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# Topic: Descriptive statistics

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 Statistics - Conservapedia Statistics analyzes data in two primary ways, the first is called descriptive statistics which describes and summarizes the data. Statistics takes its name from the fact that it was traditionally taught to monarchs to enable them to manage affairs of state. Frequentist approaches to inferential statistics primarily involve trying to compare descriptive statistics of two data sets to determine if they are significantly different. www.conservapedia.com /Statistics   (1192 words)

 Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data in a study. Descriptive statistics are typically distinguished from inferential statistics. Descriptive Statistics are used to present quantitative descriptions in a manageable form. www.socialresearchmethods.net /kb/statdesc.php   (1682 words)

 Understanding Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics uses graphical and numerical summaries to give a 'picture' of a data set. To help explain descriptive statistics, we will use the total number of tornadoes recorded by State (including the District of Columbia) from 2000, as shown in Table 1. Descriptive statistics can include graphical summaries that show the spread of the data, and numerical summaries that either measure the central tendency (a 'typical' data value) of a data set or that describe the spread of the data. nationalatlas.gov /articles/mapping/a_statistics.html   (3284 words)

 Descriptive The primary use of descriptive statistics is to describe information or data through the use of numbers (create number pictures of the information). Descriptive statistics are used to describe groups of numerical data such as test scores, number or hours of instruction, or the number of students enrolled in a particular course. Descriptive statistics - Numbers which are used to describe information or data or those techniques used to calculate those numbers. www.okstate.edu /ag/agedcm4h/academic/aged5980a/5980/newpage22.htm   (878 words)

 SPSS for Windows: Descriptive and Inferential Statistics The F statistic represents a test of the null hypothesis that the expected values of the regression coefficients are equal to each other and that they equal zero. Education level was entered as a covariate in the model, and therefore the statistics associated with it are a measure of the linear relationship between education level and salaries. The F statistic (277.96) and significance level (p <.000) associated with education level allows us to reject the null hypothesis that there is not a linear relationship between education and salaries. www.utexas.edu /its/rc/tutorials/stat/spss/spss2/index.html   (7659 words)

 PROPHET StatGuide: Descriptive statistics Descriptive statistics are summary values that describe features of the distribution based on the data sample. Although descriptive statistics can provide a few pieces of information about data or their underlying distribution, they seldom give as good an overall picture of the distribution as a boxplot, histogram, normal probability plot, or other graph of the data. The most common descriptive statistics are those that measure location, or central tendency--the generalized concept of the "average" value of a distribution. www.basic.northwestern.edu /statguidefiles/desc.html   (2409 words)

 Statistics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For example, the statistical significance of a trend in the data — which measures the extent to which the trend could be caused by random variation in the sample — may not agree with one's intuitive sense of its significance. A common goal for a statistical research project is to investigate causality, and in particular to draw a conclusion on the effect of changes in the values of predictors or independent variables on a response or dependent variable. Early statistical models were almost always from the class of linear models, but powerful computers, coupled with suitable numerical algorithms, caused a resurgence of interest in nonlinear models (especially neural networks and decision trees) and the creation of new types, such as generalised linear models and multilevel models. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Statistics   (3191 words)

 Understanding Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics uses graphical and numerical summaries to give a 'picture' of a data set. To help explain descriptive statistics, we will use the total number of tornadoes recorded by State (including the District of Columbia) from 2000, as shown in Table 1. Descriptive statistics can include graphical summaries that show the spread of the data, and numerical summaries that either measure the central tendency (a 'typical' data value) of a data set or that describe the spread of the data. www.nationalatlas.gov /articles/mapping/a_statistics.html   (3284 words)

 Descriptive statistics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Descriptive statistics is a branch of statistics that denotes any of the many techniques used to summarize a set of data. Statistical textbooks call the solution to this objective, a measure of central tendency. This kind of statistic is often called a measure of statistical variability. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Descriptive_statistics   (287 words)

 Descriptive Statistics This page introduces a handful of statistics which are commonly used to describe the distribution of data. Thus there is a button on the descriptive statistics calculation page to do this conversion for you. Statistics that provide useful information even if applied to not-"normally" distributed data are call robust statistics. www.physics.csbsju.edu /stats/descriptive2.html   (1632 words)

 Statistics Statistics are a method of summarising and analysing data for the purpose of drawing conclusions about the data. Descriptive statistics simply offer us a way to describe a summary of our data. Descriptive statistics give us a way to summarise and describe our data but do not allow us to make a conclusion related to our hypothesis. www.holah.karoo.net /statistics.htm   (665 words)

 Tucson Water—Water Quality Descriptive Statistics   (Site not responding. Last check: ) Descriptive statistics are simple calculations of the characteristics of the data sets. For example, the September 1997 descriptive statistics for hardness show substantial variation of the mean (or average) and median in WQZ 1 as compared to WQZ 10. The count of data points used to calculate the descriptive statistics in each WQZ is important to show how many sampling points are used in each area. www.ci.tucson.az.us /water/descriptive_stats.htm   (646 words)

 Summary Statistics: Location & Spread The two important statistics that describe a single response are measures of location (typical value; the word location is a reference to the data's location on the number line) and spread (variability). It is not counted as one of the summary statistics even though it fits the definition ("a function solely of the data") perfectly. A point of statistical trivia: If a histogram with a single peak is skewed to the right, the order of the three averages lie along the measurement scale in reverse alphabetical order--mode, median, mean. www.tufts.edu /~gdallal/summary.htm   (2909 words)

 Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics are numbers that are used to summarize and describe data. Several descriptive statistics are often used at one time, to give a full picture of the data. Some descriptive statistics are shown in the average salaries table. cnx.org /content/m10184/latest   (742 words)

