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Topic: ENIAC

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  ENIAC - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
ENIAC was shut down on November 9, 1946 for a refurbishment and a memory upgrade, and was transferred to the Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland in 1947.
ENIAC had twenty ten-digit signed accumulators and could perform 5,000 simple addition or subtraction operations between any selected pair of them every second (Note: It was possible to connect several pairs of accumulators simultaneously, so the peak speed of operation was potentially much higher due to parallel operation).
ENIAC used common octal-base radio tubes of the day; the decimal accumulators were made of 6SN7 flip-flops, while 6L7s, 6SJ7s, 6SA7s and 6AC7s were used in logic functions.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/ENIAC   (2202 words)

 ENIAC - MSN Encarta
ENIAC was initially built for the United States military to calculate the paths of artillery shells.
ENIAC was introduced to the public in February 1946 and was used until October 1955.
ENIAC was built by American physicist John W. Mauchly and American electrical engineer John Presper Eckert, Jr., at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania.
encarta.msn.com /encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761587960   (625 words)

 ENIAC - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article
ENIAC, short for Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer, was long thought to have been the first electronic computer designed to be Turing-complete, capable of being reprogrammed by rewiring to solve a full range of computing problems.
A patent infringement case (Sperry Rand Vs. Honeywell, 1973) voided the ENIAC patent as a derivative of John Atanasoff's invention.
The idea of the stored-program computer came during the development of the ENIAC, but it was not implemented because (1) the machine was to be completed quickly so that it could aid in the war effort, and (2) it was realized that 20 storage locations for memory and programs would be much too small.
www.startsurfing.com /encyclopedia/e/n/i/ENIAC_3400.html   (1649 words)

 The ENIAC Story
The ENIAC was placed in operation at the Moore School, component by component, beginning with the cycling unit and an accumulator in June 1944.
The ENIAC was formally dedicated at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering of the University of Pennsylvania on February 15, 1946, and it was accepted by the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps in July, four years after the original suggestion by Dr. Mauchly.
The ENIAC led the computer field during the period 1949 through 1952 when it served as the main computation workhorse for the solution of the scientific problems of the Nation.
ftp.arl.mil /~mike/comphist/eniac-story.html   (4197 words)

 History of Computing Science: ENIAC
Their second contribution was the development of the giant ENIAC machine by John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania.
ENIAC also was the first machine to use more than 2,000 vacuum tubes, using nearly 18,000 vacuum tubes.
ENIAC is generally acknowledged to be the first successful high-speed electronic digital computer (EDC) and was productively used from 1946 to 1955.
www.eingang.org /Lecture/eniac.html   (322 words)

 Electronic Computers Within The Ordnance Corps, ENIAC
The ENIAC was constructed at the Moore School component by component, beginning with the cycling unit and an accumulator in June 1944.
The ENIAC was built primarily for integration of the equations of external ballistics by a step-by-step process, but it was flexible enough to be applied to a wide range of large-scale computations other than numerical integration of differential equations.
ENIAC led the computer field through 1952 when it served as the main computation machine for the solution of the scientific problems of the nation.
ftp.arl.mil /~mike/comphist/61ordnance/chap2.html   (4684 words)

 eniac's 50th Anniversary: The Birth of the Information Age -- A Short History of the Second American Revolution by ...
The ENIAC contract described Mauchly's status as that of principal consultant; as a physicist he was not one of the regular members of the ENIAC engineering team though he understood certain concepts about the uses of high speed computing that others were only gradually beginning to comprehend.
ENIAC was completed too late to be used for its original purpose of calculating firing tables for artillery weapons.
ENIAC is one in a long series of innovations that made possible the computing industry of today.
www.upenn.edu /almanac/v42/n18/eniac.html   (5052 words)

 CNN - First computer turns 50 - Feb. 14, 1996
The world was at war when ENIAC was designed, and the Army could not calculate fast enough the firing tables needed to predict trajectories of weapons used against German forces.
By the time ENIAC was turned off for the last time, in the fall of 1955, its creators had a new, faster, and far more flexible computer, UNIVAC, up and running.
The room in which ENIAC got its start now houses a state-of-the-art computer graphics lab where a computer-generated look at ENIAC is another reminder of the legacy left by the world's first electronic, general purpose computer.
www.cnn.com /TECH/9602/eniac   (801 words)

 A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries: ENIAC is built
This was not a dream of science fiction, but a representation of ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and Computer), the gigantic machine credited with starting the modern computer age.
ENIAC, with its 17,468 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors, 1,500 relays, and 6,000 manual switches, was a monument of engineering -- and an energy hog.
A little too late for World War II, ENIAC was kept busy through the Cold War, working on such projects as calculations for the design of a hydrogen bomb.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dt45en.html   (482 words)

 Penn Special Collections-Mauchly Exhibition Introduction
Built at the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School of Electrical Engineering, ENIAC is an acronym for "Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer," but its birth lay in World War II as a classified military project known only as Project PX.
The ENIAC is important historically, because it laid the foundations for the modern electronic computing industry.
If Mauchly had initially conceived of ENIAC's architecture, it was Eckert who possessed the engineering skills to bring the idea to life.
www.library.upenn.edu /exhibits/rbm/mauchly/jwmintro.html   (319 words)

