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Topic: Down quark


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  Quark - MSN Encarta
The up and down quarks belong to the first generation, the charm and strange belong to the second generation, and the top and bottom belong to the third generation.
Unlike other elementary particles, quarks have electric charges that are a fraction of the standard charge—that is, the charge (e) of one proton.
A particle containing the charm quark, the second-generation partner of the strange quark, was discovered at the Stanford Linear Accelerator and at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Brookhaven, New York, in 1974.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761576347/Quark.html   (1530 words)

  
  Down quark - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The down quark is a first-generation quark with a charge of -(1/3)e.
It is the second-lightest of all quarks, with a bare mass of between 4 and 8 MeV.
Down quarks were named when Gell-Mann and Zweig developed the quark model in 1964, and the first evidence for them was found in deep inelastic scattering experiments at SLAC in 1967.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Down_quark   (250 words)

  
 Quarks
Quarks are observed to occur only in combinations of two quarks (mesons), three quarks (baryons), and the recently discovered particles with five quarks (pentaquark).
Quarks undergo transformations by the exchange of W bosons, and those transformations determine the rate and nature of the decay of hadrons by the weak interaction.
The up and down quarks are the most common and least massive quarks, being the constituents of protons and neutrons and thus of most ordinary matter.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/particles/quark.html   (1357 words)

  
 Up quark - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It is the lightest of all quarks, with a bare mass of between 1.5 and 4 MeV.
According to the Standard Model of particle physics, it and the down quark are the fundamental constituents of the nucleons; the proton contains two up quarks and a down quark, while the neutron contains one up quark and two down quarks.
The existence of up quarks was first postulated when Gell-Mann and Zweig developed the quark model in 1964, and the first evidence for them was found in deep inelastic scattering experiments at SLAC in 1967.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Up_quark   (256 words)

  
 Sets to Quarks - HyperDiamond Feynman Checkerboard
Mixing (such as between a down quark and a strange quark) is a two-step process, that goes approximately as the square of Vds: First the down quark changes to a virtual strange quark, producing one factor of Vds.
The sea quarks and binding gluons within the pion constitute the dressing of the proton valence quarks with the quark and gluon sea in which the valence quarks swim within the pion.
For mesons made up of quarks substantially more massive than the up and down quarks of the pion, the sine-Gordon soliton picture and the chiral Lagrangian picture are relatively less important than the constituent quark picture in which the meson mass is roughly the sum of the valence quark constituent masses.
www.valdostamuseum.org /hamsmith/Sets2Quarks10.html   (4768 words)

  
 The structure of Quarks and four spatial dimensions   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The fractional charge of Down, Strange and Bottom quarks is associated with the rotational energy a continuous non-quantized mass component of space that is directed along a single three-dimensional coordinate plane that is parallel in to the axis of rotation of a continuous non-quantized mass component of space.
One of these Up Quarks is a result of a summation of the rotational energy of a continuous non-quantized mass component of space associated with a positive unit electric charge that is directed along the two three-dimensional coordinate planes that are perpendicular to the rotational axis of a continuous non-quantized mass component of space.
A neutron is the result of the positive electrical energy of the proton "absorbing" or adding the rotational energy associated with a down quark or electron that is directed along the single coordinate plane of three-dimensional space that is parallel to the rotational energy associated with positive unit electric energy of a proton.
home.comcast.net /~jeffocal/chapter19.htm   (1058 words)

  
 Glossary
The bogus down quark is a special case of a lepton string pinned to the charge jet off an up quark, wherein the pinned string provides negative charge transformations in the positive jet.
The Down quark may have both a positive and negative charge mirror associated with it, but the net effect is negative.
All we see of leptons are the charge currents off their quarks and the effects of their pinned strings, that and the upper surface of their leptonic down quarks, which I believe are the only physical manifestations of the lepton structure that are displayed in hadron space.
www.stringtheory.com /gloss.htm   (4090 words)

  
 Protons and neutrons
The proton is a baryon and is considered to be composed of two up quarks and one down quark.
The nature of quark confinement suggests that the quarks are surrounded by a cloud of gluons, and within the tiny volume of the proton other quark-antiquark pairs can be produced and then annihilated without changing the net external appearance of the proton.
The decay of the neutron is associated with a quark transformation in which a down quark is converted to an up by the weak interaction.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/particles/proton.html   (1196 words)

