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Topic: Dwarf planet


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 CNN.com - In search of Earth, new class of planets found - Aug 31, 2004
One planet circles a red dwarf star, the most abundant in our Milky Way galaxy, igniting hope that the discoveries may just be the beginning.
The first planet orbits a cool, reddish dwarf star called Gilese 436 in the Leo constellation.
The second planet orbits a yellow star like our own, called 55 Cancri in the constellation Cancer, and is part of the first four-planet solar system ever discovered.
www.cnn.com /2004/TECH/space/08/31/space.planet.cnn/index.html

  
 USATODAY.com - NASA's latest planetary discovery rings a literary bell
At a briefing this month on the planet found orbiting a red-dwarf star, reporters pressed NASA astronomy and physics chief Anne Kinney for a celestial counterpart in science fiction.
Astronomer Geoff Marcy of the University of California-Berkeley suggested that the newly detected planet could be tidally locked to its star, with one side permanently lit and the other side always in a frozen darkness.
Still, Niven says, he's amazed at the discovery during the past decade of about 135 planets orbiting nearby stars.
www.usatoday.com /tech/science/space/2004-09-15-nasa-ringworld_x.htm

  
 Solar Voyager Forums: Black dwarf art project.
The original definition of the term brown dwarf was theoretical, as these objects were predicted before they were found, and states that a brown dwarf forms like a star from the collapse of a cloud of gas, as opposed to a planet which builds up by accretion.
An alternative definition is that brown dwarfs must undergo fusion reactions at some point in their evolution, but not protium fusion, as opposed to a planet, which never undergoes fusion, or a star, which undergoes protium fusion.
Also, most people would say that a brown dwarf is not a planet.
www.solarvoyager.com /forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=2419&PN=1   (2447 words)

  
 HST images of M4
Now, careful Hubble Space Telescope observations of the white dwarf have helped to reveal the nature of this third companion: It has a mass 2.5 times larger than planet Jupiter, and is thus recognized as a planet.
Very probably, this planet has formed together with the white dwarf and the other stars of the globular cluster.
Hubble reveals a total of 75 white dwarfs in one small area within M4, out of the total of about 40,000 white dwarfs that the cluster is predicted to contain.
www.seds.org /messier/more/m004_hst.html   (515 words)

  
 Astronomy Update 2005
Numerous such disks are seen around class A dwarfs, several of which have internal "holes." Rings in the 80-AU-radius gap inside the very large Beta Pictoris disk (10 times the size of ours) suggest an otherwise unseen planet at 12 AU from star.
HD 149026 (an 8th magnitude G0 dwarf in Corona Borealis that is starting to evolve) has a 1.2 Saturn mass planet in a 2.88 day orbit 0.11 AU out that transits the star.
Another kind of supernova ("Type Ia") is produced by the flow of matter onto a white dwarf from a companion that causes the white dwarf to exceed its support limit of 1.4 solar masses.
www.astro.uiuc.edu /~kaler/glpa/update05.html   (4192 words)

  
 PSR B1620-26c - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Within a few years, the gravitational effects of the planet on the orbit of the pulsar and white dwarf had been measured, giving an estimate of the mass of the third object that was too small for it to be a star.
The planet, which has a mass of 2.5 times that of Jupiter, is in an orbit similar to that of Uranus around the Sun, but slightly larger; PSR B1620-26c orbits at a distance of 23 AU (3.4 Tm).
Like nearly all extrasolar planets discovered to date, PSR B1620-26c was originally detected through the Doppler shifts its orbit induces on signals from the star it orbits (in this case, changes in the apparent pulsation period of the pulsar).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/PSR_B1620-26c   (1031 words)

  
 Science & Technology at Scientific American.com: Red Star Rising -- [ ASTRONOMY ] -- Small, cool stars may be hot spots for life
Besides their abundance, M dwarfs have another advantage over G stars as possible sites for intelligent life: because they shine longer before exhausting their hydrogen fuel and do not brighten with age, they provide a more stable long-term environment for life-bearing planets.
One concern was that because M dwarfs frequently produce flares, the resulting torrents of charged particles could strip the atmosphere off any nearby planet.
Red dwarfs, also known as M dwarfs, have less than half the mass of the sun and are hundreds of times dimmer.
www.sciam.com /article.cfm?chanID=sa004&articleID=000CC344-B043-1353-AF3383414B7FFE9F&ref=nature   (661 words)