 Descriptive statistics Descriptive statistics are used simply to describe the sample you are concerned with. They are used in the first instance to get a feel for the data, in the second for use in the statistical tests themselves, and in the third to indicate the error associated with results and graphical output. Many of the descriptions or "parameters" such as the mean will be familiar to you already and probably use them far more than you are aware of. www.le.ac.uk /biology/gat/virtualfc/Stats/descrip.html   (651 words)

 ABC Statistics Statistical inference is the use of samples to reach conclusions about the population from which those samples have been drawn. In statistics it is a group of numbers in rows and columns with the smallest at the beginning and the rest in order of size up to the largest at the end. In a statistical survey of London pigeons, the population is all the pigeons in London. www.mdx.ac.uk /WWW/STUDY/glonumst.htm   (1796 words)

 Descriptive statistics In general, descriptive statistics--like the univariate descriptive plots--can be classified into three groups, those that measure 1) central tendency or location of a set of numbers, 2) variability or dispersion, and 3) the shape of the distribution. The correlation coefficient is a simple descriptive statistic that measures the strength of the linear relationship between two interval- or ratio-scale variables (as opposed to categorical, or nominal-scale variables), as might be visualized in a scatter plot. statistic measures the strength of association between two categorical variables (nominal- or ordinal-scale variables, summarized by a cross-tabulation, a table that shows the frequency of occurrence of observations with particular combinations of the levels of two (or more) variables. geography.uoregon.edu /bartlein/old_courses/geog414f03/lectures/lec04.htm   (539 words)

 The Commons Math User Guide - Statistics - Math Each statistic is implemented as a separate class, in one of the subpackages (moment, rank, summary) and each extends one of the abstract classes above (depending on whether or not value storage is required to compute the statistic). Statistics can be instantiated and used directly, but it is generally more convenient (and efficient) to access them using the provided aggregates, DescriptiveStatistics and SummaryStatistics. Inference statistics (confidence intervals, parameter significance levels) are based on on the assumption that the observations included in the model are drawn from a Bivariate Normal Distribution jakarta.apache.org /commons/math/userguide/stat.html   (1886 words)

 Descriptive Statistics Therefore, other statistics such as the median may be more informative for distributions such as reaction time or family income that are frequently very skewed. Although the range is a crude measure of variability, it is easy to calculate and useful as an outline description of a dataset (EDA, box and whisker plot). The standard error of a statistic is the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of that statistic. www-micro.msb.le.ac.uk /1010/1011-18.html   (1464 words)

 The 5 Basic Descriptive Statistics for Continuous Data Stem-leaf plots and histograms are useful descriptions of a sample but often we want to describe samples or compare samples with a few descriptive statistics. It is not sensitive to outliers (25% of the data have to be outliers to affect IQR); hence, IQR is robust. In summary, for the Etruscan data, the five basic descriptive statistics are: 126, 142, 146, 150 and 158mm. www.stat.wmich.edu /s160/book/node7.html   (1168 words)

 Research Methods - Descriptive Statistics in AllPsych Online For instance, the average test grade of a third grade class would be a descriptive statistic because we are using all of the students in the class to determine a known average. Second, inferential statistics, has two goals: (1) to determine what might be happening in a population based on a sample of the population (often referred to as estimation) and (2) to determine what might happen in the future (often referred to as prediction). Descriptive statistics, however, require the entire population be used. allpsych.com /researchmethods/descriptivestatistics.html   (349 words)

 Statistical Functions Are Different from Descriptive Statistics When you are working with an array of n numbers, you can either use the Descriptive Statistics command that is listed in the Data Analysis dialog box, which is available if the Analysis Tool Pack (ATP) add-in is loaded, or you can use the various worksheet functions for these statistics. Note that the output for Descriptive Statistics is labeled "Sample Values." This is a meaningful label. The Confidence Level calculation in the Descriptive Statistics package uses the Student's t function to calculate the confidence, while the CONFIDENCE worksheet function uses the standardized Normal curve to perform the calculation. support.microsoft.com /kb/179121   (547 words)

 Chapter 15 As you can see, the field of statistics can be divided into descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (and there are further subdivisions under inferential statistics which is the topic of the next chapter). This chapter is about descriptive statistics (i.e., the use of statistics to describe, summarize, and explain or make sense of a given set of data). In statistics, we often want to see the shape of the distribution of quantitative variables; having your computer program provide you with a histogram is a simple way to do this. www.southalabama.edu /coe/bset/johnson/dr_johnson/lectures/lec15.htm   (2733 words)

 Descriptive Statistics: Distributions of Variables In talking about statistics, we will refer to individual measurements as scores and to a set of measurements as data. Descriptive statistics refers to a set of techniques for describing data. Inferential statistics refers to a set of techniques for determining the extent to which the results of a study—done with a limited sample of subjects—apply more generally. psych.csufresno.edu /price/psych144/desc.html   (683 words)

 Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics are numbers that are used to summarize and describe data. Any other number we choose to compute also counts as a descriptive statistic for the data from which the statistic is computed. Several descriptive statistics are often used at one time, to give a full picture of the data. onlinestatbook.com /chapter1/descriptive.html   (748 words)

 STATISTICA Base Thus, basic statistics (or any other statistical analysis) can be computed for results tables from previous analyses; for example, you could very quickly compute a table of means for 2000 variables, and next use this table as an input data file to further analyze the distribution of those means across the variables. In addition to the detailed descriptive statistics that can be computed for every spreadsheet, you can also highlight blocks of numbers in any spreadsheet, and produce basic descriptive statistics or graphs for the respective subset of numbers only. Statistical analysis by blocks can be performed by row or by column; for example, you could also compute a multiple line graph for a subset of variables across the different measures of central tendency. www.statsoft.com /products/base.html   (2171 words)

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