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# Topic: Dining philosophers problem

###### In the News (Tue 16 Jul 19)

 www.technologyforall.com - Dining Philosophers Dining philosophers are five clients sitting around a circular table and there is a big bowl of spaghetti at the center of the table. This is due to the existence of an adversary scheduler that can continually prevent the philosophers in their attempts to reach agreement on who is to eat next, thereby leading to deadlock, that is, a situation where all five philosophers starve to death. Philosophers can always wait to see if both the forks are available before grabbing one, and soon after eating release the fork for the next hungry philosopher to eat next. www.technologyforall.com /TechForAll/Dining.html   (1558 words)

 Dining philosophers problem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In computer science, the dining philosophers' problem is an illustrative example of a common computing problem in concurrency. Five philosophers are sitting around a circular table and each has a plate of spaghetti in front of him with a fork at either side (i.e. Suppose that the life of a philosopher consists of periods of eating and thinking, that each philosopher needs two forks to eat, and that forks are picked up one at a time. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Dining_philosophers_problem   (663 words)

 Starvation and Deadlock The story of the dining philosophers is often used to illustrate various problems that can occur when many synchronized threads are competing for limited resources. In the dining philosopher applet, no ordering is imposed on the condition variables because the philosophers and the chopsticks are arranged in a circle; all chopsticks are equal. The philosopher who is sitting between chopsticks 1 and 2 and the philosopher who is sitting between chopsticks 1 and 5 must now reach for the same chopstick first (chopstick 1) rather than picking up the one on the right. java.sun.com /docs/books/tutorial/essential/threads/deadlock.html   (692 words)

 Satan Comes to Dinner in E The Dining Philosophers Problem (aka The Dining Quintuple Problem) was designed in 1965 by Edsger W. Dijkstra to demonstrate the horror that is deadlock. The programming problem is to construct a simulation which will allow philosophers to move between their eating and thinking states while properly controlling the forks. Philosophers do not have the capabilities necessary to interact directly with the other philosophers, the plates of shrimp, or with the system in general. www.erights.org /e/satan   (3346 words)

 [No title] The dining philosophers problem is an interesting example, because there is a trade off between optimization of parallelism and elimination of starvation. The dining philosophers problem is discussed in many textbooks as a classical problem illustrating the concepts of critical regions and synchronization [9,11,12,13]. The monitor implementation does not affect the dining philosophers problem very much since it is rare that the waiting and entry queues simultaneously are not empty, and when they are, the order in which they are emptied has no affect. vip.cs.utsa.edu /nsf/pubs/starving/starving.html   (3344 words)

 The Dining Philosophers problem   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) The dining philosophers problem concerns a number of philosophers who are in one of two states: eating or thinking. Now, in order for a philosopher to eat, he must have two chopsticks, i.e the chopstick on his left and the one on his right. The dining philosophers is a typical concurrency problem involving entities which need multiple resources - in this case it happens to be chopsticks. www.cs.uct.ac.za /Research/DNA/DaNAMiCS/manual/node66.html   (121 words)

 The Doorman Solution for the Dining Philosophers Problem   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) The dining philosophers problem is one of the best-known problems in distributed computing theory. The desired live cycle of a philosopher consists of carrying out his or her private activities (for example, thinking, and then writing up the results for publication), becoming hungry and trying to eat, eating, and then back to the private activities, ad infinitum. Philosophers are instructed to leave the room when they are not interested in eating, and try to re-enter when they are. www.cs.ru.nl /~fvaan/PV/OPGAVEN/Philosophers.html   (313 words)

 ThreadMentor: The Dining Philosophers Problem The dining philosophers problem is invented by E. Dijkstra. In the middle of the dining room is a circular table with five chairs. Since each philosopher must have access to the two mutex locks that are associated with its left and right chopsticks, these mutex locks are global variables. www.cs.mtu.edu /~shene/NSF-3/e-Book/MUTEX/TM-example-philos-1.html   (1198 words)

 CS170 Lecture notes -- Thinking and Eating   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) In particular, if all philosophers simultaneously grab the chopstick on their left and then reach for the chopstick on their right (waiting until one is available) before eating, they will all starve. Philosophers 0 and 1 will have to fight for their first chopstick, as will philosophers 2 and 3. Philosopher 4 never gets to eat, because there is never a time when 0 and 3 are both not eating. www.cs.ucsb.edu /~rich/class/cs170/notes/DiningPhil/index.html   (2316 words)

 lab   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) The problem comes in how to allocate the eating utensils to the philosophers (there are 5 utensils and each philosopher needs two to eat). The Dining Philosophers problem in its standard form is a resource allocation problem. To eat, a philosopher must have two chopsticks: the one to his or her left, and the one to his or her right. www.eg.bucknell.edu /~cs315/subpages/Labs/Lab7/lab   (1427 words)