  
 Spaceflight Now | Breaking News | Brown dwarf spotted close to star
Often portrayed as "failed stars," brown dwarfs are bigger than giant planets like Jupiter, but their individual masses are less than 8% of the Sun's mass (75 Jupiter masses), so they are not massive enough to shine like a star.
Even though a brown dwarf can be similar in diameter to a Jupiter sized planet, brown dwarfs are 13-75 times more massive and they can appear on the order of 100-1,000,000 times brighter than a Jupiter sized planet at infrared wavelengths where they are studied with telescopes.
Brown dwarfs are best viewed in the infrared because surface heat is released as they slowly contract.
spaceflightnow.com /news/n0205/22closest   (2069 words)

  
 TheKryptonian.com - Superman - Planet Krypton
Krypton was once a great planet that orbited a red dwarf star some fifty light-years away from Earth.
It is believed that in a few million years Rao will flare into a supernova and incinerate the remaining inner planets before imploding into a white dwarf star.
The once green and fertile planet of Krypton become something less due to the radiation of from it's giant red sun and weather altering nuclear exchanges during the Clone Conflicts.
www.thekryptonian.com /comics.php?action=krypton   (292 words)

  
 STRANGE VISITOR FROM ANOTHER PLANET
Krypton has a similar greenhouse effect that allows it to have livable temperatures even through relatively far from a red dwarf sun....at a distance where the Earth would be covered in the coldest of ice ages.
It also is consistent with the idea of Krypton being a planet which is rich in the heavier elements, and its lifeforms adapting to that....if the metal-eater is native to Krypton.
Also, red giant stars are much rarer than red dwarf stars,the latter being the most common stars of all.
www.novanotes.com /specul/krypton.htm   (3975 words)

  
 Planet X - The 12 Planet
Planet X is a rogue planet or brown dwarf star.
X being a brown dwarf is very dense compared to a normal planet its same size.
Apparently 25% of all observed comet orbits are being measurably perturbed by the magnetic or gravitational pull of this planet.
survivalcenter.com /Planetx.html   (16335 words)

  
 SPACE.com -- Searching for a Tenth Planet
A brown dwarf, he contends, would not have been detected in the previous infrared searches, such as the one conducted by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) in the early 1980s, because the alleged planet/brown dwarf is too near the galactic plane.
In fact, says Dr. Marsden, Planet X is not a scientific problem as much as it is a psychological problem.
The main justification for the search was made when discrepancies in the predicted positions of the outer planets Uranus and Neptune kept cropping up with alarming regularity.
www.space.com /scienceastronomy/astronomy/outer_planets_991014.html   (1051 words)

  
 [sci.astro] Galaxies (Astronomy Frequently Asked Questions) (8/9)
The first astronomical instances of "dark matter" were probably the white dwarf Sirius B and the planet Neptune.
Much of the interest in "brown dwarfs" stems from a similar issue---a huge number of brown dwarfs would not change how bright the Galaxy appears (at visible wavelengths), but would change its total mass quite substantially.
At the moment, it is too early to say that MACHOs have definitely been discovered, but it looks as though the "brown dwarf" objects are just about excluded, while perhaps as much as 50% of the dark matter could be in larger objects roughly 0.5 solar masses, e.g., white dwarfs.
www.faqs.org /faqs/astronomy/faq/part8   (1051 words)

  
 SPACE.com -- Searching for a Tenth Planet
A brown dwarf, he contends, would not have been detected in the previous infrared searches, such as the one conducted by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) in the early 1980s, because the alleged planet/brown dwarf is too near the galactic plane.
In fact, says Dr. Marsden, Planet X is not a scientific problem as much as it is a psychological problem.
Most prominent among these, she says, is the fact that there are more observers in the Northern Hemisphere to discover comets than in the Southern Hemisphere, thus a number of long-period comets are probably escaping detection and analysis.
www.space.com /scienceastronomy/astronomy/outer_planets_991014.html   (1066 words)