  
 What is a Quark?
Quarks are the only fundamental particles which interact with each other through all four fundamental forces: strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force, electromagnetic force, and gravity.
There are six known quarks: the up quark, the down quark, the charm quark, the strange quark, the top quark, and the bottom quark.
The charm quark is about 10 times as massive as that, followed by the bottom quark which is about three times as massive as the last, and finally the top quark which is the most massive of all.
www.wisegeek.com /what-is-a-quark.htm   (456 words)

  
 physics central physics in action - power to the pentaquark - print version   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Quarks come in six evocative “flavors,”—up, down, strange, charmed, bottom, and top—and for each of these there exists an antiquark.
Combinations of the up and down quarks make up the nuclear particles—two up quarks and one down for the proton, and one up quark and two down for the neutron, as shown in the diagram.
In 1997 this search received new direction with a prediction by three Russian physicists that the pentaquark consisting of two up quarks, two down quarks, and one anti-strange quark would have about 1.5 times the mass of the proton and could be detected with present-day particle physics technology.
www.physicscentral.com /action/action-03-08-print.html   (707 words)

  
 International East-West University
Quark theory says that both proton and neutron (not electron) are made of two quarks -- up quark (u) and down quark (d).
When the third quark was discovered, that beautiful dream of a final theory was broken because the quark theory became too complicated to be the most fundamental law of nature.
In quark theory, quark is the most fundamental and undivisible elementary particle, that is, it is not composed of subparticles.
www.fortunecity.com /greenfield/crawdad/792/Tao.htm   (5013 words)

  
 NOVA | The Elegant Universe | Elementary Particles (non-Flash) | PBS
Down quarks and up quarks make up the ´protons and neutrons that form atomic nuclei and therefore they are responsible for the vast bulk of all matter that we experience and see.
Like other quarks, evidence of the strange quark's existence was indirect—it was found within a larger particle that contained it along with an up quark and a down quark.
Quarks, which have fractional charges, can combine in threes to form protons and neutrons, which have charges of 1 and 0, respectively.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/nova/elegant/part-nf.html   (2051 words)

  
 1 July 2005 - KEK: Evidence for a decay of the bottom to the down quark
Quarks are the most fundamental constituents of material, and it is widely known that six types exist in nature.
The purpose of the B Factory is to produce an enormous number of the second heaviest, called the bottom quark, and clarify the fundamental laws of the universe by detailed studies of its behavior.
(These mesons contain the bottom quark or its antiparticle.) Belle group has investigated the decays of these B mesons in detail, and has observed a new type of interaction wherein the bottom quark turns into one of the lightest quarks, the down quark.
www.interactions.org /cms?pid=1020785   (501 words)

  
 QUARK REFERENCE   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Quarks constitute all hadrons (baryons and mesons)--i.e., all particles that interact by means of the strong force, the force that binds the components of the nucleus.
Quarks have a striking property: their electric charges are a fraction of the "standard" amount of charge, as carried by the electron or proton.
Quarks, glued together by particles aptly named gluons, are the basic constituents of matter, making up the familiar protons and neutrons as well as more exotic creatures seen only in cosmic rays and particle accelerators.
zyx.org /QUARKREF.htm   (4644 words)

  
 Examples of the use of Feynman vertices to describe processes
This is a weak decay of the down quark.
This is a weak decay of the anti-strange quark.
the down quark of the proton annihilates with the antidown quark emitting a gluon
teachers.web.cern.ch /teachers/archiv/HST2002/feynman/examples.htm   (1005 words)

  
 International East-West University
The quark color is identified by the seat's color which is occupied by a minority prequark.
Third, the generation of a quark or a lepton is represented by a number, 1, 2 or 3.
Quark theory and traditional Superstring theory are mutually disconnected on the conceptual level, but Prequark Superstring Model unifies them.
www.fortunecity.com /business/soros/1143/Prequark.htm   (4370 words)

