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Topic: Differential attack

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In the News (Mon 17 Jun 19)

 [No title]
In Differential Cryptanalysis, a table showing the distribution of the XOR of input pairs against the XOR of output pairs is used to determine probabilities of a particular observed output pair being the result of some input pair.
To attack a multi-round block cipher, the XOR profile is used to build n round characteristics, which have a given probability of occurring.
To utilise this attack, a number of pairs of inputs, having the nominated input XOR, are tried, until an output XOR results which indicates that the pattern specified in the characteristic has occurred.
www.adfa.oz.au /~lpb/papers/tr9138.txt   (4168 words)

 ipedia.com: Differential cryptanalysis Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Differential cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis applicable primarily to block ciphers, but also to stream ciphers and cryptographic hash functions.
The discovery of differential cryptanalysis is generally attributed to Eli Biham and Adi Shamir in the late 1980s, who published a number of attacks against various block ciphers and hash functions, including a theoretical weakness in the Data Encryption Standard (DES).
Differential cryptanalysis is usually a chosen plaintext attack, meaning that the attacker must be able to obtain encrypted ciphertexts for some set of plaintexts of his choosing.
www.ipedia.com /differential_cryptanalysis.html   (623 words)

 FEAL - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The cipher is susceptible to various forms of cryptanalysis, and has acted as a catalyst in the discovery of differential and linear cryptanalysis.
However, eight rounds also proved to be insufficient — in 1989, at the Securicom conference, Eli Biham and Adi Shamir described a differential attack on the cipher, mentioned in (Miyaguchi, 1989).
Eli Biham, Adi Shamir: Differential Cryptanalysis of Feal and N-Hash.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/FEAL   (501 words)

 Constructing Symmetric Ciphers Using the CAST Design Procedure
Differential [8] and linear [32] cryptanalysis appear to be fairly general-purpose attacks which may be applied to a variety of substitution-permutation network (DES-like) ciphers.
With subsequent improvements to the differential attack [8] and with the introduction of linear cryptanalysis, it now appears that 18-20 rounds would be necessary for DES to be theoretically as strong as its keysize.
Differential and linear cryptanalysis (chosen- and known-plaintext attacks, respectively) are similar in flavour in that both rely on s-box properties to formulate an attack on a single s-box.
cryptome.quintessenz.at /mirror/cast.html   (12489 words)

 Security Forums Dot Com :: View topic - Questions regarding cryptanalytical techniques.
This attack is generally of the chosen-plaintext variety and falls under a class of generic multiset attacks.
The attack is unlike that of our traditional differential attack in that it doesn't focus on the behavior of plaintext-ciphertext pairs; rather, it focuses on much larger sets, where portions of the input form what we refer to as a multiset, where given elements can appear more than once.
Going back to differential attacks (and let this be an extension to my earlier layman's definition), a differential is something we utilize to take a guess at an n bit value of the ciphertext, following a number of rounds, of which we then define a difference of two bits strings, which are equal in length.
www.security-forums.com /forum/viewtopic.php?t=13534   (2632 words)

 Crypto - The Premiere For Cryptography
Differential Cryptanalysis is basically a chosen Plaintext attack and relies on an analysis of the evolution of the differences between two related plaintexts as they are Encrypted under the same key.
In attacks against DES, its effectiveness is limited by what was very careful design of the S-boxes during the design of DES in the mid-1970s.
Linear Cryptanalysis is a known plaintext attack and uses a linear approximation to describe the behavior of the Block Cipher.
www.freewebs.com /cryptology/Tech/BlockCiphers.htm   (1678 words)

 ciphergoth.org: Mercy: Scott Fluhrer's differential attack   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Note that this attack is now the basis of Scott's paper, "Cryptanalysis of the Mercy block cipher", which was presented to FSE 2001.
Again, this differential works by cleverly arranging things so that the differential of the vertical components within the Q-array is 0 with high probability immeditately after the difference, preventing the differences from avalanching.
I forgot to mention it, but these differentials are sensitive to the overall Festel structure (Fig 2 of the paper), and the exact Q box and M box definition.
www.ciphergoth.org /crypto/mercy/fluhrer-dc.html   (980 words)

