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Topic: Disconfirmation bias

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  Disconfirmation bias - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Disconfirmation bias refers to the tendency for people to extend critical scrutiny to information which contradicts their prior beliefs and accept uncritically information that is congruent with their prior beliefs.
This cognitive bias is closely related to confirmation bias, which is the tendency to simply avoid "counter-attitudinal" new information.
The hostile media effect may be the results of disconfirmation bias.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Disconfirmation_bias   (289 words)

 Confirmation bias - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Also referred to as "confirmatory bias," confirmation bias is a type of cognitive bias and represents an error of inductive inference toward confirmation of the hypothesis under study.
Confirmation bias is a phenomenon wherein decision makers have been shown to actively seek out and assign more weight to evidence that confirms their hypothesis, and ignore or underweigh evidence that could disconfirm their hypothesis.
The confirmation bias was Wason’s original explanation for the systematic errors made by subjects in the Wason selection task.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Confirmation_bias   (590 words)

 confirmation bias - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com
In statistical inference, confirmation bias is a type of cognitive bias toward confirmation of the hypothesis under study.
In psychology, confirmation bias is a phenomenon whereby in a variety of settings decision makers have been shown to notice more, assign more weight to, and actively seek out evidence that confirms their claims, while tending to ignore and not seek out evidence that might discount their claims.
In one study, students had no trouble with a version of the cards experiment in choosing "Beer" and "16" testing the hypothesis that "People who drink beer must be at least 21 years old." Some have argued that confirmation bias may be the cause of self-perpetuating and self-fulfilling social beliefs.
www.onpedia.com /encyclopedia/confirmation-bias   (437 words)

 [ information-center.be | List_of_cognitive_biases Resources ]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Disconfirmation bias - the tendency for people to extend critical scrutiny to information which contradicts their prior beliefs and accept uncritically information that is congruent with their prior beliefs.
Outcome Bias - the tendency to judge a decision by its eventual outcome instead of based on the quality of the decision at the time it was made.
Notational bias - a form of cultural bias in which a notation induces the appearance of a nonexistent natural law.
information-center.be /List_of_cognitive_biases.html   (1488 words)

 Bias info here at en.cunningness.info   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
A bias is a prejudice in a general or specific sense, usually in the sense for having a preference to one particular point of view or ideological perspective.
A bias could, for example, lead one to accept or deny the truth of a claim, not on the basis of the strength of the arguments in support of the claim themselves, but because of the extent of the claim's correspondence with one's own preconceived ideas.
A systematic bias is a bias resulting from a flaw integral to the system within which the bias arises (for example, an incorrectly calibrated thermostat may consistently read – that is 'be biased' – several degrees hotter or colder than actual temperature).
en.cunningness.info /Bias   (543 words)

 Bias in the Interpretation and Use of Research Results
In a second logic, bias or error is established directly by measuring the discrepancy between the judgment and the true state being judged.
In the third logic, a bias is established by showing that a judge is "using a bad cue"-i.e., overutilizing a cue relative to normative standards (e.g., legal rules of evidence, a rational choice model, or the cue's objective predictive validity).
Note however, that this form of bias is limited to qualitative, categorical decisions ("it's true"; "he's wrong"); it cannot justify discrepancies across judges (or across experimental manipulations of normatively irrelevant factors) in their quantitative interpretations of the diagnosticity of evidence.
socrates.berkeley.edu /~maccoun/ar_bias.html   (9976 words)

 Cultural bias   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Cultural bias is interpreting and judging phenomena in terms particular to one\'s own culture.
The problem of cultural bias is central to social and human sciences, such as economics, psychology, anthropology and sociology, which have had to develop methods and theories to compensate for or eliminate cultural bias.
Numerous such biases are believed to exist, concerning cultural norms for color, location of body parts, mate selection, concepts of justice, linguistic and logical validity, acceptability of evidence, and taboos.
www.losgatoscaus.com /details/Cultural_bias   (730 words)

 Disconfirmation Bias - Breast Pump Bra   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Confirmation bias Disconfirmation bias – когато си решил, че нещо е вярно и интерпретираш всичко което чуеш така, че потвъждава тва, което си казал.
There are several advantages that net business will give the Disconfirmation Bias office will keep when competing with mall or store front deal Disconfirmation Bias mall or store front types of office, is that the operating costs are considerably less.
Our Disconfirmation Bias fix is brand advanced so we have not much managed to add copious numbers of articles, however what we have done so far is researched the too best Disconfirmation Bias sites on the net.
breast-pump-bra.top-results-links-13.info /Disconfirmation-Bias.html   (1139 words)

 Telic Thoughts » Friday quote: Stephen Jay Gould on publication bias   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
"In publication bias, prejudices arising from hope, cultural expectation, or the definitions of a particular theory dictate that only certain kinds of data will be viewed as worthy of publication, or even of documentation at all.
Sure, Gould was using publication bias to explain why researchers didn't publish cases of stasis among fossils, but his point applies to other fields as well.
He did not say that bias in journals prevents ID advocates from publishing, and it's not true.
telicthoughts.com /?p=696   (3250 words)

 Radical Mutual-Improvement
Which of these two sides of the focusing effect bias coin do you land on?  I think I’m probably more on the negative side, thinking things could always be better… but at the same time I’m optimistic that I could reach those better things if I simply focused more.
But this logic is a bit of a confirmation bias in the sense that you might have found an equally handy alternative to the car if it hadn't been there.
The best way to help correct for this bias is to be open to contradictory evidence and to test our hypothesii by attempting to prove them wrong.
pronoia.wordpress.com /feed   (6063 words)

