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Topic: Desegregation

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  Desegregation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States.
Desegregation was long a focus of the American civil rights movement, both before and after the United States Supreme Court's decision in Brown v.
Racial desegregation was handed a setback in 1896, when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in the case of Plessy v.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Desegregation   (1679 words)

 Desegregation busing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Desegregation busing, referred to as forced busing in some areas, is the practice of pursuing racial or economic integration in American public schools by transporting schoolchildren to schools outside their area of residence.
After desegregation laws proscribed legally-enforced segregation of public schools by states and municipal authorities, schools in many parts of the country continued to be segregated by race.
After the desegregation process began, large numbers of whites in the upper and middle classes who could afford it pulled their children from the integrated public school system and placed them into private schools instead.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Desegregation_busing   (2693 words)

 Recent Changes in School Desegregation. ERIC Digest.
During the 1970s and 1980s, the focus of desegregation was on the physical integration of African American and white students through such measures as busing, school choice, magnet schools, use of ratios, redrawn school district boundaries, mandatory and voluntary intra- and interdistrict transfers, and consolidation of city districts with suburban districts (Willis, 1994).
Desegregation plans in many smaller cities are becoming increasingly ineffective with the tremendous growth of white suburbs and the expansion of inner-city neighborhoods without adjustments to racial balance mandates.
Because of these trends in the 1990s, desegregation planners across the country are increasingly turning their attention from desegregation remedies such as student transfer and reassignment to achieve racial balance to a focus on access, equity, and the academic performance of minority students (Willis, 1994).
www.ericdigests.org /1998-3/desegregation.html   (2235 words)

 Schools More Separate - Vol. 16 No. 1 - Rethinking Schools Online
Substantial desegregation was most common in the 17 states which had legal apartheid 'segregation mandated by law' in their schools before the 1954 Brown decision.
Many Americans believe that desegregation is impossible because of white flight, that it led to a massive transfer to private schools, that public opinion has turned against it, that Blacks no longer support it, and that it is more beneficial for students to use desegregation funding for compensatory education.
Desegregation at the school level is a necessary, but far from sufficient, condition for assuring equal opportunity in practice.
www.rethinkingschools.org /archive/16_01/Seg161.shtml   (5135 words)

 civilrights.org -- Civil Rights 101
Following Brown and Brown II (which called for desegregation with "all deliberate speed" in 1955), education became the focus of what was called the South's "massive resistance" to the Court's rulings.
Swann called for district-wide desegregation and allowed for the use of busing to achieve integration, finding that the times and distances involved in the desegregation plan were no more onerous than those involved in the busing already undertaken by Charlotte for non-desegregation purposes.
Desegregation has always been a fundamental aim of the civil rights movement in this country and was given special impetus by the Supreme Court's 1954 decision in Brown v.
www.civilrights.org /research_center/civilrights101/desegregation.html   (2104 words)

 88.01.03: School Desegregation and Prejudice in the United States
Desegregated schools send a message of victory to the fl community, that of equal protection under the law.
However, community support of school desegregation as well as the attitudinal makeup of the individual and the influence of his family and peers are important factors that influence whether or not a child feels a sense of power.
On day four, plan to have a guest speaker who is locally active in school desegregation in your school district, This may be the Superintendent of Schools, a Department of Education Official or a political figure in the community.
www.yale.edu /ynhti/curriculum/units/1988/1/88.01.03.x.html   (4813 words)

 HighBeam Encyclopedia - desegregation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Desegregation and effective school leadership: tracking success, 1954-1980.
The desegregation of gambling media and the emergence of a single form of gambling.
From desegregation to resegregation: public schools in Norfolk, Virginia 1954-2002.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/X/X-desegreg.asp   (253 words)

 Education Policy Analysis Archives: Vol. 1 No. 7 Kazal-Thresher "Finance Reform and Desegregation"
Although the goals of desegregation are somewhat controversial and subject to judicial scrutiny and interpretation, two consistently discussed goals are to increase interracial exposure through seeking more racially balanced schools, and to improve the quality of education available to minority students.
With this view in mind, it may be appropriate for desegregation advocates to direct their efforts to improving the level of resources and the quality of inputs into minority dominated schools as one of their main targets rather than focusing on racial integration per se.
With regard to the impact of this desegregation program on student achievement and interracial interaction, both dimensions appear not to have been improved by the presence of the magnet programs on the campus and the increase in the number of white students in attendance.
epaa.asu.edu /epaa/v1n7.html   (6593 words)

