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Topic: Dualism (philosophy of mind)

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  Dualism (philosophy of mind) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the philosophy of mind, dualism is a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter, which begins with the claim that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical.
We first encounter similar ideas in Western philosophy with the writings of Plato and Aristotle, who maintained, for different reasons, that man's "intelligence" (a faculty of the mind or soul) could not be identified with, or explained in terms of, his physical body.
Substance dualism is contrasted with all forms of materialism, but property dualism may be considered a form of emergent materialism and thus would only be contrasted with non-emergent materialism.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Dualism_(philosophy_of_mind)   (5229 words)

 Philosophy of mind - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Philosophy of mind is the philosophical study of the exact nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties, and consciousness, and of whether these have a relationship with the physical body: the so-called "mind–body problem."
Substance dualists argue that the mind is an independently existing substance, while property dualists maintain that the mind is a jumble of independent properties that emerge from the brain and cannot be reduced to it, but that it is not a distinct substance.
Dualism is a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter, which begins with the claim that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Philosophy_of_mind   (5699 words)

Dualism contrasts with monism, which is the theory that there is only one fundamental kind, category of thing or principle; and, rather less commonly, with pluralism, which is the view that there are many kinds or categories.
In the philosophy of mind, dualism is the theory that the mental and the physical — or mind and body or mind and brain — are, in some sense, radically different kinds of thing.
In Ryle's deliberately abusive phrase, the mind, as the dualist conceives of it, is a ‘ghost in a machine’.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/dualism   (12828 words)

 Mind, philosophy of : Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online
‘Philosophy of mind’, and ‘philosophy of psychology’ are two terms for the same general area of philosophical inquiry: the nature of mental phenomena and their connection with behaviour and, in more recent discussions, the brain.
In philosophy of mind, these developments led to Functionalism, according to which mental states are to be characterized in terms of relations they bear among themselves and to inputs and outputs, for example, mediating perception and action in the way that belief and desire characteristically seem to do.
In the philosophies of mind and psychology, the issue is not primarily the meanings of expressions in natural language, but of how a state of the mind or brain can have meaning or content: what is it to believe, for example, that snow is white or hope that you will win.
www.rep.routledge.com /article/V038#V038P2.10   (2798 words)

 Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind - dualism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
In philosophy of mind, the belief that the mental and physical are deeply different in kind: thus the mental is at least not identical with the physical.
Often, the term 'Cartesian dualism' is used to refer to the general class of substance dualist theories.
Philosophers of mind have, for the past ten years begun to seriously question the possibility that science will be able to close the explanatory gap between the brain and our conscious experience, or qualia (termed the 'hard problem' by Chalmers).
www.artsci.wustl.edu /~philos/MindDict/dualism.html   (975 words)

 Philosophy of Mind - Dualism - Substance Dualism
Thus, for Descartes, the purpose of philosophy is to direct the mind away from the confusing images of the senses towards the indubitable truths contained within the mind itself.
Mind, however, can almost be defined as the opposite of this – in fact, one of the difficulties with Descartes’; definition is that mind seems to have almost no positive qualities.
Mind so defined can be equated with the soul, which in turn can be proven to be distinct from the body and immortal.
www.philosophyonline.co.uk /pom/pom_substance_dualism.htm   (330 words)

 The Philosophy of Mind - Edward Feser - 1-85168-376–3   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
In this lively and entertaining introduction to the philosophy of mind, Edward Feser explores the questions central to the discipline – such as do computers think, and what is consciousness – and gives an account of all of the most important and significant attempts that have been made to answer them.
Dualism – the theory that the mind is separate from the body – has gained increasing currency in recent years, and this book is the first introductory text to give a full account and defence of the position.
He has taught and written widely in the area of philosophy of mind, and his most recent research has focused on new solutions to the mind/body problem.
www.oneworld-publications.com /books/the-philosophy-of-mind.htm   (272 words)

 Dualism (from philosophy of mind) --  Encyclopædia Britannica   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The existence and status of the mind > The mind as immaterial > Dualism
The most explicit statement of dualism, however, is found in the writing of René Descartes, who argued that mind and matter are two separate and distinct sorts of substances, absolutely opposed in their natures, each capable of existing entirely independently of the…
Mind is in some sense reflected in such occurrences as sensations, perceptions, emotions, memory, desires, various types of reasoning, motives, choices, traits of personality, and the unconscious.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-11957   (897 words)