 SSRN-Claiming a Large Slice of a Small Pie: Asymmetric Disconfirmation in Negotiation by Richard Larrick, George Wu
Three studies show that negotiators consistently underestimate the size of the bargaining zone in distributive negotiations (the small pie bias) and, by implication, overestimate the share of the surplus they claim (the large slice bias).
We explain the results by asymmetric disconfirmation: Negotiators with initial estimates of their counterpart’s reservation price that are “inside” the bargaining zone tend to behave consistently with these estimates, which become self-fulfilling, whereas negotiators with initial “outside” estimates revise their perceptions in the face of strong disconfirming evidence.
Asymmetric disconfirmation can produce a population-level bias even when initial perceptions are accurate on average.
papers.ssrn.com /sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=888767   (318 words)

 Bias (statistics)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
:This article is about bias in the field of statistics.
For other senses of the word, see bias (disambiguation).
b145 b14s bais bbias bi4s biaas bias biass biias biqs bisa biss biws bizs bjas bkas boas buas gias hias ibas nias vias
www.mispedia.org /Bias_(statistics).html   (42 words)

However, a survivor bias would undercut the credibility of accurate extinction warnings.
John von Neumann was probably wrong in having “a certainty”[1] that nuclear war would occur; but our survival is not proof that the chance of a fatal nuclear exchange was below 90%.
In cultures where human extinction is not expected the proposition must overcome the "Disconfirmation bias" against heterodox theories.
www.apocalypse-soon.com /awareness.htm   (457 words)

 over my med body! » Cognitive Bias and Medical Decisions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
belief bias - the tendency to base assessments on personal beliefs (see also belief perseverance and Experimenter’s regress) All the time.
If I suggest someone might have HIV, someone usually says he or she “doesn’t have any HIV risk factors.” Translation: I think he or she is married or heterosexual, so they can’t possibly have HIV.
It may also manifest itself as a tendency for people to evaluate ambiguous information in a way beneficial to their interests.
www.grahamazon.com /2006/01/cognitive-bias-and-medical-decisions   (735 words)

 Halflife2.net - the Hostile Media Phenomenon
This effect is interesting to psychologists because it appears to be a reversal of the otherwise pervasive effects of confirmation bias: in this area, people seem to pay more attention to information that contradicts rather than what supports their pre-existing views.
More recently, theorists have begun using the term disconfirmation bias to explain this kind of effect.
Although I don't think I see any pervasive bias in the mainstream media, even though I am very liberal.
www.halflife2.net /forums/printthread.php?t=44118   (372 words)

 Motivated Reasoning and Performance on the was on Selection Task -- Dawson et al. 28 (10): 1379 -- Personality and ...
a bias toward confirmation and disagreeable propositions with
for solving the four-card Wason selection task is to seek disconfirmation,
people avoid confirmation bias both in the context of the Wason
psp.sagepub.com /cgi/content/abstract/28/10/1379   (195 words)

 au_hss_vaughan_socpsych_3|Persuasion and Attitude Change|Fill-in-the-Blanks
One hypothesis of how age affects attitude change is the notion of _____________, which implies that core attitudes, values and beliefs are predominantly shaped during early adulthood.
The commonly held disconfirmation bias is further enhanced by ________.
When people attend to a complex message they use ______________ processing.
wps.prenhall.com /au_hss_vaughan_socpsych_3/0,7215,121043-,00.utf8.html   (212 words)

 Redshirt Knitting - Erika’s Knitting Blog
I will use it to knit a sweater for my dad!” The focusing effect explains the problem with 95% of patterns produced by yarn companies.
I think this dishcloth will be pretty, and therefore I will find it so.
I browsed through an entire copy of Knitting Nature - which is not a small book - but the only thing I really remember is the picture of the model clinging to a rock face above the rising tide, while wearing six-inch heels.
erika.fisherking.org   (2861 words)

 ema_uk_he_hogg_socpsych_3|Student Resources|Chapter 6: Persuasion and Attitude Chang|Multiple Choice
What is the effect of an element of fear in a message?
Which of the statements is true with regard to the disconfirmation bias?
Which of the findings of a study by Chaiken and Maheswaran on the interactions between source and message variables is correct?
wps.prenhall.com /ema_uk_he_hogg_socpsych_3/0,6541,349947-,00.utf8.html   (113 words)

 disconducive Disconducive - definition of Disconducive by the Free Online ...
disconfirming All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other
disconfirming - Columbia Encyclopedia article about disconfirming negative: see photographic processing photographic processing, set of procedures by which the Disconducive.
Index - Disconcerting to Discovert Disconcerting: disconcertingly: Disconcertion: disconcertment: Disconducive: disconfirming: Disconformable Return to the English dictionary
osteodystrophies.blog1.estateboard.com /1143308433.html   (1115 words)

 Conclusions and Implications — 1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Work on this case study was intended to
Hypotheses corroborated in a controlled case selected for its bias toward disconfirmation
Ordinal rankings of division performance conform to skill based rather than firepower based predictions
www.gmu.edu /departments/t-po/peace/courses/7-10-00/tsld025.htm   (44 words)

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