  
 Nemesis and Planet X
According to their current theory, he says, "the companion is a brown dwarf star or massive planet of mass between two and six times the mass of Jupiter".
They went on to theorise that the best explanation is the existence of a previously unknown body - that our solar system is made up of the Sun and a shadowy partner, either a brown dwarf or a massive planet, in a wide binary system.
None the less, with an explanation for the mass extinction cycle yet to be found, he has admitted that they may not be mutually exclusive; and that there could be two dark stars, one a failed partner to our own, and another one that is acting almost as an alarm clock for doomsday.
www.planetxvideo.com /nemesis.htm   (1066 words)

  
 Compare Prices and Read Reviews on Red Dwarf III (Part 1) - Backwards at Epinions.com
Starbug gets hit by a meteor and crashes on an ice planet and the only food left is a tin of dog-food and a Pot Noodle.
The Red Dwarf crew then discuss on how they should destroy the creature without their emotions, which is the best part of the entire episode:
Dave Lister is a scouser slob who sneaks a pet cat called Frankenstein on board the mining ship Red Dwarf.
www.epinions.com /content_100928425604   (989 words)

  
 HST images of M4
Now, careful Hubble Space Telescope observations of the white dwarf have helped to reveal the nature of this third companion: It has a mass 2.5 times larger than planet Jupiter, and is thus recognized as a planet.
Marked is a white-dwarf star, which is orbited by the pulsar called PSR B1620-26; this system had been discovered by radio astronomers in 1988.
Hubble reveals a total of 75 white dwarfs in one small area within M4, out of the total of about 40,000 white dwarfs that the cluster is predicted to contain.
www.seds.org /messier/more/m004_hst.html   (515 words)

  
 Barnes & Noble.com - Red Dwarf - Series 5 & 6 -- Chris Barrie - DVD
The crew must battle to escape a planet created from Rimmer's psyche in "Terrorform." And Hayridge makes her final appearance as Holly in the episode voted by BBC viewers as the best Red Dwarf ever, "Back to Reality," which finds the crew hallucinating after being doused with a space squid's venom.
Series VI begins with the Red Dwarf being stolen in "Psirens," causing the crew to face mind-sucking aliens; in "Gunmen of the Apocalypse," Kryten contracts a computer virus; and in "Out of Time," the crew are astonished to receive an SOS call from themselves 15 years into the future.
The notable episodes of Series V -- a season considered outstanding by Red Dwarf fans -- include "Holoship," wherein Rimmer is taken aboard a holographic ship that makes all his dreams come true.
video.barnesandnoble.com /search/product.asp?ean=794051210623&userid=Al4s3axAJf&frm=0&itm=1   (249 words)

  
 Neptune - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Neptune also resembles Uranus in its magnetosphere, with a magnetic field strongly tilted relative to its rotational axis at 47° and offset at least 0.55 radii (about 13,500 kilometres) from the planet's physical centre.
Neptune is the intended destination of the mining ship Red Dwarf (1988–) in the books based on the BBC sitcom of that name, but an accident on board sends it into deep space instead.
Comparing the magnetic fields of the two planets, scientists think the extreme orientation may be characteristic of flows in the interior of the planet and not the result of Uranus' sideways orientation.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Neptune_(planet)   (249 words)

  
 brown dwarf on Encyclopedia.com
BROWN DWARF [brown dwarf] in astronomy, celestial body that is larger than a planet but does not have sufficient mass to convert hydrogen into helium via nuclear fusion as stars do.
Observations of 100 young brown dwarfs in the Orion Nebula in 2001 strongly supported the theory that they originate as failed stars; many of the brown dwarfs were surrounded by disks of dust and gas that conceivably could condense and conglomerate to create planets orbiting them.
Brown dwarfs are believed to play an important role in the process of stellar evolution.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/b/browndwa.asp   (470 words)