 School Desegregation
School desegregation became an issue in Chicago during the years following World War II, as the city's African American neighborhoods expanded and school officials adjusted boundary lines to assure that school districts remained as segregated as the housing market.
But desegregation remained a controversial issue in Chicago, and plans to achieve integration contributed to white migration from the city.
School superintendent Benjamin Willis rejected calls for desegregation, and the portable classrooms added to fl schools were derisively labeled “Willis Wagons.” In 1963 massive demonstrations were staged by students and parents to protest Willis's policies.
www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org /pages/1121.html   (616 words)

 People For the American Way - An Attorney General’s crusade to obstruct voluntary desegregation.
Ashcroft’s significant involvement with desegregation in St. Louis began around 1980, for in that year both the federal court of appeals for the Eighth Circuit and the federal district court in St. Louis found both the State of Missouri and the City school board liable for continued segregation of the public schools.
School desegregation expert Dr. Gary Orfield was reported as testifying in court that the state’s arguments reminded him of the defense of segregation in Brown v.
Newspapers on both sides of the desegregation issue were highly critical of Ashcroft, along with his primary opponent, for divisive rhetoric.
www.pfaw.org /pfaw/general/default.aspx?oid=1099   (2519 words)

 Race in American Public Schools: Rapidly Resegregating School Districts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
This measure is not a measure of discrimination or of the feasibility of desegregation in a given district—just of the actual level of interracial exposure that existed in 2000-2001.
As courts across the country end long-running desegregation plans and, in some states, have forbidden the use of any racially-conscious student assignment plans, the last 10-15 years have seen a steady unraveling of almost 25 years worth of increased integration.
From the early 1970s to the late 1980s, districts in the South had the highest levels of fl-white desegregation in the nation; from 1986-2000, however, some of the most rapidly resegregating districts for fl students’ exposure to whites are in the South.
www.civilrightsproject.harvard.edu /research/deseg/reseg_schools02.php   (1837 words)

 Desegregation order may end
Phoenix high school officials are asking a federal judge to lift a 19-year-old desegregation order, saying they've done everything possible to ensure that district schools are racially balanced and students have equal access to education programs.
The desegregation case was prompted in part by the closing of four schools attended primarily by minority students: Phoenix Union, East, North and West.
After that, desegregation efforts would no longer be under the direction of the federal court, controlled instead by the district's board.
www.azcentral.com /arizonarepublic/local/articles/0523deseg23.html   (793 words)

 From Revolution to Reconstruction: Outlines: American History (1994): Chapter Eleven: Desegregation (14/14)
He ordered the desegregation of Washington, D.C., schools to serve as a model for the rest of the country, and sought to end discrimination in other areas as well.
Just before implementation of a desegregation plan calling for the admission of nine fl students to a previously all-white high school, the governor declared that violence threatened, and posted Arkansas National Guardsmen to keep peace by turning the fl students away.
And so desegregation began with soldiers standing in classrooms to ensure the rule of law.
odur.let.rug.nl /~usa/H/1994/ch11_p14.htm   (719 words)

 @@Desegregation: Index of Diversity
Desegregation HURTS Asians Although Southeast Asians may be helped by busing programs in Wisconsin, desegregation laws have caused Chinese to be excluded by a ceiling quota at Lowell High School in San Francisco which benefits mainly only Whites, Japanese and Koreans.
Desegregation is a failure, in fact some of the most successful minority education institutions are predominantly minority.
On the one hand, he says that desegregation is needed because of differences in achievement, but on the other hand, he says that integration isn't doesn't result in equality, nor should it be expected to, there are other good reasons to enforce desegregation.
www.arthurhu.com /index/deseg.htm   (7437 words)

 NPR : Looking Back: Brown v. Board of Education   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Boston's desegregation battles began 20 years after Brown with the 1974 order by a federal judge to bus fl and white students across town to achieve racial balance.
She also talks with former U.S. marshals who were recruited to carry out desegregation orders in the 1950s and '60s.
NPR's Juan Williams traces the story of Thurgood Marshall, who led the fight to desegregate public schools and later went on to become the first African American on the Supreme Court.
www.npr.org /news/specials/brown50   (1787 words)