 NetLogo Models Library: Dining Philosophers The Dining Philosophers problem is a classic case study in the synchronization of concurrent processes. Philosophers know which fork is on their left and which fork is on their right. For example, suppose there is one salt shaker on the table where all the philosophers can reach it, and suppose that each time a philosopher has acquired both forks, she must acquire the salt shaker and salt her spaghetti before she begins eating. ccl.northwestern.edu /netlogo/models/DiningPhilosophers   (1424 words)

 Lab 9: Dining Philosophers Suppose two non-neighboring philosophers are fast thinkers and fast eaters, and they both acquire their left and right chopsticks and eat. The competition between philosophers for the chopsticks is a paradigm for the sort of competition for resources which goes on inside operating systems. To gain a better understanding of the problem, we will "pretend" to be the philosophers in the problem and see what happens when we compete for resources. www.duke.edu /web/cps001/labs/lab9/lab9.html   (1669 words)

 Dining philosophers problem Summary Soon afterwards the problem was retold by Tony Hoare as the dining philosopher's problem. Eating the spaghetti requires the use of two forks (often, the problem is explained with chopsticks instead of forks, because it is easier to understand requiring two chopsticks to eat spaghetti than two forks) which the philosophers pick up one at a time. The philosophers never speak to each other which creates a dangerous possibility of deadlock in which every philosopher holds a left fork and waits perpetually for a right fork (or vice versa). www.bookrags.com /Dining_philosophers_problem   (1211 words)

 Chapter 16 -- Multithreading with Java All of the philosophers starve to death with a chopstick in one hand and food on the table. The philosophers can avoid a deadlock if there is a special chopstick that they aren't allowed to hold while they are waiting for the second chopstick. A philosopher in this state is represented by a small hollow square with a tiny circle in the middle. docs.rinet.ru /JWP/ch16.htm   (4284 words)

 Resource starvation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) In computer science, starvation is a multitasking -related problem, where a process is perpetually denied necessary resource s. Starvation is illustrated by Edsger Dijkstra 's dining philosophers problem. The scheduling algorithm, which is part of the kernel, is supposed to allocate resources equitably; that is, the algorithm should allocate resources so that no process perpetually lacks necessary resources. www.serebella.com /encyclopedia/article-Resource_starvation.html   (305 words)

 Dining Philosophers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) In the centre of the table is a large plate of spaghetti. Unfortunately, as philosophy is not as well paid as computing, the philosophers can only afford five forks. One fork is placed between each pair of philosophers and they agree that each will only use the fork to his immediate right and left. www-dse.doc.ic.ac.uk /concurrency/book_applets/Diners.html   (108 words)

 CS322 Project 3: Message Passing A total of 6 processes might be used: 5 for philosophers, and one to serve as a central coordinator. A philosopher wishing to eat would need to obtain permission to use each chopstick from the coordinator, and could not proceed to eat until an authorization reply is received for each. Of these two, the second is by far the hardest to implement, since a philosopher must always be ready to exchange messages with a hungry neighbor, even when deep in thought or waiting for an OK from a neighbor. www.cs.gordon.edu /courses/cs322/projects/p3   (864 words)

 The Dining Philosophers Problem   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) Five philosophers are seated around a circular table for what may very well turn out to be their last meal. Each philosopher has been served a large plate of spaghetti, and the table is set with five forks, one between each plate. If successful, the philosopher eats for awhile (though eating spaghetti with two forks is an unsolved aspect of Dijkstra's celebrated problem), and after eating, puts down both forks and continues to think. www.dcs.napier.ac.uk /~shaun/rts_course/dining_philosophers.html   (539 words)

 The Dining Philosophers in REST Each philosopher has a ticket indicating their identity; we'll ignore the specifics of how these are obtained, authenticated, etc. The goal of the client is to obtain the required two forks in order to eat. One waiter is tasked with observing the table and, at a philosopher's request and if possible, taking from the philosopher their ticket, removing the two adjacent forks from the table and handing them to the philosopher. The general state of the problem is modeled as usual as an array representing the state of the philosophers and an array of semaphores. www.xent.com /pipermail/fork/2001-August/002923.html   (2550 words)