  
 Methuselah (planet) Info - Bored Net - Boredom
Methuselah was formed in orbit around the star that has now evolved to a white dwarf, as it is unlikely that a planet would have survived the supernova explosion that created the pulsar.
Methuselah has a mass twice that of Jupiter, and is estimated to be about 12.7 billion years old, believed to be by far the oldest planet yet discovered.
As planets form at the same time as the stars they orbit, the age of Methuselah is close to the age of the host cluster M4 (12.7 billion years).
www.borednet.com /e/n/encyclopedia/m/me/methuselah__planet_.html   (403 words)

  
 Definition of planet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The recent discovery of a "planet" around a brown dwarf star has ignited a debate as to whether it should be referred to as a planet or a natural satellite.
Although planets are the principal component of the solar system other than the sun, a precise definition of the term is surprisingly elusive.
The word 'planet' has been around much longer than modern science." [8] It may very well be that children will continue to learn of the nine planets in school, while scientists work in a solar system of eight, or hundreds, or even abandon the term "planet" altogether.
www.wikipedia.org /wiki/Planet_definition   (2256 words)

  
 US National Virtual Observatory
Brown dwarfs are hard to detect because they're small, cool stars, sometimes described as "failed stars," with less than 8 percent the mass of the sun.
Brown dwarfs were, for many years, a missing link in astronomers' model of star formation.
NVO researchers emphasized that a single new brown dwarf added to a list of approximately 200 known brown dwarfs isn't as scientifically exciting as the timing of the new discovery and the tantalizing hint it offers to the potential of NVO.
www.us-vo.org /news/story.cfm?ID=9   (1058 words)

  
 Brown Dwarf Conference
It is currently unclear whether brown dwarfs form directly from molecular clouds in a manner similar to stars, or whether they form out of circumstellar disks, in a similar way as planets are thought to form.
Scientists have not reached a consensus yet about what should be called a brown dwarf and what should be called a planet.
The Brown Dwarfs Symposium is hosted by the Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, in collaboration with the Subaru Telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility; the British-Canadian-Dutch Joint Astronomy Centre; and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corporation.
www.ifa.hawaii.edu /info/press-releases/Martin5-15-02.html   (651 words)

  
 cool brown dwarf
Brown dwarfs are objects 15-70 times more massive than Jupiter, which is 318 times as massive as Earth.
Due to this brown dwarf's small size and relatively cool temperature, any new, habitable planet would need to be much closer than the distance between Earth and its white hot sun, 93 million miles.
Cool brown dwarf may give birth to planets
www.meta-religion.com /Astronomy/Stars/cool_brown_dwarf.htm   (837 words)

  
 Mu Arae
The orbit of an Earth-like planet (with liquid water) around Mu Arae may be centered around 1.3 AU -- between the orbital distances of Earth and Mars in the Solar System -- with an orbital period around 1.31 years (478 days).
Mu Arae is a yellow-orange dwarf star of spectral and luminosity type G3 V-IV.
By June 2002, a second giant planet in an outer orbit was also suspected (Jones et al, 2002, in pdf, which was ground in better observational data in 2004 (McCarthy et al, forthcoming December 2004).
www.solstation.com /stars2/mu-arae.htm   (903 words)

  
 Chapter 10 Summary
White dwarfs are planet-size remains of medium-mass stars supported by the pressure of their degenerate electrons.
The white dwarf accumulates an outer layer of hydrogen-rich gas that burns explosively in a thermonuclear runaway in the surface layers of the white dwarf.
The electrons in degenerate matter are packed so closely together that nearly all of the “rungs” of their “energy ladder” are occupied (Figure 10-4); electrons cannot easily change their energy due to Pauli Exclusion Principle, which says that no two identical electrons can occupy the same energy level.
www.snc.edu /physics/takahashi/AstronomyS05/Horizons/Chapter10/Ch10Sum.html   (2074 words)

  
 The Astrophysics Spectator: Stars
What separates a star from a brown dwarf or a gaseous planet is that the star passes through a phase of hydrogen fusion.
The brown dwarf, despite undergoing a period of deuterium fusion, never approaches a star in brightness, and never changes it composition significantly from the composition of a Jupiter; once it depletes its deuterium, it behaves as a Jupiter.
If the companion star is a degenerate dwarf, then the two stars eventually merge when the system loses enough energy through gravitational radiation.
www.astrophysicsspectator.com /background/survey/galactic/stars.html   (1469 words)

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