 People For the American Way - Racial Desegregation of Missouri Schools
Ashcroft spent years and significant state resources in efforts to stymie voluntary St. Louis desegregation plans designed to enable city and suburban students and families to choose whether to participate on a completely voluntary basis.
Observers chastised him for exploiting his opposition to desegregation in his campaign for governor through rhetoric widely perceived as racially divisive.
And he failed completely to undertake meaningful efforts to solve the problems of state-created segregation, to resolve the litigation through negotiations or settlement, or to provide constructive leadership on the issue, all important qualities for a future U.S. Attorney General.
www.pfaw.org /pfaw/general/default.aspx?oid=1097   (385 words)

 From Plessy v. Ferguson to Brown v. Board of Education: The Supreme Court Rules on School Desegregation
The struggle for desegregated schools and then general civil rights turned out to be a painful one, both physically and mentally.
The first is a brief description of the events leading up to the school desegregation in Little Rock, Arkansas written by Daisy Bates, the president of the state NAACP.
The management of school desegregation through busing is their favorite target.
www.yale.edu /ynhti/pubs/A5/wolff.html   (5329 words)

 PBS - JAZZ A Film By Ken Burns: Classroom: Louis Armstrong and School Desegregation
Explain to your students that they are going to produce a jazz radio program as the school desegregation crisis in Little Rock, Arkansas unfolds before the nation in early September of 1957.
Roundtable discussion with a panel of "presidential historians" about President Eisenhower, his stand on school desegregation up until this time (he was opposed to it) and what they think he will do next.
Students can evaluate each other or be evaluated by you for their ability to work as a member of a cooperative group.
www.pbs.org /jazz/classroom/jazzschool.htm   (3207 words)

 Research: School Desegregation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Lawyers representing a group of Black, Latino and White families filed a lawsuit in U.S. District Court charging that schools in the Park Hill neighborhoods were intentionally segregated to keep White students separate from minority students.
This report is about the changing patterns of segregation in American public schools through the 2003-2004 school year.
We begin by examining the transformation of racial composition in the nation’s schools, the dynamic patterns of segregation and desegregation of all racial groups in regions, states, and districts by using data from 1968 until 2003-4.
www.civilrightsproject.harvard.edu /research/deseg/deseg_gen.php   (357 words)

 CALL ME RACIST, I DON’T CARE: The Controversy Over School Desegregation in Englewood, New Jersey
The arguments presented by Englewood in 1986 were similar to those made in hundreds of desegregation cases nationwide since Brown: a segregated education created a stigma of inferiority among socioeconomically disadvantaged students, and minority students must study in an integrated environment to succeed in a multicultural world.
David Armor examined research on the effects of desegregated schools and concluded that socioeconomic status of fl families, not school segregation by itself, is largely responsible for differences in academic performance.
Anyone with financial means could avoid the desegregation plans altogether by moving to the nearby suburbs, or by sending their children to private or parochial schools.
www.geocities.com /ebgold   (19438 words)

 Desegregation - Voyager, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
This strict interpration of federalism was overthrown when the United States Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 almost a century later.
Ferguson that the Fourteenth Amendment did not require facilities to be racially integrated as long as they were equal, and the separate but equal doctrine prevailed for well over a half-century until it was reversed in 1954 by the Supreme Court in Brown v.
The Army high command took notice and formally announced its plans to desegrate on July 26, 1951, exactly three years after Truman had issued Executive Order 9981.
voyager.in /Desegregation   (1340 words)

 Metropolis St. Louis: Focus on Desegregation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Most significantly, SB 781 is designed to provide a framework for a negotiated end to court-ordered desegregation in the city and to alter the city-county voluntary transfer program.
In March of 1999, or before, city voters will decide whether or not to increase taxes to cover the difference between what the state currently provides and what it would provide if SB 781 is enacted.
Below are some resources concerning SB 781, current and past desegregation efforts in Saint Louis, national issues surrounding desegregation, and urban education in general.
www.mstl.org /focus/deseg.html   (427 words)

There are four sections to this finding aid: Delaware desegregation papers, non- Delaware desegregation papers, index to persons, and index to bibliographies.
Delaware started a desegregation project in the public school system in the mid 1970s, and the bulk of the collection relates to this.
Included are desegregation proposals, demographic information, advisory literature, workshop information, and studies and reports on the progress and results of desegregation.
www.lib.udel.edu /ud/spec/findaids/deseg.htm   (1956 words)

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