 [No title]
Some of the attacks we describe in this paper are new, while others are already known in various small communities (such as hackers and chip testers) and are included for the benefit of the wider crypto and security communities.
The ROM Overwrite Attack Where the implementation is familiar, there is yet another way to extract keys from the card - the ROM overwrite attack.
Returning to the non-invasive attack model, we can always apply clock and power glitches until simple statistical tests suddenly show a high dependency between the input and output of the encryption function, indicating that we have succeeded in reducing the number of rounds.
www.ftp.cl.cam.ac.uk /ftp/users/rja14/dfa   (2499 words)

 LASEC: DFC: Official Comment   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
His attack basically uses correlation between four plaintext/ciphertext pairs, which we believe is the best way for attacking ciphers which have a good decorrelation of order of two (like Coconut98, DFC and others).
Still, if we study the complexity of Wagner's attack, we observe that it is exactly the square of the complexity of a differential attack against the simplified version of Coconut98 with decorrelation omitted.
We believe that attacks which use correlation between a larger number of pairs are intrinsically harder to handle, and that security against these attacks comes from the basic design and not from the added decorrelation module.
lasecwww.epfl.ch /dfc_comment_JS99.shtml   (982 words)

 [No title]
Susceptibility to Shortcut Attacks In a shortcut attack, the adversary exploits some property of the encryption algorithm that enables the key or plaintext to be determined in much less time than by exhaustive search.
The method involves analyzing the structure of the algorithm in order to determine the effect of particular differences in plaintext pairs on the differences of their corresponding ciphertext pairs, where the differences are represented by the exclusive-or of the pair.
If it is possible to exploit these differential effects in order to determine a key in less time than with exhaustive search, an encryption algorithm is said to be susceptible to differential cryptanalysis.
www.cs.georgetown.edu /~denning/crypto/clipper/SKIPJACK.txt   (2694 words)

 Re: Missing requirements
A differential attack relies on gathering statistics from injecting related pairs of plaintext blocks for a *block* cipher and examining the resultant pair of ciphertext.
It requires the ability to mount a (nonadaptive) chosen plaintext attack, and the goal is to extract enough information to determine the key used.
This latter attack is a rather old, intro textbook attack and is quite different from differential cryptanalysis.
lists.w3.org /Archives/Public/ietf-tls/msg00175.html   (1644 words)

 Blowfish Paper
Its 56-bit key size is vulnerable to a brute-force attack [22], and recent advances in differential cryptanalysis [1] and linear cryptanalysis [10] indicate that DES is vulnerable to other attacks as well.
This is primarily to protect against any attacked of the subkey generation process that exploit the fixed and known subkeys.
Attacks on mini versions of Blowfish, those with a 32- or even a 16-bit block size, are also encouraged.
www.tropsoft.com /strongenc/bfsverlag.htm   (4054 words)

 Cryptologia: Further notes for a self-study course in block-cipher cryptanalysis
While attempting to serve as further notes to the self-study course in block-cipher cryptanalysis, the main purpose of this paper is to acquaint the student with the new cryptanalytic methods, namely the Square attack, slide attacks, the saturation attack, impossible differential cryptanalysis, the boomerang attack, the amplified boomerang attack and the rectangle attack.
The advanced slide attack is a fairly new attack, and as such there has been no follow-up papers on this technique.
An improved attack is E. Biham and V. Furman, "Impossible Differentials on Twofish", proceedings of Indocrypt 2000.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3926/is_200204/ai_n9062518   (1309 words)

 Cryptanalysis of MultiSwap   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
However, the attack on DRM described by Beale Screamer would be much more practical, so we feel that these weaknesses in MultiSwap do not pose a significant threat to DRM at this time.
The differential is not an additive or xor-differential, it is a multiplicative differential.
Recall there are two stages to the attack: recover k5 and k11, and recover the rest of the key.
www.cs.berkeley.edu /~rtjohnso/multiswap   (1884 words)

 Symmetric Ciphers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Attacking Seven Rounds of Rijndael under 192-bit and 256-bit Keys, Stefan Lucks, Presented at the 3rd AES Candidate Conference (local copy).
Differential Cryptanalysis of the Full 16-Round DES, E. Biham, and A. Shamir, CS 708, Proceedings of Crypto '92, LNCS 740, December 1991 (local copy).
An Improvement of Davies' Attack on DES, E. Biham, and A. Biryukov, CS 817, EUROCRYPT '94 Proceedings, LNCS 950, Springer Verlag, 1995, and Journal of Cryptology, Vol.
www.cs.ucla.edu /~jkong/research/security/symmetric-key-cryptosystem.html   (3780 words)

