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Topic: Dystonia


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  Dystonia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dystonia may affect muscles throughout the body (generalised), in certain parts of the body (segmental), or may be confined to particular muscles or muscle groups (focal).
Primary dystonia is caused by a pathology of the central nervous system, likely originating in those parts of the brain concerned with motor function, such as the basal ganglia.
The precise cause of primary dystonia is unknown.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Dystonia   (620 words)

  
 Dystonia
Dystonia, usually torticollis and/or writer's cramp, occurs in most but not all affected patients and may occasionally be the only symptom of the disease.
Dystonia is a movement disorder involving sustained muscle contractions and abnormal posturing with a strong hereditary predisposition and without a distinct neuropathology.
The affected family members in the upper generations presented with focal or segmental dystonia; it was postural dystonia of the legs in the former, and writer's cramp or tremor of the arms in the latter families.
lansbury.bwh.harvard.edu /Literature/Review/dystonia.htm   (8305 words)

  
 DYSTONIA : Contact a Family - for families with disabled children: information on rare syndromes and disorders
Dystonia is a term for a group of neurological disorders in which involuntary muscle spasm leads to abnormal movements and postures.
The dystonias are one of several movement disorders caused by impaired or altered function in large groups of nerve cells in the centre of the brain called the basal ganglia.
Dystonia in childhood can be due to secondary causes such as a form of cerebral palsy, thought to be due to lack of oxygen to the brain around the time of birth, which damages the basal ganglia.
www.cafamily.org.uk /Direct/d51.html   (1311 words)

  
 Dystonia Information on Healthline
Primary or idiopathic dystonia is presumed to be of genetic or unknown cause, whereas secondary dystonias are due to an attributable cause.
Dystonia may occur after birth trauma and may be delayed in onset for up to a decade or later.
Dystonia may be part of a larger syndrome of neurodegenerative disorders, a group of diseases which are caused by degeneration of nerve cells in certain portions of the brain.
www.healthline.com /galecontent/dystonia   (1177 words)

  
 Dystonia
Dystonia is classified in three ways: age of onset, body distribution of symptoms, and etiology or cause of the disorder.
Dystonia with either childhood-onset and adolescent-onset (<28) is usually associated with an inherited defect in a gene and begins in early childhood after a period of normal physical development.
Early-onset generalized dystonia associated with the DYT1 gene is considered to be a classic form of primary form of dystonia because the movements and postures constitute the sole neurological abnormality.
www.disabled-world.com /artman/publish/dystonia.shtml   (2810 words)

  
 MDVU - Pediatric Movement Disorders - Dystonia
Dystonia is defined as a movement disorder in which involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements, abnormal postures, or both.
The child's perception of dystonia may be that an attempt to move produces the wrong pattern of muscle activity and results in a movement different from the intended one.
When dystonia is due to another identified disease, then it is called "secondary dystonia." When dystonia is not due to another disease, it is termed "primary dystonia." Primary dystonia includes the genetic dystonias and some adult-onset, focal dystonias.
www.mdvu.org /library/pediatric/dystonia   (553 words)

  
 DMRF: Dystonia Defined   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions, which force certain parts of the body into abnormal, sometimes painful, movements or postures.
While dystonia is not fatal, it is a chronic disorder and prognosis is difficult to predict.
He coined the term "dystonia" to indicate that "muscle tone was hypotonic at one occasion and in tonic muscle spasm at another, usually, but exclusively, elicited upon volitional movements." The term was widely accepted and has been used by neurologists ever since, even though throughout time, the definition changes.
www.dystonia-foundation.org /defined   (551 words)

  
 Dystonia
Patients with dystonia may have superimposed movements that are slow (athetosis), or rapid (myoclonic), or rhythmic (tremor).
Dystonia can occur after a variety of different types of trauma, including head injury, peripheral injury, and electrical injury.
When dystonia starts in childhood it is usually secondary, and unfortunately is commonly either generalized at onset, or becomes generalized over time.
www.cmdg.org /Movement_/dystonia/dystonia.htm   (1295 words)

