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Topic: Deterrence

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  Deterrence theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Deterrence theory is a defensive strategy developed after World War II and used throughout the Cold War.
Deterrence in the Cold War was related to George P. Kennan's ideology of Containment and President Ronald Regan's arms build-up in the 1980's.
The arms race during deterrence might escalate the risk of accidental deployment possibly leading to war.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Deterrence_theory   (401 words)

 Deterrence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Deterrence is a means of controlling a person's behavior through negative motivational influences, namely fear of punishment.
At the military level, the same principle has become known as the deterrence theory.
Deterrence is also a 1999 movie by director Rod Lurie.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Deterrence   (87 words)

 Deterrence and other myths
The theory of deterrence is not concerned with the threat of nuclear annihilation; living in its shadow is the name of the game.
The awful, essential, truth of deterrence theory is that the possessor stands committed to using, and threatening to use, nuclear weapons.
It is this discredited theory of deterrence, an immoral and dangerous justification for the possession of weapons of mass annihilation and genocide, that the Vajpayee Government and assorted nuclear hawks have embraced in their pursuit of a "minimum credible nuclear deterrence" doctrine for India's nuclear weapons.
www.flonnet.com /fl1610/16101150.htm   (1699 words)

 Missile Defense and Deterrence
Deterrence can involve more than just the threat to retaliate in the event of an attack.
Our deterrence strategy to date has largely relied on our ability to respond to attack with a variety of options, ranging from a devastating retaliation through more selective strikes, and our offensive nuclear forces are and will remain a key component of that capability.
This diversified approach to deterrence is appropriate for the complex and less predictable world in which we live.
www.state.gov /t/ac/rls/fs/2001/4891.htm   (898 words)

In short, deterrence can only work if the threat of punishment is combined with the conviction that the forbidden acts are not only illegal and therefore punishable but immoral.
Actual statistics about the deterrent value of capital punishment are not available because it is impossible to know who may have been deterred from a committing a crime.
Deterrence is the act or process of discouraging and preventing an action from occurring (Webster, 307).
www.cwrl.utexas.edu /~tonya/spring/cap/pro1.htm   (1056 words)

 NWC Review, Spring 1998: Barnett   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Deterrence of an information attack against the United States and its friends and allies, and the use of information operations in the affairs of state constitute the dual focus of attention.
For deterrence by threat of punishment, then, the outcome pivots on the question of will; for deterrence by denial, it is a question of adequate defenses and of how to demonstrate sufficient will to effect focused deterrence.
Deterrence by both punishment and denial would be bolstered by articulation of a deterrent policy and other actions that communicate the willingness of the United States to play an active role in information operations across the board.
www.nwc.navy.mil /press/review/1998/spring/art1-sp8.htm   (5423 words)

 Facts about Deterrence and the Death Penalty
They speculated that if a deterrent effect were to exist, it would be found in Texas because of the high number of death sentences and executions within the state.
The authors found no support for a deterrent effect of capital punishment at the county level comparing matched counties inside and outside states with capital punishment, with and without a death row population, and with and without executions.
A study of the deterrence value of the death penalty focused on whether the death penalty deterred the murder of police officers.
www.deathpenaltyinfo.org /article.php?scid=12&did=167   (3310 words)

 Reader's Companion to Military History - - Deterrence   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Deterrence theory was also heavily psychological, examining the nuances of perception and misperception, not real capability, which was often hidden from view by layers of secrecy.
Deterrence still succeeds, to be sure, and indeed one of its peculiarities is that evidence of its success is often ambiguous, because successful deterrence is usually manifested by a chain of nonevents.
But deterrence in the modern period, like that of earlier times, is likely to be a chancy business, in which the actual use of military power, and not merely its threat, will constitute the substance of strategy.
college.hmco.com /history/readerscomp/mil/html/ml_014800_deterrence.htm   (1077 words)

 [No title]
Deterrence and the Death Penalty: The Views of the Experts Michael L. Radelet and Ronald L. Akers Abstract The goal of this research is to determine if there is consensus among expert criminologists on whether the death penalty has been, is, or could be a general deterrent to criminal homicide.
But just like belief in the death penalty's deterrent effects tends to correlate with pro-death penalty attitudes, most groups and individuals who oppose the death penalty are not convinced that the punishment is an effective deterrent to homicide (Gallup, 1991).
Whether or not the threat or use of the death penalty is, has been, or could be a deterrent to homicide is an empirical question that cannot be answered on the basis of gut feelings or on moral or political grounds.
sun.soci.niu.edu /~critcrim/dp/dppapers/mike.deterence   (5050 words)

Deterrence is immoral: it condemns all nuclear armed nations in complicity to do what no nation should ever do, namely kill hundreds of millions of innocent people and put the life of the human species in jeopardy.
For according to the theory, deterrence "works" when the minds of the leaderships on both sides of a nuclear standoff are so deeply impressed with the fear of the other side’s retaliation that they do not dare to strike in the first place.
Deterrence is indeed the codification and institutionalization of this reactive cycle.
disarm.igc.org /schell.html   (1667 words)

