacy/pressroom/Desalination.cfm   (398 words)

 Desalination News   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-05)
SAWS is planning a project to desalinate brackish groundwater in southern Bexar County by 2010 and is developing a project in the Carrizo Aquifer in nearby Gonzales and Wilson counties that could bring in water by 2012.
Desalination plants currently supply only 75 per cent of the country's demand, while underground water is used to make up the deficit, he said at the Electricity and Water Ministry premises.
Although desalination plants have traditionally been restricted to all but the driest nations for cost reasons, local experts say the price of turning salty sea water into drinking grade water has dropped significantly and the adoption of this technology is becoming increasingly viable for some parts of South Africa.
www.waterwebster.com /Desalination.htm   (17852 words)

Desalination is seen by some as a solution to the problem of a shortage of potable water.
The energy and cost is lower in the desalination of brackish groundwater because of the lower saline concentration.
There are other techniques in the process of desalination, such as multi-effect distillation, and alternatives to the intake method, such as using vertical wells.
www.uwec.edu /piercech/desalination/huntington.htm   (1227 words)

Desalination of both seawater and brackish waters has been made a top priority in the State of Texas to satisfy the water needs of a growing population.
Desalination of brackish waters is more suited to inland locations, such as in the western half of the sate, but also feasible along the coast.
Desalination work at the Bureau includes characterizing the water supply, particularly in geochemical terms, looking at compatibility issues in the in-situ mixing of water of different origins (range of composition in concentrate and formation water), and determining the global suitability of a saline formation to accept desalination concentrates.
www.beg.utexas.edu /environqlty/desalination01.htm   (205 words)

 DESALINATION TECHNIQUES   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-05)
The cost of desalinated water is decreasing, and this trend is continuing.
Desalination of sea (or saline) water has been practiced regularly for over 50 years and is a well-established means of water supply in many countries.
Challenges, however, still exist to produce desalinated water for relatively large communities, for their continuous growth, development, and health, and for modern efficient agriculture, at affordable costs.
ejeafche.uvigo.es /4(4)2005/002442005F.htm   (1921 words)

 Surfrider Foundation A-Z: Desalination
Desalination facilities have also been proposed in several other states including Texas and Hawaii and a facility was recently built in Tampa, Florida.
The cost of energy is important due to the fact that the two primary technologies used for desalination, distillation and reverse osmosis, require a lot of energy, either to boil and then re-condense water (distillation) or to force water molecules through semi-permeable membranes at high pressure (reverse osmosis).
In the same vein, desalination plants might be co-located with wastewater treatment facilities, or connected by pipes, so the brine could be mixed with the freshwater discharge and possibly reach a salt concentration and temperature closer to ambient ocean conditions.
www.surfrider.org /a-z/desal.asp   (3151 words)

 Is Desalination the Answer?
He explains, “Reverse osmosis desalination allows water to travel through a synthetic membrane under high pressure, rejecting 99.9 percent of the salt in seawater and leaving you with a very good quality drinking water.”; Currently, there are more reverse osmosis desalination plants in use worldwide than any other desalting technology.
Thermal desalination plants, which use heat, evaporation and condensation to collect freshwater, are often built in conjunction with power plants so the “waste” heat from the power plant runs the desalination plant.
When desalination is used inland, solutions include dilution of the brine to minimize its ecological impact before putting it back into a river, injecting it into underground aquifers, evaporating it to make rock salt and building pipelines to carry it to the sea.
www.fdu.edu /newspubs/magazine/03su/desalination.html   (1321 words)

 Desalination - The Saudi Arabia Information Resource
The 27 desalination plants provide drinking water to major urban and industrial centers through a network of water pipes running for more than 2,300 miles.
Desalination meets 70% of the Kingdom's drinking water requirement.
Once completed, the Kingdom's network of desalination plants will have a capacity of 800 million gallons a day.
www.saudinf.com /main/a541.htm   (77 words)

 2.1 Desalination by reverse osmosis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-05)
Desalination is a separation process used to reduce the dissolved salt content of saline water to a usable level.
For brackish water desalination the operating pressures range from 250 to 400 psi, and for seawater desalination from 800 to 1 000 psi.
Both types are used for brackish water and seawater desalination, although the specific membrane and the construction of the pressure vessel vary according to the different operating pressures used for the two types of feedwater.
www.oas.org /usde/publications/unit/oea59e/ch20.htm   (3023 words)

 ES&T Online News: Desalination, desalination everywhere
Reverse osmosis is also extending desalination’s utility by cost-effectively removing salts and other contaminants from water that is less saline than seawater, including rivers, salty groundwater, industrial effluents, and even “postconsumer reclaimed water,”; according to the Bureau of Reclamation.
The bureau is promoting a roadmap for developing new technologies that will further increase desalination’s usefulness and affordability, and bureau sources say that they hope it becomes the official map for the entire federal government.
That plant uses the thermal technology that was the dominant approach to desalination until the mid-90s.
pubs.acs.org /subscribe/journals/esthag-w/2004/may/tech/kb_desalination.html   (1370 words)