  
 NeurosurgeryToday.org | What is Neurosurgery | Patient Education Materials | dystonia
Dystonia results from abnormal functioning of the basal ganglia, a deep part of the brain which helps control coordination of movement.
Dystonia is classified by three main factors: the age at which symptoms develop; the areas of the body affected; and the underlying cause.
Dystonia is sometimes misdiagnosed as stress, a stiff neck or a psychological disorder.
www.neurosurgerytoday.org /what/patient_e/dystonia.asp   (1385 words)

  
 UVA Neurogram - Dystonia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Dystonia is a neurologic syndrome characterized by involuntary, sustained, patterned and often repetitive muscle contractions of opposing muscles, causing twisting movements or abnormal postures.
The clinical characteristic of dystonia that helps differentiate it from other hyperkinetic movement disorders is that dystonic movements are repetitive and stereotyped, with involvement of the same group of muscles.
Dystonia in the lower face is often associated with blepharospasm and may manifest as repetitive lip puckering or retraction.
healthsystem.virginia.edu /internet/neurogram/neurogram2_1_dystonia.cfm   (1347 words)

  
 Dystonias Fact Sheet: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
The dystonias are movement disorders in which sustained muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures.
Investigators believe that the dystonias result from an abnormality in an area of the brain called the basal ganglia where some of the messages that initiate muscle contractions are processed.
Of the primary dystonias, many cases appear to be inherited in a dominant manner; i.e., only one carrier parent need contribute the dystonia gene for the disease to occur, each child having a 50/50 chance of being a carrier.
www.ninds.nih.gov /disorders/dystonias/detail_dystonias.htm   (2192 words)

  
 Dystonia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by sustained, involuntary muscle contractions which cause twisting, repetitive movements or abnormal body postures.
Adult onset dystonia usually occurs in a sporadic fashion (not inherited) and usually remains restricted to one body region (focal).
Dystonia can be treated with medications but the benefits are usually modest and there are often troubling side effects.
www.amc.edu /neurosciences/parkinsons_dystonia.htm   (233 words)

  
 Dystonia - Health and Medical Information produced by doctors - MedicineNet.com
Dystonia is a state of abnormal (either excessive or inadequate) muscle tone.
Dystonia disorders cause involuntary movements and prolonged muscle contraction, resulting in twisting body motions, tremor, and abnormal posture.
Cranial dystonia is a term used to describe dystonia that affects the muscles of the head, face, and neck.
www.medicinenet.com /dystonia/article.htm   (736 words)

  
 Patient Resources
Dystonia is a movement disorder with sustained abnormal contraction of muscles resulting in abnormal posture of the involved body parts.
Dystonia is usually classified by the part of the body involved or the action involved.
As a disease, dystonia is felt to involve the basal ganglia, a part of the brain involved in the planning and execution of voluntary movements.
www.aanem.org /education/patientinfo/dystonia.cfm   (358 words)

  
 Dystonia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Some dystonias are devastating conditions that affect large areas of the body, distort posture and speech, make driving, walking, talking or eating difficult or impossible.
Dystonia of this sort is called "focal dystonia" and it is the sort that most often occurs in pianists.
No one, I believe, is yet in a position to state the necessary and sufficient conditions for the development of focal dystonia, nor to say exactly what neurological events occur or fail to occur when a pianist loses control of her fingers.
pianomap.com /dystonia.html   (698 words)

  
 eMedicine - Dystonia, Tardive : Article by Perla Periut, MD
Pathophysiology: The pathophysiology of dystonia is not well understood, partly because it describes a symptom that may arise from a variety of cerebral structures, such as the basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, or brainstem or cortex, or may be caused by genetic alterations.
In many disorders, dystonia appears to be the response to an insult in younger individuals, and chorea or parkinsonism appears to be the response to the same insult in older subjects.
Dystonic adductor dysphonia is dystonia that causes larynx spasm.
www.emedicine.com /med/topic620.htm   (7108 words)