 Philosophy of Mind Roadmap
According to substance dualism, res extensa and res cogitans are the only kinds of substance, and anything that exists must be of one or the other type.
One argument for dualism is that there are aspects of the mental that cannot be reduced to the physical: for example, “aboutness” (physical things aren’t “about” anything, but mental/intentional phenomena are, in the sense that they have cognitive or sensory content).
Soft behaviorism, logical behaviorism, functionalism, and property dualism maintain the reality of the mental, and are thus not materialisms in the same way as eliminative materialism.
instruct.westvalley.edu /lafave/Roadmap_Phil_Mind.htm   (1754 words)

 Dualism and Mind [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
Substance dualists typically argue that the mind and the body are composed of different substances and that the mind is a thinking thing that lacks the usual attributes of physical objects: size, shape, location, solidity, motion, adherence to the laws of physics, and so on.
In this sort of dualism, mind and body are conceptually distinct, though the phenomena referred to by mentalistic and physicalistic terminology are coextensive.
While imprisoned, the mind is compelled to investigate the truth by means of the body and is incapable (or severely hindered) of acquiring knowledge of the highest, eternal, unchanging, and non-perceptible objects of knowledge, the Forms.
www.utm.edu /research/iep/d/dualism.htm   (10531 words)

 Philosophy of Mind
The Meta-Encyclopedia of Philosophy is comprised of seven different dictionaries that may be used to compare definitions of important terms and hence appreciate the subtleties of philosophical concepts, while the has many free essays, in addition to the wealth of material available if you are prepared to register.
Philosophy Pages is a site providing several useful resources, including a dictionary of philosophical terms, an history and timeline of philosophical development and key thinkers, and a study guide.
To summarise our discussion, then, we have seen that there are many aspects to the philosophy of mind and many approaches to follow in tackling it, all of which have a certain plausibility on the surface but which present interesting problems when we probe deeper.
www.galilean-library.org /int14.html   (5881 words)

 Dualism (philosophy of mind) -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Image:Occasionalism.png In his Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes embarked upon a quest in which he called all his previous beliefs into doubt, in order to find out what he could be certain of.
David Chalmers recently developed a thought experiment inspired by the movie The Matrix in which substance dualism could be true: Consider a computer simulation in which the bodies of the creatures are controlled by their minds and the minds remain strictly external to the simulation.
Lycan, William: “Philosophy of Mind” in The Blackwell companion to Philosophy, Nicholas Bunnin and E. Tsui-James eds.
psychcentral.com /psypsych/Dualists   (5217 words)

 NoodleFood: Philosophy of Mind
Both dualism and materialism are premised on "fundamentalism," the view that what is fundamentally mental must be non-physical and that what is fundamentally physical must be non-mental.
Universal dual aspect theories are too expansive, postulating far more mentality in the world than is necessary or helpful for understanding the relationship between mind and body.
In general, dual aspect theories may have only pushed the problem back a step, for we still must coherently explain the relationship between the mental aspects and the physical aspects of the entity.
www.dianahsieh.com /blog/2002/10/philosophy-of-mind.html   (1173 words)

Philosophy in Cyberspace: Philosophy of Mind, AI, and Cognitive Science.
She argues that intelligence depends on the body; the mind does not exist, nor did it evolve, separately from the limbs and muscles it controls.
This kind of thinking puts her in a camp that broke away from the Cartesian idea that we are minds that have bodies, and replaced it with the notion that we are simply thinking bodies.
www.aaai.org /AITopics/html/phil.html   (7000 words)

 eXploring Intelligence: Philosophy of Mind   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
While the Science of the mind and the brain has sometimes taken different routes than the philosophy of mind, however the two have been so essential for each other that one cannot progress without the other.
Mind in Evolution and Evolution of Mind
David Chalmers is a philosopher at the University of Arizona and the Associate Director of the Center for Consciousness Studies.
www.rit.edu /~maa2454/AI/phil_mind.htm   (1606 words)