 Desalination-Science Tracer Bullet-Library of Congress
Over the last few decades desalination technologies have been used increasingly throughout the world to produce drinking water from brackish groundwater and seawater, to improve the quality of existing supplies of fresh water for drinking and industrial purposes, and to treat industrial and municipal wastewater prior to discharge or reuse.
Desalination technologies include distillation (multiple-effect evaporation, multi-stage flash distillation, vapor compression, and solar distillation), reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, ion exchange, and freeze desalination.
National desalination conferences: proceedings of the fifteenth conference: water desalination and re-use, Ashqelon, Israel, 30th May-1st June, 1983.
www.loc.gov /rr/scitech/tracer-bullets/desalinationtb.html   (1309 words)

 nuclear desalination workshop
Desalination Economic Evaluation, to be held at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, Italy from 24 March to 4 April 2003.
The objective of the Workshop is to train scientists and engineers from both developing and developed countries in desalination and nuclear-to-desalination coupling technology for nuclear desalination plants (Workshop Part I) and in economic evaluation methods for nuclear desalination, in particular, in the use of the IAEA software Desalination Economic Evaluation Program [DEEP] (Workshop Part II).
The participants will be familiarized with the fundamentals of seawater desalination technologies, (including practical examples, which are suitable for the coupling to nuclear plants) as well as coupling of nuclear and desalination systems, and with the application and use of DEEP to assess various generic nuclear desalination projects.
www.iaea.org /worldatom/Programmes/Nuclear_Energy/NENP/NPTDS/Projects/desalination.html   (483 words)

 Desalination - Elsevier
This international journal is dedicated to keeping pace with developments in the water desalting and purification field in all its aspects: theoretical and applied research, technological and industrial development, and the experience of operators and users.
Desalination welcomes original research papers and state-of-the-art reviews on all aspects of the field and encourages papers on new and advanced technologies for water treatment and for the development of integrated systems.
Desalination covers all desalting fields - distillation, membranes, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, ion exchange, freezing, water purification, water reuse and wastewater treatment - and aims to provide a forum for any innovative concept or practice.
www.elsevier.com /locate/desal   (331 words)

 WHO | Desalination guidelines development for drinking-water: Background
More than 11,000 desalination plants are in operation throughout the world producing more than 20 million cubic meters (roughly six billion gallons) of water per day.
Most desalination plants use sea water or brackish water as their sources.
Because desalination is applied to non-typical source waters, and often uses non-typical technologies, existing WHO Guidelines may not fully cover the unique factors that can be encountered during production and distribution of desalinated water.
www.who.int /water_sanitation_health/dwq/nutdesalination/en   (219 words)

 Efficient Water Use in Basins - Hydro-powered Reverse Osmosis...
Two case studies of “hydropowered brackish groundwater reverse osmosis (RO) desalination in the Aqaba-Disi water pipeline project in Jordan” and “hydropowered seawater reverse osmosis (RO) desalination in the Mediterranean-Dead Sea (MDS) conduit scheme in Israel” are examined in this study.
The proposed hydropowered reverse osmosis (RO) desalination is a nonconventional application of the co-generating system by annexing the groundwater-hydro system with the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination unit.
Application studies on the hydropowered reverse osmosis (RO) desalination, including two case studies in Jordan (brackish groundwater) and Israel (seawater), suggest a substantial reduction in operating costs and energy which have long been a major constraints in desalination practice.
www.unesco.org.uy /phi/libros/efficient_water/wmurakami.html   (1588 words)

 Technology Review: Spain Microsite
Spain built Europe's first desalination plant nearly 40 years ago and is the largest user of desalination technology in the Western world.
This plant is the latest marker in Spain’s decades of experience and research in the field of desalination.
For the past nearly 40 years, companies in Spain have built and operated desalination plants, first in the water-poor Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, then moving to fulfill water needs on the Spanish mainland and around the world.
www.technologyreview.com /microsites/spain/water/index.aspx   (458 words)

 Nuclear Desalination
Where it cannot be obtained from streams and aquifers, desalination of seawater or mineralised groundwater is required.
Small and medium sized nuclear reactors are suitable for desalination, often with cogeneration of electricity using low-pressure steam from the turbine and hot sea water feed from the final cooling system.
The feasibility of building a cogeneration unit employing MSF desalination technology for Madura Island in Indonesia is being studied.
www.uic.com.au /nip74.htm   (1167 words)

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