 Deterrence:0745631126:Freedman, Lawrence:eCampus.com
The concept of deterrence dominated western strategic thinking for over four decades, so much so that every strategic move was made with reference to its requirements.
Deterrence poses analytical problems, because it can take a variety of forms--punishment or denial, general or immediate, extended and existential.
At the same time, it can serve as a strategy of those attempting to deter, a description of a relationship in which deterrence is taking place, and the state of mind of one who feels deterred.
www.ecampus.com /bk_detail.asp?isbn=0745631126   (174 words)

 Military Review: The significance of conventional deterrence in Latin America
Deterrence is often confused with the desire to avoid aggression, which is the natural attitude of a country that feels equal or inferior to another.
Deterrence is an "effect." Its results depend on the opinion the opponent has of his adversary's capability to win.
He was not convinced by conventional deterrence: "The classical arms race creates instability, just as the nuclear race creates stability." (11) This might be true, but not in countries led by terrorists or fanatics possessed by messianic visions or that have no political or strategic discipline.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0PBZ/is_2_84/ai_n6112505   (1320 words)

 CJLF- Listing of articles on death penalty deterrence
Monthly data measure deterrence better than the annual data used in earlier capital punishment papers for two reasons: it is impossible to see monthly murder fluctuations in annual data and only monthly data allow a model in which criminals update their perceived execution risk frequently.
The marginal deterrence effect is shown to be a direct negative function of prison conditions as they are anticipated by the potential offender - the more tolerable someone perceives imprisonment to be, the less deterrent effect prison will have, and the greater the amount of marginal deterrence the threat of capital punishment will add.
At least for some offenders, the death penalty should induce greater caution in their use of lethal violence, and the deterrent effect seen statistically is possibly derived from the change in the behavior of these individuals.
www.cjlf.org /deathpenalty/DPDeterrence.htm   (3083 words)

 Post-Cold War Conflict Deterrence -- Executive Summary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
From a comprehensive evaluation of existing deterrence decision aids and simulations, as well as those adaptable to such purposes, and utilizing a definition of the appropriate elements of a deterrence decision aid, determine their adequacy as a tool for shaping the Navy's deterrence posture, and recommend means for their improvement.
This includes enhancing the aspects of naval intelligence germane to deterrence; incorporating deterrence into training at many levels, ranging from training and curricula in the war colleges to training in planning and operations especially relevant to deterrence; and budgeting to make certain that the deterrence aspects of the naval forces are adequately planned and supported.
It is impossible to denote the potential success or failure of a deterrence action or policy in precise terms because a large element of the outcome of any such activity must involve human judgments and reactions to specific situations, according to the specific value systems of unique individuals who may be involved.
www.nap.edu /execsumm/030905639X.html   (4746 words)

 Concept & Nature of Conventional & Nuclear Deterrence   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Deterrence is the main component of nuclear strategy because since the development of nuclear capability by more than one state, the object of nuclear strategy has been to prevent the use of this capability.
Deterrence cannot escape from preparedness for the eventuality of nuclear war.
A factor to be considered is that for India the context of her nuclear deterrence is multilateral given her perceived Chinese threat and her global ambitions — as witnessed by her creation of a Far Eastern Command based on Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
www.defencejournal.com /2000/nov/concept.htm   (3976 words)

 McNair Paper 45 Introduction
If a challenger is compelled by domestic or international weakness to challenge deterrence despite the credibility of the defender's threat, or to stand firm and not back down during a crisis for fear of losing face, then deterrence policies are indeed irrelevant and even counter-productive; instead of preventing war they lead to war.
Lebow and Stein's conclusion is based to a large extent on their investigation of cases of deterrence failure in the Middle East--the 1969 War of Attrition and the 1973 Yom Kippur War between Egypt and Israel.
The phenomenon of deterrence, which is temporal, dynamic, and causal, has to be tested by a longitudinal research design and not by research designs that focus on "snapshots" of single deterrence episodes.
www.ndu.edu /inss/McNair/mcnair45/m45i.html   (625 words)

 dallasobserver.com | | Film | Nuke 'em | 2000-03-30   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Only a guess, but Deterrence probably means to recall those tense nuclear brinkmanship movies of the Cold War era -- Fail Safe and Seven Days in May and The Bedford Incident -- movies in which political forces ran amok and the fate of the world hung in the balance.
It's clear Lurie means to be politically provocative, that he means to put us in the middle of a moral wrangle over a president's questionable threat to use American nuclear might against a rogue dictator and 12 million of his citizens.
The first page of the press notes for Deterrence promises Lurie's fellow movie reviewers that the picture is "a political thriller with many plot twists and surprises" and asks that the beleaguered scribblers who've sat through the thing "not reveal the end of this film to your readers." Well, now.
www.dallasobserver.com /issues/2000-03-30/film5.html   (1048 words)