 Linear Cryptanalysis: A Literature Survey
This offers a slight improvement in the efficiency of an attack on the DES but more importantly, it is generally applicable and in certain circumstances it might well be extremely effective in reducing the amount of data required by a cryptanalyst for a successful attack on a block cipher using linear cryptanalysis."
The complexity of differential cryptanalysis depends on the size of the largest entry in the XOR table, the total number of zeros in the XOR table, and the number of nonzero entries in the first column of that table [1], [3].
The complexity of differential cryptanalysis depends on the size of the largest entry in the XOR table, the total number of zeros in the XOR table, and the number of nonzero entries in the first column in that table [1], [8].
www.ciphersbyritter.com /RES/LINANA.HTM   (2070 words)

 Cryptanalysis of FROG   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
First we give a differential attack which uses about 2^58 chosen plaintexts and very little time for the analysis; it works for about 2^-33.0 of the keyspace.
The linear attack can also be converted to a ciphertext-only attack using 2^64 known ciphertexts.
We show a differential attack on the decryption function that requires 2^36 chosen ciphertexts and works on 2^-29.3 of the keyspace.
www.windowsecurity.com /pages/article_p.asp?id=220   (118 words)

 The boomerang attack   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
This paper describes a new differential-style attack, which we call the boomerang attack.
First, we disprove the oft-repeated claim that eliminating all high-probability differentials for the whole cipher is sufficient to guarantee security against differential attacks.
Also, to illustrate the power of boomerag techniques, we give new attacks on Khufu-16 and on 16 rounds of CAST-256.
www.windowsecurity.com /pages/article_p.asp?id=242   (88 words)

 Tamper Resistance - Differential Power Analysis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Differential Power Analysis (DPA) is a class of attacks discovered by researchers at Cryptography Research.
DPA is a powerful tool that allows cryptanalysts to extract secret keys and compromise the security of smart cards and other cryptographic devices by analyzing their power consumption.
Unlike physical attacks, SPA and DPA attacks are non-invasive, easily-automated, and can be mounted without knowing the design of the target device.
www.cryptography.com /dpa   (260 words)

 Cryptographic Algorithms
After differential cryptanalysis had been discovered outside the closed fortress of the NSA, it was revealed that the DES S-boxes were designed to be resistant against differential cryptanalysis.
The first version of LOKI to be released was broken by differential cryptanalysis and was shown to have an 8-bit complementation property (this means that the number of keys that need to be searched in a brute force attack is reduced by 256).
differential cryptanlysis of Lucifer was written by Ishai Ben-Aroya and Eli Biham.
www.baltsoft.com /files/ee/Cryptographic_Algorithms.htm   (2820 words)

 A Differential Attack On The Ciks-1 Block Cipher (ResearchIndex)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
An attack is then presented to reveal the last subkey of the cipher...
11 On differential and linear cryptanalysis of the RC5 encrypti..
3 Differential cryptanalysis of DESlike cryptosystems (context) - Biham, Shamir - 1991
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /640156.html   (285 words)

 GSM OMC <Name>
Ciphertext-only attack: The assumption is the opponent possesses a string of ciphertexts, y.
Differential cryptanalysis looks specifically at ciphertext pairs: pairs of ciphertext whose plaintexts have particular differences, but are encrypted under the same key.
Although it was a breakthrough, this attack is not practical because of both the large data requirements and the difficulty of mounting a chosen plaintext attack.
www.geocities.com /eoinward/images/gsmcracked.html   (12964 words)

 Differential Attack on Message Authentication Codes - Ohta, Matsui (ResearchIndex)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The attack derives the secret authentication key in the chosen plaintext scenario.
The proposed attack is applicable to any MAC scheme, even if the 32-bits are randomly selected from among the...
A cryptanalytic approach directly attacks the CBC MAC based on details of the underlying block cipher F.
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /ohta94differential.html   (600 words)

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