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Topic: Diamagnetism

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  Diamagnetism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Diamagnetism is found in all materials; however, because it is so weak it can only be observed in materials that do not exhibit other forms of magnetism.
Superconductors are perfect diamagnets and when placed in an external magnetic field expel the field lines from their interiors (depending on field intensity and temperature).
Diamagnetic materials have a relative magnetic permeability that is less than 1, and a magnetic susceptibility that is less than 0.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Diamagnetism   (891 words)

 Re: Diamagnetism and paramagnetism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Diamagnetism is a weak repulsion in a magnetic field generated by the current of the orbiting electron.
Diamagnetism is observable in substances with symmetric electronic structure (as ionic crystals and rare gases) and no permanent magnetic moment.
For diamagnetic materials the value of the susceptibility (a measure of the relative amount of induced magnetism) is always negative.
vclass.mtsac.edu:920 /chem1a/_disc7/00000053.htm   (205 words)

 Magnetic properties of solids
Materials may be classified by their response to externally applied magnetic fields as diamagnetic, paramagnetic, or ferromagnetic.
For paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials the relative permeability is very close to 1 and the magnetic susceptibility very close to zero.
All materials are inherently diamagnetic, but if the atoms have some net magnetic moment as in paramagnetic materials, or if there is long-range ordering of atomic magnetic moments as in ferromagnetic materials, these stronger effects are always dominant.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/solids/magpr.html   (564 words)

 Encyclopedia: Diamagnetism
Paramagnetism is the tendency of the atomic magnetic dipoles, due to quantum-mechanical spin, in a material that is otherwise non-magnetic to align with an external magnetic field.
Image File history File links The green oval indicates an area where the pull of the upper magnet is stronger than that of gravity, ideally the levitating magnet is right at the border, so it is weightless.
Superdiamagnetism (or Perfect diamagnetism) is a phenomenon occurring in certain materials at low temperatures, characterised by the complete absence of magnetic susceptibility and the exclusion of the interior magnetic field.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Diamagnetism   (1587 words)

 Exploratorium: Sciece Snacks: Diamagnetism
Diamagnetic materials, however, are repelled by both poles of a magnet.
The diamagnetic force of repulsion is very weak (a hundred thousand times weaker than the ferromagnetic force of attraction).
Atoms and molecules in which all of the electrons are paired with electrons of opposite spin, and in which the orbital currents are zero, are diamagnetic.
www.exploratorium.edu /snacks/diamagnetism_www/index.html   (552 words)

 DIAMAGNETISM - LoveToKnow Article on DIAMAGNETISM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The strongest diamagnetic substance known is bismuth, its susceptibility being0~ooooI4, and its permeability o~9998.
The diamagnetic quality of this metal can be detected by means of a good permanent magnet, and its repulsion by a magnetic pole had been more than once recognized before the date of Faradays experiments.
The metals gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, antimony and mercury are all diamagnetic; tin, aluminium and platinum are attracted by a very strong pole.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /D/DI/DIAMAGNETISM.htm   (156 words)

 American Scientist Online - Diamagnetic Levitation
Bismuth is strongly diamagnetic, and a form of carbon known as pyrolytic graphite shows the highest diamagnetism of all at room temperature.
Other geometries provide for the levitation of an anisotropic diamagnetic material (one in which the degree of diamagnetism depends on the direction of the applied field), such as pyrolytic graphite, which is typically formed using the decomposition of a high—temperature gas to deposit carbon atoms in a carefully controlled manner on a solid substrate.
Diamagnetic levitation may be attractive for these types of sensors as well because of its ability to support objects without solid contact.
www.mae.ncsu.edu /courses/Mae535/buckner/American%20Scientist%20Online%20-%20Diamagnetic%20Levitation.htm   (3572 words)

 Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Diamagnetic is a classification used to describe materials that line up at right angles to a nonuniform magnetic field and are slightly repelled by that field.
Diamagnetism occurs as a result of a magnetic field's interference with the motion of electrons orbiting the atoms or molecules of an element or compound.
Diamagnetism is characteristic of elements and compounds that possess complete sets of valence electrons--meaning that all their electrons are paired.
www.cartage.org.lb /en/themes/Sciences/Physics/SolidStatePhysics/MagneticProperties/Diamagnetism/DiamagnetismParamagnetism/DiamagnetismParamagnetism.htm   (446 words)