 The IR Theory Knowledge Base
Deterrence is commonly thought about in terms of convincing opponents that a particular action would elicit a response resulting in unacceptable damage that would outweigh any likely benefit.
Rather than a simple cost/benefits calculation, however, deterrence is more usefully thought of in terms of a dynamic process with provisions for continuous feedback.
One of the most important assumptions during the Cold War was that nuclear weapons were the most effective deterrent to war between the states of the East and the West.
www.irtheory.com /know.htm   (6903 words)

 Deterrence and Prevention
This idea of a radical break with past practice and past theory is embraced by both sides--by the advocates of deterrence and by the partisans of prevention.
In the case of the former, the movement from deterrence to prevention represents a rejection of time-tested means of dealing with adversaries in favor of the always risky course of waging aggressive war--and losing in the bargain the justification of necessity, thus imperiling the moral legitimacy of our cause.
In the case of deterrence and prevention, however, I would suggest that the mess runs deep, and the theory is not tidy at all.
www.weeklystandard.com /Content/Public/Articles/000/000/002/162kkofc.asp   (653 words)

These measures should be applied with the knowledge that deterrence is based on the perceptions and values of the target decision-maker(s) and that deterrence in crisis situations is related to the general conditions of deterrence before crises erupt.
Deterrence is a state of mind brought about by the existence of a credible threat of unacceptable counter action." The joint definition addresses only one part of the deterrence issue—the fear of consequences (punishment).
Immediate Deterrence: Deterrence applied to specific cases where aggressors are actively considering military operations, the deterring state is aware of the threat, and the deterring military forces are preparing a response to the potential attack.
www.fas.org /man/eprint/herr.htm   (15370 words)

 Parameters: Cumulative deterrence and the war on terrorism
The cumulative deterrence model, discussed in the next section, posits an explanation of enduring conventional conflicts that do not fit within the classical deterrence model for a variety of reasons.
Unlike classical deterrence as practiced during the Cold War, and whose success hinged on a bipolar standoff that held in check any impulse to launch a nuclear first strike, cumulative deterrence is based on the simultaneous use of threats and military force over the course of an extended conflict.
Bar-Yosef supports the argument that Israel's cumulative deterrence approach has succeeded in persuading Arab states that the use of military force to defeat Israel is, in the long run, either operationally impossible or prohibitively expensive.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0IBR/is_4_34/ai_n9522616/pg_2   (1021 words)

The spirit of Ed Wood is alive and well in Deterrence, an astonishingly inept political thriller from first-time director Rod Lurie.
In a perverse way, it’s tempting to recommend this movie simply because words probably can’t convey how bad it is – it has to be seen to be believed.
But when Deterrence uses images of the hideously burned victims of Hiroshima to make its points, and ends with a close-up of real Iraqi soldiers who have been cremated at their posts, the movie itself becomes a crime against humanity.
www.culturevulture.net /Movies/Deterrence.htm   (694 words)

 Eject! Eject! Eject!: DETERRENCE (part 2)
The essence of deterrence, Senator, is to cause uncertainty in the mind of your opponent.
This is the essence of the "deterrence" doctrine.
Deterrence, which is what both Bill and I are talking about, is something that happens to a free person.
www.ejectejecteject.com /archives/000107.html   (18742 words)

In the words of arms-control expert David Goldfischer: "MAD envisions the preservation of deterrence for an eternity of rational leaders and stable societies, of freedom from accident and freedom from miscalculation.
Deterrence means that you have to threaten the use of weapons that you don't want to use in order to avoid using them.
For deterrence to succeed, there must be three conditions: the existence of power, the readiness to use it, and the reflection of these two facts in the consciousness of the potential adversary.
debate.uvm.edu /handbookfile/WMD2002/193.htm   (885 words)

 Defense Issues: Volume 13 Number 34-- Nuclear Deterrence Force Still Essential
The extension of our deterrent to those nations has removed any incentives they might have to develop and deploy their own nuclear forces, as many are technically capable of doing.
It also notes that our deterrent forces and their associated command and control should be flexible and survivable, to ensure that the U.S. will be able to make an adequate and appropriate response.
Because nuclear deterrence will remain an indispensable part of our national security policy for the foreseeable future, the U.S. nuclear deterrent must remain credible; its weapons systems and nuclear warheads must be safe, reliable and effective.
www.defenselink.mil /speeches/1998/t19980331-warner.html   (4697 words)

 Margaret Thatcher - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Labour fought the election on unilateral nuclear disarmament, which proposed to abandon the British nuclear deterrent despite the threat from a nuclear armed Soviet Union, withdrawal from the European Community, and total reversal of Thatcher's economic and trade union changes.
This contrasted with the policy of détente which the West had pursued during the 1970s, and caused friction with allies still wedded to the idea of détente.
This was a start in swinging the West back to a new détente with the Soviet Union in his era, as it proved to be an indication that the Soviet regime's power was decaying.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Margaret_Thatcher   (7361 words)

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