 Dining Philosophers Problem Definition. Define Dining Philosophers Problem. What is Dining Philosophers Problem? The problem consists of a finite set of processes which share a finite set of resources, each of which can be used by only one process at a time, thus leading to potential {deadlock}. The DPP visualises this as a number of philosophers sitting round a dining table with a fork between each adjacent pair. Each philosopher may arbitrarily decide to use either the fork to his left or the one to his right but each fork may only be used by one philosopher at a time. www.learnthat.com /define/view.asp?id=1519   (312 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) The problem consists of five philosophers sitting at a table who do nothing but think and eat. To ensure that two philosophers do not simultaneously grab the same stick, a synchronized method is used. The new state of each philosopher is re-painted on top of the old one. java.sun.com /applets/archive/beta/DiningPhilosophers   (335 words)

 Dining Philosophers: Monitor Solution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) This is a possible solution to the dining philosophers problem using a monitor. For each philosopher there is a condition variable on which that philosopher waits when he/she is hungry but one or both chopsticks are unavailable. A philosopher who has finished eating gives each neighbor a chance to eat, if they are hungry and if their other chopstick is free. www.cs.wvu.edu /~jdm/classes/cs356/notes/mutex/dp-mon.html   (333 words)

 The Dining Philosophers Problem. Part 1.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) This article is dedicated to the famous dining philosophers' problem, which was proposed by Edward Dijkstra in 1965. The problem is that there are only five forks on the table, one between each plate on the table. This is a Dijkstra's original formulation of the problem; since most philosophers (as well as most programmers) can eat spaghetti with a single fork, modern writers use the Chinese food and chopsticks instead of spaghetti and forks. www.suite101.com /article.cfm/delphi_programming/84301   (394 words)

 Portable Dining Philosophers Dijkstra's famous "dining philosophers" problem [Dijkstra 71] is used as a vehicle for developing a program rich enough in system construction problems to be realistic yet small enough to be manageable in a classroom situation. A philosopher's life is ruled by the algorithm in Figure 3, which is adapted from the task body for the philosopher type. Each philosopher determines the length of the next meal or thinking session by drawing a random integer from 1 to 10; pseudo-random numbers are delivered by a function in the random numbers package. www.seas.gwu.edu /~mfeldman/papers/portable-diners.html   (2696 words)

 Dining Philosophers In the centre of the table is a large plate of noodles. One chopstick is placed between each pair of philosophers and they agree that each will only use the chopstick to his immediate right and left. Philosophers are depicted in yellow when they are thinking, blue when hungry and green when eating. www.doc.ic.ac.uk /~jnm/concurrency/classes/Diners/Diners.html   (108 words)

 ThreadMentor: The Dining Philosophers Problems: version 5 Using a monitor, the fourth version forces a philosopher to wait until both chopsticks are available. In the previous solution, the test is based on if the chopsticks that a philosopher needs are available rather than based on the state of a philosopher. Since a philosopher can eat only if his neighbors are not eating, the situation in which a philosopher holds a chopstick and waits for the second can never occur. www.cs.mtu.edu /~shene/NSF-3/e-Book/MONITOR/Philosopher-5/MON-example-Philos-5.html   (720 words)

 Dining Philosophers Problem The dining philosophers problem is an example of this. Each philosopher has access to the forks at her left and right. Since the philosophers are sharing forks, it is not possible for all of them to be eating at the same time. laser.cs.umass.edu /verification-examples/dp_standard/dp.html   (221 words)

 Dining Philosophers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) Write a solution to the Dining Philosophers problem that is free from the possibility of deadlock (but uses all 5 philosophers). Each philosopher should have a separate id, but execute the same thread procedure (i.e., write a single "philosopher" function that takes the id number as an argument). Each philosopher should suspend itself for a random period of time uniformly distributed between 0.25 and 2 seconds while eating or thinking. www.mcs.csuhayward.edu /~tebo/Classes/4560/philosophers.html   (274 words)

 Dining Philosophers I.e., when a philosopher thread blocks, there should be a guaranteed finite amount of time before that philosopher will eat (i.e., the thread will be awakened). Each philosopher should remain stuff for a random amount of time between 2 and 5 seconds. When a philosopher eats, it should eat for a random amount of time between 1 and 3 seconds. www.emunix.emich.edu /~evett/OSgrad/hw-DiningPhilosophers.html   (540 words)

 Dining Philosophers Problem from FOLDOC   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) The problem consists of a finite set of processes which share a finite set of resources, each of which can be used by only one process at a time, thus leading to potential deadlock. The DPP visualises this as a number of philosophers sitting round a dining table with a fork between each adjacent pair. Each philosopher may arbitrarily decide to use either the fork to his left or the one to his right but each fork may only be used by one philosopher at a time. ftp.sunet.se /foldoc/foldoc.cgi?DPP   (261 words)

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