 Health and Diamagnetism
When an organism that has been attacked by cancer is supplied with diamagnetically charged, high grade water containing up to 90% energized hydro-carbons (and correspondingly less used up oxygen) the negatively charged diamagnetic reduction elements bind and emulsify the excess oxygen and inactivate it by cooling it.
This diamagnetic vacuum is an atomic suction force which absorbs and draws in the oxygen from the ambient air.
This diamagnetic force is also behind the power of levitation which maintains the earth in a state of labile equilibrium and forces it to revolve around its own axis (called the magnetic axis).
science-fair.spiritworld.info /health-diamagnetism.htm   (661 words)

To a close approximation the diamagnetic susceptibility of a compound is the sum of the susceptibility of its components.
Diamagnetism is the phenomenon of a magnetic field inducing in a material a magnetic field which opposes it.
The graph shows that the diamagnetic susceptibilities of the alkali halides are virtually entirely explained in terms of the diamagnetic susceptibilities of the component ions.
www2.sjsu.edu /faculty/watkins/diamag.htm   (2192 words)

 Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism
As explained in Section 3.1.2 the intensity of magnetisation depends upon both the magnetic moments in the sample and the way that they are oriented with respect to each other, known as the magnetic ordering.
Diamagnetic materials, which have no atomic magnetic moments, have no magnetisation in zero field.
When a field is applied a small, negative moment is induced on the diamagnetic atoms proportional to the applied field strength.
www.cmp.liv.ac.uk /frink/thesis/thesis/node35.html   (157 words)

 Sensors Magazine Online - March 2001 - Diamagnetic Levitation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Diamagnetic materials are not so magnetically permeable as air or vacuum; in other words, magnetic lines of force cannot penetrate diamagnetic materials so easily as they can penetrate air or vacuum.
Diamagnetic levitation was first demonstrated in 1939, when small beads of graphite and bismuth were levitated in an electromagnetic field.
The diamagnetic bearing plates provide a fraction of the lift through their repulsive force relative to the fixed magnet array, and also provide sufficient repulsive force to counteract the attractive force of the bias and lift magnets.
www.sensorsmag.com /articles/0301/30/main.shtml   (2397 words)

 Re: [femm] Diamagnetism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Diamagnetic materials have small (usually very small) negative susceptibility which means that their relative permeability is slightly less than 1.
Note that air is slightly paramagnetic and has a relative permeability of about 1.00000034 (I think) and diamagnetic materials would tend to drive flux out of them - flux density is a little bit lower in the material than in the air surrounding.
Diamagnetic and paramagnetic effects are difficult to measure experimentally and are just as difficult to model.
femm.foster-miller.net /list/msg01112.html   (255 words)

 Chapter Discovery of diamagnetism--researches on magne-crystallic action. of Faraday as a Discoverer by John Tyndall   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
It was proved by Reich, Edmond Becquerel, and myself, that the condition of diamagnetic bodies, in virtue of which they were repelled by the poles of a magnet, was excited in them by those poles; that the strength of this condition rose and fell with, and was proportional to, the strength of the acting magnet.
His first attempt to establish differences of diamagnetic action in different directions through bismuth, was also a failure; but he must have felt this to be a point of cardinal importance, for he returned to the subject in 1850, and proved that bismuth was repelled with different degrees of force in different directions.
The law of action in relation to this point is, that in diamagnetic crystals, the line along which the repulsion is a maximum, sets equatorially in the magnetic field; while in magnetic crystals the line along which the attraction is a maximum sets from pole to pole.
www.bibliomania.org /2/9/72/119/21393/5.html   (786 words)

 Diamagnetism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
http://www.hfml.sci.kun.nl/froglev.html Diamagnetic materials have a relative magnetic permeability that is less than 1, and a magnetic susceptibility that is less than 0.
The basic arrangement for levitating a small, powerful, usually rare-earth magnet is as follows: A large and very strong lifter magnet placed above 2 diamagnets stacked above each other with the small rare-earth magnet in between.
Adjusting the distance between the lifter magnet and the diamagnetic substances, i.e.
diamagnetism.search.ipupdater.com   (416 words)

