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Topic: Design by contract


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In the News (Wed 21 Aug 19)

  
  Design by contract - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Design by contract, DBC or Programming by contract is a methodology for designing computer software.
Design by contract also fosters code reuse, since the contract for each piece of code is fully documented.
Design By Contract is a discipline for building software such that the collaborations between objects are correct.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Design_by_contract   (1871 words)

  
 D Programming Language - Contract Programming
Contracts are the concept of preconditions, postconditions, errors, and invariants.
Contracts form part of the specification for a program, moving it from the documentation to the code itself.
Catching the contract violation is useful when the code must deal with errant uses by other code, when it must be failure proof, and as a useful tool for debugging.
www.digitalmars.com /d/dbc.html   (788 words)

  
 ONLamp.com -- Using Design by Contract in C
To quote Bertrand Meyer, the key concept of Design by Contract is "viewing the relationship between a class and its clients as a formal agreement, expressing each party's right and obligations" [3].
Design by Contract for C, a code generator that turns contracts embedded in C comments into C code to check the contracts.
DBC for C: generates Design by Contract runtime checks and documentation from tags embedded in C comments.
www.onlamp.com /pub/a/onlamp/2004/10/28/design_by_contract_in_c.html   (2412 words)

  
 Design by Contract
Design by Contract is the major technological breakthrough in software engineering in the past 15 years.
Design by Contract can, like no other technique since the invention of classes and objects, dramatically affect the way we develop software, and it is a required condition for achieving the promise of the Component Revolution.
Design by Contract tackles head-on the issue of software reliability, by taking a holistic approach to the construction of systems so that they will work correctly the first time around.
www.designbycontract.com   (166 words)

  
 jContractor: Design by Contract for Java   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Design By Contract, the brain child of Bertrand Meyer, is a method of building quality software by explicitly specifying what each function in a system requires to do its job, and what it provides to the caller.
Design By Contract is fully integrated into the Eiffel language, designed by Dr. Meyer.
Contracts in a superclass are enforced in all subclasses, which helps ensure that subclasses define methods that behave as the superclass author intended.
jcontractor.sourceforge.net   (909 words)

  
 The Design by Contract Specification Language
DbC contracts are expressed with Java code embedded within Javadoc comments in a.java source file.
In a DbC enhanced environment, the contracts are executed/checked when methods of a class with DbC contracts are invoked.
Contracts that appear in the body of a method should be considered normal statements.
www.cs.indiana.edu /csg/links/parasoft/jtest/dbc3.htm   (2006 words)

  
 Contract Programming 101
Contract Programming is something that’s been around for a long time but is getting far more air play, and rigorous examination, in recent times.
Finally, it examines the often-misunderstood relationship between exceptional conditions, invalid data and contract violations, highlighting the fact that exceptions are a tool for use in the implementation of correctly handling programs as well as a mechanism for the reporting of contract violations.
Essentially, contract programming is about specifying the design, in terms of the behaviour, of your components (functions and classes), and asserting truths about the design of your code in the form of runtime tests placed within it.
www.artima.com /cppsource/deepspace.html   (1368 words)

  
 Building bug-free O-O software: An introduction to Design by Contract
A contract document protects both the client, by specifying how much should be done, and the supplier, by stating that the supplier is not liable for failing to carry out tasks outside of the specified scope.
Viewed from the contract theory, an invariant is a general clause which applies to the entire set of contracts defining a class.
An important consequence of the Design by Contract theory is to yield a better understanding of the central object-oriented notions of inheritance, polymorphism, redefinition and dynamic binding.
archive.eiffel.com /doc/manuals/technology/contract   (3148 words)

  
 Java Practices: Design by Contract   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Design By Contract is an effective guideline of lasting value for creating a specification.
The fundamental idea of Design By Contract is to treat the services offered by a class or interface as a contract between the class (or interface) and its caller.
Although Design By Contract is a formal part of some programming languages, such as Eiffel, it is not a formal part of Java.
www.javapractices.com /Topic194.cjp   (299 words)

  
 About Design by Contract
Design by Contract is a structured way of writing comments to define what code should do.
The simplest example of an implicit contract in Java is a method to which you are not supposed to pass null.
DbC originated in the Eiffel programming language, where classes are components that cooperate through the use of a contract that defines the obligations and benefits for each class.
www.cs.indiana.edu /csg/links/parasoft/jtest/dbc1.htm   (644 words)