 PHIL 282: Philosophy of Mind
To actively engage in and absorb the practice of analytic philosophy.
To understand and appreciate the central issues and historically influential theories in the philosophy of mind.
Directions for use: At the top of the page, use the scroll-down menu to choose “Philosophy”, then type in the term for which you are looking.
mail.rochester.edu /~dlmt/courses/philmind.html   (1082 words)

 Philosophy of Mind Syllabus (Fall 1998)
Paul Churchland on Dualism in Matter and Consciousness
minds have no mass (or shape?) but do have location: inside a body
explanatory impotence of dualism: we know a lot about matter and its relation to consciousness; we know nothing about mind-stuff
www.trinity.edu /cbrown/mind/98.08.31.html   (550 words)

 Philsosophy of Mind-Schedule   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Types of dualism, and arguments for dualism, burden of proof, Occam’s razor, cognitive science.
Students must submit a working Bibliography for the term paper, including at least five properly documented sources (note that print media must be used in at least equal proportion with electronic media).
Explanatory dualism: does the fact that ideas, memories and so on, can be identified as brain activities mean that this is the only way to explain them?
www.westminster.edu /staff/brennie/PMwebpage/PMsched.htm   (1684 words)

 Philosophy of Mind - Dualism - Introduction
The dualist viewpoint divides the human being into two substances: matter and mind.
It is quite common to distinguish between “my body”; and “my self”, and our bodies may become injured or ill whilst our minds are active and alert.
This is sometimes done consciously – as in the religious doctrine of immortality – or subtly, through language and the way in which we refer to ourselves.
www.philosophyonline.co.uk /pom/pom_dualism.htm   (114 words)

 Philosophy of Mind: Dualism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Armstrong, D. (David Malet), 1926-, A materialist theory of the mind / D. Armstrong.
Smith and O.R. Jones, The Philosophy of Mind, pt.
Please consult the Oxford University Faculty of Philosophy Philosophy of Mind reading list, for a further list of topics, readings and fundamental questions pertaining to this paper.
users.ox.ac.uk /~scat1685/philosophy/mind/dualism.html   (173 words)

 Philosophy of Mind
Course Description: In this course, we will explore some of the major issues and debates in recent philosophy of mind, and examine the foundations of the newly evolving interdisciplinary approach to the mind called “cognitive science.” We will begin with the traditional mind-body problem and examine several modern attempts to solve it.
After an introduction to the problem of intentionality, we will examine at some length the computational theory of mind, which is the dominant approach in cognitive science.
Finally, we will consider a hot topic in contemporary philosophy of mind: the mystery of consciousness.
people.jmu.edu /rennarrj/philosophy_of_mind.htm   (440 words)

 Contemporary Philosophy of Mind: An Annotated Bibliography
This is a bibliography of recent work in the philosophy of mind, philosophy of cognitive science, philosophy of artificial intelligence, and on consciousness in the sciences.
Many core areas of contemporary philosophy of mind are covered, but some areas (e.g.
philosophy of perception, philosophy of action, propositional attitude semantics, moral psychology) receive less coverage than others.
consc.net /biblio.html   (530 words)

 Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind - substance dualism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
substance dualism - The view that the mental and the physical comprise two different classes of objects: minds and bodies.
Perhaps the most famous proponent of substance dualism was Descartes, who cashed out the distinction between minds and bodies as follows: minds are things that think but lack spatial magnitude, and bodies are things that have spatial magnitudes, but don't think.
Different substance dualists may disagree as to how best to define what's essential to being mental and physical, but they do agree that the difference in question is one of objects, not properties.
philosophy.uwaterloo.ca /MindDict/substancedualism.html   (140 words)

 20th WCP: Philosophy of Mind
The papers indexed below were given at the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy, in Boston, Massachusetts from August 10-15, 1998.
Additional papers may be added to this section as electronic versions are aquired and formatted for the archive.
To Resurrect a Ghost: In Defence of Psychological Dualism
www.bu.edu /wcp/MainMind.htm   (281 words)

 Philosophy of Mind Homepage
This page contains some links to internet philosophy of mind resources, and to some materials for my Philosophy of Mind class.
Among many relevant articles, see those on dualism, behaviorism, the identity theory, functionalism, mental causation, mental representation, narrow mental content, consciousness, the computational theory of mind,
Includes entries on dualism, behaviorism, the identity theory, and higher-order theories of consciousness.
www.trinity.edu /cbrown/mind   (208 words)

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