 Enciklopedija :: encyclopedia : ENIAC   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
ENIAC je bio zamišljen kao namjenski stroj za potrebe izračunavanja balističkih tablica za topove koje je ispitivalo Ballistics Research Laboratory u Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland Pennsylvania.
Elektronske cijevi su poznate po svojoj nepouzdanosti i mnogo vremena ENIAC je proveo na popravkama zbog zamjene izgorjelih cijevi.
ENIAC je bio preteča i utjecao je na izgradnju slijedećih računala: EDVAC, EDSAC i SEAC, BINAC, UNIVAC, MANIAC.
www.enciklopedija.net /ENIAC   (688 words)

The fundamental mechanism of the ENIAC was the vacuum tube, which until that time had been used primarily in loud speakers (the vacuum tube had enabled the "talking movie") and radios.
ENIAC contained over 17,000 vacuum tubes at a time when the greatest number of vacuum tubes that had ever appeared together in an appliance was a couple dozen.
No wonder so many skeptics thought the ENIAC would never run—or, even if it did, would use so much power, generate so much heat, and require so many replacements of burned-out vacuum tubes that it was only a matter of time before it was out of service again.
www.calvin.edu /academic/rit/webBook/chapter2/history/eniacImage.htm   (480 words)

Late in 1946, ENIAC was dismantled, arriving in Aberdeen in January 1947.
ENIAC as built was never copied, and its influence on the logic and circuitry of succeeding machines was not great.
During the period 1948-1955, when it was retired, ENIAC was operated successfully for a total of 80,223 hours of operation.
www.amc.army.mil /amc/ho/studies/eniac.html   (1869 words)

Built at the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School of Electrical Engineering in 1946, ENIAC is an acronym for "Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer," but its birth lay in World War II as a classified military project known only as Project PX.
ENIAC needs 220 tubes to calculate one decimal number, 8.800 tubes for 20 accumulators, for one whole calculation procedure it has 18.000 tubes ready.
The ENIAC used a base 10 number system as opposed to base 2, not because the engineers were not aware of base 2 but that it was thought that it would require more vacuum tubes.
world-information.org /wio/program/amsterdam/events/1036598378/1036779278/objects/1037129081/1037129104   (268 words)

ENIAC was not completed until after the war but it performed until 1955 at Aberdeen, Md. ENIAC was enormous.
ENIAC's 50th anniversary was celebrated in 1996 with a visit by Vice President Al Gore.
ENIAC is generally closed but special arrangement can be made to see it by contacting the University's electrical engineering school at 33rd and Walnut.
www.ushistory.org /oddities/eniac.htm   (266 words)

 How the ENIAC took a Square Root
And the ENIAC was not "programmed" using paper tape unlike Zuse's Z3 (a device unknown to Mauchly and Eckert) or Aiken's Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (Harvard Mark I) completed in the summer of 1944, both of which read their instructions from paper tape readers.
On the ENIAC the hardware to take a square root was combined with the divider since the sequence of operations used is similar to those used to divide (a non-restoring division technique was used).
Since the ENIAC was very good at addition and subtraction (it had 20 accumulators that could do both at electronic speeds), taking a square root turned out just to be a matter of sequencing their operations in the correct way.
www4.wittenberg.edu /academics/mathcomp/bjsdir/ENIACSquareRoot.htm   (3430 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
ENIAC was completed in November 1945, 3 months after the surrender of the Japanese in WWII, 200% over the budget of $250,000.
ENIAC was to retain Atanasoff's idea of vacuum tubes as switches and the synchronizing of internal operations with an electronic timer.
Their number was to be increased from 4 to 20, which extended the time to complete, but made ENIAC considerably more powerful.
ieee.cincinnati.fuse.net /reiman/05_1996.html   (472 words)

 ENIAC 1996 - Penn Printout, Feb 1994
ENIAC was announced to the public in The New York Times on February 14, 1946.
Until ENIAC was first programmed to do an actual computation, computers were envisioned only as generators of mathematical tables.
Although not a member of the original ENIAC team, Dr. Hopper was an early employee of the Eckert-Mauchly corporation, where she developed the first compilers (programs that translate problem-oriented statements into machine-oriented code).
www.upenn.edu /computing/printout/archive/v10/4/eniac.html   (1404 words)

 Computing Essentials - Online Learning Center
ENIAC, the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, was a project commissioned by the U.S. Army's Ordinance Department, which was seeking a better way to plot ballistics trajectories.
When ENIAC was completed in 1946, at a cost of $3 million, it stood two stories high, weighed 30 tons, and covered an area the size of two football fields.
Yet ENIAC was not much more complicated than a modern hand-held calculator or digital wristwatch, and was only able to perform a mathematical computation about as fast.
www.mhhe.com /cit/concepts/oleary/olc/chap1/compulore1.html   (441 words)

 electronic numeric integrator and calculator
As in many others along the road of technological progress, the stimulus which initiated and sustained the effort that produced the ENIAC (electronic numerical integrator and computer) was provided by the extraordinary demand of war to find the solution to a task of surpassing importance.
The ENIAC as described above is programmed through hardwiring each time a new task had to be ran.
The 1946, ENIAC Computer was long thought to have been the first electronic computer and the inventors, J. Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly were the first to patent a digital computing device - - but a 1973, patent infringement case (Sperry Rand Vs. Honeywell), voided the ENIAC patent as a derivative of Atanasoff's invention.
www.thocp.net /hardware/eniac.htm   (5041 words)

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