  
 JOT: Journal of Object Technology - Design by Contract Using Meta-Assertions
Contract writing for methods in classes that are clients of other classes can bring undesirable effects, like the increasing in class coupling and encapsulation decreasing.
Testing contract assertions at run-time is also important because it is a way to ensure that methods are executed only if they are given the proper conditions, and to ensure that only correct implementations of specifications are executed.
Another approach could be to write contracts that refer to the contracts of other methods allowing to say, for example, that the result of moving a polygon is the same as the result of moving all its vertices.
www.jot.fm /issues/issue_2002_08/article3   (6146 words)

  
 Contract enforcement with AOP
Design by Contract (DBC) is a technique in object-oriented software design whose goal is to ensure software quality, reliability, and reusability.
DBC is especially valuable when you're dealing with external components or libraries and need to ensure that the data your application passes to them and receives from them is correct.
This aspect specifies the exact point where the contract is to be applied and the control logic necessary to apply the contract, shown in Figure 2.
www-106.ibm.com /developerworks/java/library/j-ceaop   (1814 words)

  
 Design by Contract Programming in C++
In legal terms, a contract is a binding document that describes the responsibilities and expectations of the parties entering into the contract.
The "design by contract" framework can work only if the programmers can introduce aggressive checks without having to worrying about their performance implications.
You can view the contract checking as a diagnostic programming technique that allows you to be extra suspicious in handling contracts when the implementation of the contract is new and untested.
www.eventhelix.com /RealtimeMantra/Object_Oriented/design_by_contract.htm   (1114 words)

  
 Web Design Contract
Client agrees to authorize McSpirit Designs access to this account and authorizes their web host service provider to grant McSpirit Designs "write permission" for the Client's web page directory, cgi-bin directory (if applicable), and any other directories or programs which need to be accessed in order to complete this project.
CLIENT may elect to hire McSpirit Designs to design a logo outside of this contract at an hourly rate of $30.
However, if McSpirit Designs is delayed due to circumstances beyond his or her control, contract completion and required final payment will be postponed to a new agreed-upon date.
www.mcspiritdesigns.com /contract.html   (1613 words)

  
 ADE Design Build > Contract
ADE Design Build’s onsite design consultant fees are determined on a per job basis; any expenses occurred related to the assignment are additional.
ADE Design Build design and engineering fees are also billed at prices that are determined on a per job basis.
The original design work is retained by ADE Design Build and payment will be made by the client for work completed, based on the contract price and expenses already incurred.
www.adedesignbuild.net /docs/contract.htm   (315 words)

  
 Implement Design by Contract for Java using dynamic proxies
Contracts formally specify the responsibility relationship between a client (class user) and a supplier (class).
DBC provides a formal way of writing detailed specifications with assertions; these can be viewed as enforceable contracts between the designer/developer of a class or interface (abstraction) and the class or interface client.
The API specification is often ambiguous; in some cases, the architect or designer may interpret the specification differently than the implementer, which may introduce defects.
www.javaworld.com /javaworld/jw-02-2002/jw-0215-dbcproxy.html   (1105 words)

  
 DoodleProject - Design by Contract   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
We showed the key to conforming to the Liskov Substitution Principle is designing class hierarchies around behavior and not data and gave a simple example of a common Liskov Substitution Principle violation, overriding base methods.
To help with designing classes that conform to the Liskov Substitution Principle, the technique of Design by Contract can be employed to help facilitate proper class inheritance.
The contract is then formed between the method caller, or client, and the method.
doodleproject.sourceforge.net /articles/2000/designByContract.html   (691 words)

  
 Design by Contract and Unit Testing - { | one, step, back | }
In short, Design by Contract starts by specifying the conditions under which it is legal to call a method.
By identifying the contract, we are clearly identifying the responsibilities of each party in a collaboration.
DbC postconditions are general and answer the question of how a method responds under all possible legal conditions.
onestepback.org /index.cgi/Tech/Programming/DbcAndTesting.html   (2001 words)