  
 Vertices Fall94: Top Quark
The top quark, for which experimenters have been searching for 17 years, is a subatomic particle whose existence is necessary to corroborate a theory that seeks to explain how matter and energy interact at the most basic, subatomic level.
The top quark, sometimes called "truth," is one of six different types or "flavors" of quarks, which are subatomic particles that serve as the basic building blocks for hadrons, which encompass all particles that interact by means of the strong nuclear force.
If quarks and leptons prove to be truly elementary, then the discovery of the top quark (when and if its existence is finally confirmed) will represent the culmination of a 2400-year-old struggle to identify the fundamental building blocks of matter.
www.duke.edu /vertices/update/fall94/quark.html   (2931 words)

  
 Bottoms down for quarks (July 2005) - News - PhysicsWeb
Quarks are the fundamental building blocks of protons, neutrons and other hadrons, and they come in six different "flavours": up, down, charm, strange, top and bottom.
Moreover, they are arranged in three generations: the first generation consists of the lightest (up and down) quarks, the second generation contains the charm and strange quarks, and the third generation contains the heaviest top and bottom quarks.
The rarity of this decay is due to the generation structure of the Standard Model, which suppresses the decays of quarks from the third generation into those from the first -- even though the latter are lighter than the third-generation quarks.
physicsweb.org /articles/news/9/7/3   (436 words)

  
 fUSION Anomaly. Quarks
Quarks have fractional charges of 1/3 or 2/3 of the basic charge of the electron or proton.
There is evidence for five kinds, or flavors, of quarks: up, down, strange, charm, and bottom; the discovery of evidence for the existence of the sixth, labeled top, was announced in 1994.
Word History: "Three quarks for Muster Mark!/Sure he hasn't got much of a bark/And sure any he has it's all beside the mark." This passage of James Joyce's Finnegans Wake is part of a scurrilous 13-line poem directed against King Mark, the cuckolded husband in the Tristan legend.
fusionanomaly.net /quarks.html   (725 words)

  
 quark - Wiktionary
First used in 1963 by the discoverer of quarks, Murray Gell-Mann, to name these new particles, it is taken from a nonsense word used in James Joyce's novel Finnegan's Wake.
Quarks are never found alone in nature and combine to form hadrons, such as protons and neutrons.
The Russian quark and Finnish quark are somewhat different.
en.wiktionary.org /wiki/quark   (109 words)

  
 Theory: Quarks
Quarks are fundamental matter particles that are constituents of neutrons and protons and other hadrons.
For hadrons made of the light quark types, the quark mass is a small contribution to the total hadron mass.
The quantity we call quark mass is actually related to the m in F = ma (force = mass x acceleration).
www2.slac.stanford.edu /vvc/theory/quarks.html   (333 words)

  
 Wikinfo | Quark
Leptons (such as the electron or the muon) have integral charge (+1, 0 or -1) while quarks have +2/3 or -1/3 charge (antiquarks have -2/3 or +1/3 charge).
Quark is a fresh creamery cow milk cheese, produced in Germany and marketed throughout the European Union, somewhat similar to cottage cheese.
Quark is a character on the television series Star Trek Deep Space Nine.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Quark   (787 words)

  
 Quarks - Bausteine des Atomkerns
Die Energie, die man brauchte, um ein Proton in die drei Quarks zu zerlegen, reicht aus, um weitere Protonen oder andere aus Quarks aufgebaute Teilchen zu erzeugen.
In letzter Zeit sind auch Teilchen beobachtet worden, die aus vier Quarks und einem Anti-Quark bestehen.
Dadurch, dass Quarks nur in den oben angegebenen Zusammensetzungen vorkommen, ist gewährleitet, dass tatsächlich nur vielfache einer ganzen Elementarladung vorkommen.
www.quantenwelt.de /elementar/quarks.html   (466 words)

  
 Page3
Quarks have four properties that may change: "color", "charge", "spin" and "mass".
The down quark emits a "spin particle" and as a result changes its spin.
The particles that are needed to change the properties of the quarks have the same properties as the force carrying bosons.
home.hetnet.nl /mr_11/116/inthepicture/quarks/Page3.htm   (462 words)

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