Diamagnets repel, and are repelled by a strong magnetic field.
The forces created by diamagnetism are extremely weak, millions of times smaller than the forces between magnets and such common ferromagnetic materials as iron.
DIAMAGNETICALLY STABILISED LEVITATION Low temperatures (such that air turns liquid) and powerful magnets (such that cooking pans are drawn from a distance of several meters) are not what one is likely to have at home to be able to watch the superconducting or diamagnetic levitation.
diamagnetics.users2.50megs.com   (458 words)

 McGraw-Hill AccessScience: Diamagnetism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Diamagnetism is a property exhibited by substances with a negative magnetic susceptibility, that is, by substances which magnetize in a direction opposite to that of an applied magnetic field.
A diamagnetic substance has a magnetic permeability less than 1, and is repelled when placed near a magnet.
The magnetization of diamagnetic substances is associated with the currents induced on application of a magnetic field.
www.accessscience.com /Encyclopedia/1/19/Est_190700_frameset.html   (191 words)

 Diamagnetic Levitation
Certain materials are diamagnetic, which means that when they are exposed to a magnetic field, they induce a weak magnetic field in the opposite direction--their magnetic susceptibility is negative.
With an extremely powerful electromagnet, it's possible to diamagnetically levitate a living creature due to the water, protein, and DNA in it's body.
The diamagnetic material provides vertical stability using the weak, reverse magnetic field that is induced in it by the small magnet.
www.otherpower.com /newmaglev.html   (753 words)

 PIRA 5G30.00 PARAMAGNETISM AND DIAMAGNETISM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Paramagnetic and diamagnetic crystals are inserted between the poles of a large electromagnet.
Plans for pole faces to go on the electromagnet from No. 13 for use in para and diamagnetism demonstrations.
Specifications are given for building an electromagnet suitable for the demonstration.
www.physics.ncsu.edu /pira/5eandm/5G30.html   (212 words)

 Meissner effect for superconductors
This constraint to zero magnetic field inside a superconductor is distinct from the perfect diamagnetism which would arise from its zero electrical resistance.
If a conductor already had a steady magnetic field through it and was then cooled through the transition to a zero resistance state, becoming a perfect diamagnet, the magnetic field would be expected to stay the same.
In a solid material, this is called diamagnetism, and a perfect conductor would be a perfect diamagnet.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/solids/meis.html   (480 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Other diamagnetic materials are common place and can also be levitated in a magnetic field if it is strong enough.
In diamagnetics, electrons adjust their trajectories to compensate the influence of the external magnetic field and this results in an induced magnetic field which is directed in the opposite direction.
Superconductors are diamagnetics with the macroscopic change in trajectories (screening current at the surface).
www.resonancepub.com /magphen.htm   (1355 words)

Grep of noun diamagnetism diamagnetism Overview of noun diamagnetism The noun diamagnetism has 1 sense (no senses from tagged texts) 1.
diamagnetism -- (phenomenon exhibited by materials like copper or bismuth that become magnetized in a magnetic field with a polarity opposite to the magnetic force; unlike iron they are slightly repelled by a magnet) Overview of noun diamagnetism The noun diamagnetism has 1 sense (no senses from tagged texts) 1.
diamagnetism -- (phenomenon exhibited by materials like copper or bismuth that become magnetized in a magnetic field with a polarity opposite to the magnetic force; unlike iron they are slightly repelled by a magnet)
www.beetfoundation.com /words/d/alt.diamagnetism.html   (168 words)

 Vector » Topics in the Theory of Solid Materials (John M Vail) » Paramagnetism and diamagnetism in the ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In this chapter we limit ourselves to two of the latter: paramagnetism and diamagnetism in the electron gas.
Diamagnetism represents the fact that electrons in such a field have orbits whose perpendicular projections are circular, and the resultant current loops make a different contribution to the magnetic susceptibility.
A well-known but nonetheless surprisingly simple relationship between low-temperature paramagnetic and diamagnetic susceptibilities is arrived at in section 13.3.6.
vector.iop.org /abstract/0750307293/b898c13   (261 words)

 Classes of Magnetic Materials   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Diamagnetism is a fundamental property of all matter, although it is usually very weak.
Diamagnetic substances are composed of atoms which have no net magnetic moments (ie., all the orbital shells are filled and there are no unpaired electrons).
In the presence of a field, there is now a partial alignment of the atomic magnetic moments in the direction of the field, resulting in a net positive magnetization and positive susceptibility.
www.geo.umn.edu /orgs/irm/hg2m/hg2m_b/hg2m_b.html   (1459 words)

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