  
 Amazon.com: Design by Contract by Example: Books: Richard Mitchell,Jim McKim   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Contracts are built of assertions, which are used to express preconditions, postconditions and invariants.
Design by Contract, by Example is the first book of its kind to offer an example-based approach to learning this important paradigm.
Design by Contract by Example is written carefully, accurately and with the reader in mind.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0201634600?v=glance   (2002 words)

  
 Using Assertions in Java Programs - A Novel Approach
The three key elements of DBC are preconditions, postconditions and class invariant.
Contracts may be specified for an interface, which gets propagated to its implementing classes.
Though the Java programming language does not directly support design by contract as yet, there are several ways to add such a support from outside.
www.mmsindia.com /DBCForJava.html   (1650 words)

  
 SE304/CS407 - Formal Methods - Design by Contract   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
DBC: covering method pre/post conditions, class invariants and inheritance.
Design by Contract, by Example by Richard Mitchell and Jim McKim provides a pretty straightforward introduction to contracts.
Design Patterns and Contracts that ties DBC into modern software engineering concepts.
www.cs.may.ie /~jpower/Courses/formalMethods/dbc   (227 words)

  
 Design by contract   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
We have used the term "design by contract" in the title because it is well-known in professional circles and because of some basic similarities of the
In place of "design by contract" we prefer to speak of attached assertions (pre- and postconditions are attached to methods, invariants to classes) and of assertion checking.
The term "attached assertions" emphasizes that such an assertion isn't embedded within normal executable code but attached to the declarations/implementations of methods and classes; their execution is triggered by the run time system on specific occasions (entry/exit to/from methods).
lavape.sourceforge.net /doc/html/DBC.htm   (1616 words)

  
 Design Services Contract   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Contract design is the process of refining a ship concept into a design of sufficient detail to serve as the basis for bidding on detail design and construction.
In this process, naval architects and marine engineers at M. Rosenblatt and Son (MRandS) develop the design of a ship or platform and each of its systems, describing them succinctly in the form of specifications, drawings, simulations, and/or a product model according to the needs of the client.
Contract design packages may be prepared for an entire vessel, or for any of its subsystems or components.
www.amsec.com /services.design.more.contract.html   (275 words)

  
 Web Design Contract Terms   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
This Contract is a sample ONLY and is subject to change.
Without sacrificing quality and design, we try to ensure that the content and functions we build into our web sites are available to all visitors.
The period of 6 months begins on the date the Client's web design site is available to be published to Client's hosting service or 30 days from the date this agreement was signed, which ever comes first.
www.net-sites.com /contract.htm   (1291 words)

  
 Northstate Web Design Contract Sample
This Web Design Project will be developed to no specific standard nor does it conform to any particular www requirement.
The time period begins on the date the Client's web design site is available to be published to Client's hosting service or 30 days from the date this agreement was signed, which ever comes first.
Any additional work not specified in this contract or any other amendment or modification to this contract must be authorized by a written request signed by both Client and Northstate.
www.northstate.org /wdcon7.html   (1447 words)

  
 Design by Contract
In this second installment, Meyer discusses Design by Contract and the limits of formal languages for expressing contracts.
What we found many years ago when we started focusing seriously on libraries is that just as much attention has to be devoted to the construction of the library as a whole as to the construction of the individual elements.
This is, of course, where the techniques of Design by Contract come in.
www.artima.com /intv/contracts.html   (534 words)

  
 iContract: Design by Contract in Java
The Design by Contract technique stresses the importance of explicitly specifying the constraints that hold before and after a software component executes.
The Design by Contract (DBC) software development technique ensures high-quality software by guaranteeing that every component of a system lives up to its expectations.
Regardless of its origin, DBC is a valuable design technique for all programming languages, including Java.
www.javaworld.com /javaworld/jw-02-2001/jw-0216-cooltools.html   (1684 words)

  
 Design Contract   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
a) 1/2 of the Design Estimate is due upon signed approval and delivery of Estimate and Contracts.
Once designed and upon payment of the Final Invoice the Web Site will be uploaded to the World Wide Web (WWW).
Revisions to this Contract will be considered agreed to by Provider and Client when 5 days written notice of requested changes have been signed by both parties.
www.lrsmarketing.com /designcontract.htm   (935 words)

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