  
 Therapy for spasmodic dysphonia
While there are dystonias where a large number of muscles or a complete region of the body is involved, focal dystonias are limited to a small area or single muscle.
Interestingly dystonias are not even disorders of muscle tone that the name [dys] [tonia] might seem to imply.
Dystonias often can be relieved by sensory tricks, perhaps at first glance making the patient or examiner believe the problem is psychologic.
www.voicedoctor.net /therapy/dystonia.html   (1429 words)

  
 Dystonia
Because dystonia brings near-simultaneous contraction of opposing muscles that control the trunk, neck, limbs -- or fingers -- those parts twist toward the stronger "winning" muscle.
Jinnah says it's looking like dystonia may be one of the "channelopathies," a newer disease category that includes, for example, common migraine.
At the brain level -- dystonia surely stems from a glitch in brain control -- Hess has shown the cerebellum plays a stronger role than suspected.
www.neuro.jhmi.edu /BrainWaves/2004_Spring/dystonia1.htm   (590 words)

  
 Dystonia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
On rare occasions, dystonia may come on suddenly, but such reactions are more likely related to the taking of antipsychotic drugs by the patient.
Primary dystonia is believed to come from the abnormal function deep within the brain in a region called the basal ganglia.
While some forms of dystonia are known to be genetic, the role of environmental factors contributing or causing the disorder is being investigated.
www.stayinginshape.com /4drhs/libv/i81.shtml   (1022 words)

  
 Dystonia
Dystonia is a group of movement disorders that vary in their symptoms, causes, progression, and treatments.
Dystonia may be focal (affecting an isolated body part), segmental (affecting adjacent body areas, or generalized (affecting many major muscle groups simultaneously).
The most characteristic finding associated with dystonia is twisting, repetitive movements that affect the neck, torso, limbs, eyes, face, vocal chords, and/or a combination of these muscle groups.
www.bchealthguide.org /kbase/nord/nord31.htm   (417 words)

  
 MedlinePlus: Dystonia
Dystonias (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke)
Dystonia (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
The primary NIH organization for research on Dystonia is the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
www.nlm.nih.gov /medlineplus/dystonia.html   (179 words)

  
 Dystonia Treatment and Symptoms
Dystonia is a neurologic movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions, usually producing twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures or positions.
Almost all dystonic movements share a directional quality that is typically sustained, sometimes for an instant, as well as a consistency and predictability Dystonia movements are directional, forcing the involved body part or region into an abnormal position, which is consistently present.
Dystonias are a group of neurological movement disorders in which sustained muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures.
goldbamboo.com /topic-t2784.html   (218 words)

  
 eMedicine - Primary Torsion Dystonia : Article by Rowena Emilia Tabamo, MD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
With the recent mapping of genes for idiopathic torsion dystonia and identification of a gene for early onset dystonia, the description primary, or idiopathic, dystonia has evolved; it now may be viewed as secondary to or symptomatic of an identified cause.
However, continuing to use primary torsion dystonia to classify a group of dystonias as a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of movement disorders is justifiable because dystonia is the primary and sole abnormality attributable to the condition, and degeneration on pathologic examination is not clearly established.
Idiopathic dystonia was distinguished from the symptomatic dystonias both by its lack of known cause and the absence of consistent brain pathology.
www.emedicine.com /neuro/topic165.htm   (5635 words)

  
 Dystonia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Dystonia is usually defined as "a syndrome of sustained muscle contractions, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements, or abnormal postures." (Fahn et.
Dystonia may be considered as the production of one pattern of muscle activity when a different pattern was intended.
In adult focal, task-specific dystonias, the trigger may be as specific as writing or playing an instrument; this type of task-specific dystonia occurs only rarely in children.
endoflifecare.tripod.com /juvenilehuntingtonsdisease/id62.html   (2115 words)

  
 dystonia
Dystonia is defined as a movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements, or abnormal postures
- may be associated with shoulder elevation or arm dystonia; the shoulder is usually elevated on the side towards which the chin is pointing
- may be associated with limb dystonia causing adduction and hyperpronation of the limbs +/- athetoid movements
www.jeffmann.net /NeuroGuidemaps/dystonia.html   (1649 words)

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