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Topic: Early Buddhist Schools

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  Buddhism. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Buddhist tradition tells how Siddhartha Gautama, born a prince and raised in luxury, renounced the world at the age of 29 to search for an ultimate solution to the problem of the suffering innate in the human condition.
A.D.) is the Pali canon of the Theravada school of Sri Lanka.
Buddhist concepts were interpreted by analogy with indigenous ideas, mainly Taoist, but the work of the great translators Kumarajiva and Hsüan-tsang provided the basis for better understanding of Buddhist concepts.
www.bartleby.com /65/bu/Buddhism.html   (1608 words)

 Buddhist - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Buddhist scriptures attest that many of the first Buddhists were in fact Jains (Nirgranthas as they were then called, meaning "the unbonded ones"), whom Buddha encouraged to maintain their Jain identity and practices such as giving alms to Jain monks and nuns.
Buddhist literature tends to predate the later puranic Tantras, and there is some evidence to suggest that the basic structure of tantra depends upon the Mahayana Buddhist philosophical schools.
The Buddhist canon of scripture is known in Sanskrit as the Tripi{{t}}aka and in Pāli as the Tipi{{t}}aka.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /buddhist.htm   (6514 words)

 History of Buddhism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
According to the Buddhist tradition, the historical Buddha Siddharta Gautama was born to the Shakya clan that belonged to the Hindu warrior caste (Kshatriya), at the beginning of the Magadha period (546–324 BCE), in the plains of Lumbini, Southern Nepal.
After an early life of luxury under the protection of his father, the king of Kapilavastu (later to be incorporated into the state of Magadha), Siddharta entered into contact with the realities of the world and concluded that real life was about unbearable and inescapable suffering and sorrow.
The Kushans were supportive of Buddhism, and a fourth Buddhist council was convened by the Kushan emperor Kanishka, around 100 CE at Jalandhar or in Kashmir, and is usually associated with the formal rise of Mahayana Buddhism and its scission from Theravada Buddhism.
www.bucyrus.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/History_of_Buddhism   (5555 words)

 Early Buddhist schools - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Sarvāstivādin school was most prominent in the northwest of India and provided some of the doctrines that would later be adopted by the Mahāyana.
The Theravāda School of Sri Lanka, Burma, and Thailand is descended from the Sthaviravādin School.
Some remnants of other early schools do still exist: the Geluk School of Tibetan Buddhism still use a Sarvāstivāda vinaya, and Chinese schools use one from the Dharmagupta school.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Earliest_Buddhism   (340 words)

 Learn more about Buddhism in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Central to Buddhist doctrine and practice is the law of karma and vipaka; action and its fruition, which happens within the dynamic of dependent origination (pratitya-samutpada).
It is sometimes said that the Early Buddhist schools were only interested in personal liberation, but this is not borne out by either their texts or practices.
The Buddhist canon of scripture is known in Pali as Tipitaka:, and in Sanskrit as Tripitaka.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /b/bu/buddhism_1.html   (3060 words)

 Hinayana   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The term was coined by the Mahayana schools as a way to differentiate themselves from the early schools.
However the term is still in current use to describe the early Buddhist schools, especially in Tibetan Buddhist circles because they inherited texts and teachings from all of the 'yanas' and simply adopted the terminolgy of the Mahayana Sutras.
Early Buddhism is frequently used, but is not entirely accurate because some of the 'early' schools arose later than the Mahayana schools.
www.theezine.net /h/hinayana.html   (347 words)

 AllRefer.com - sunyata (Buddhism) - Encyclopedia
B.C. on) and later systematized by the Madhyamika school.
Early Buddhist schools of Abhidharma, or scholastic metaphysics, analyzed reality into ultimate entities, or dharmas, arising and ceasing in irreducible moments in time.
It is stressed by both Buddhist writers and Western scholars that emptiness is not an entity nor a metaphysical or cosmological absolute, nor is it nothingness or annihilation.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/S/sunyata.html   (243 words)

 The Doctrine of Svabhava or Svabhavata and the Questions of Anatman and Shunyata by David Reigle
To trace it in the Buddhist texts we must necessarily do so in terms of the "dharmas," the word they use throughout for all the "elements of existence." Here we will need to reconcile their universally-held doctrine that all dharmas are anatman, or "without self," with the Theosophical teachings which regularly use the term atman.
Buddhist thought as studied in Tibet for the last millennium holds that the Sarvastivadins or Vaibhasikas were refuted by the Sautrantikas; the Sautrantikas were refuted by the Yogacarins or Cittamatrins; the Yogacarins were refuted by the Svatantrika Madhyamikas; and these were refuted by the Prasabagika Madhyamikas.
Buddhist schools sought to avoid emphasizing this teaching in any way which could be seen as holding a unitary eternal svabhava, apparently because of the similarity of this idea to the Hindu atman doctrine.
www.blavatskyarchives.com /reigle01.html   (9175 words)

 Pudgalavada Buddhist Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
The Pudgalavada was a group of five of the Early Schools of Buddhism, distinguished from the other schools by their doctrine of the reality of the self.
Schools that accepted this interpretation, such as the Theravada and Sarvastivada, were of course aware of these difficulties and dealt with them as well as they could.
But whereas other schools took this indeterminacy as evidence that the self is unreal, the Pudgalavadins understood it to characterize a real self, a self that is “true and ultimate.” It is this self, they maintained, that dies and is reborn through successive lives in Samsara, continuing to exist until enlightenment is attained.
www.iep.utm.edu /p/pudgalav.htm   (5435 words)

 Japanese Buddhism
During the Nara period, the great Buddhist monasteries in the capital Nara, such as the Todaiji, gained strong political influence and were one of the reasons for the government to move the capital to Nagaoka in 784 and then to Kyoto in 794.
Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi fought the militant Buddhist monasteries (especially the Jodo sects) thoroughly in the end of the 16th century and practically extinguished Buddhist activities on the political sector.
Buddhist institutions were once more attacked in the early years of the Meiji period, when the new Meiji government favored Shinto as the new state religion and tried to separate and emancipate it from Buddhism.
www.japan-guide.com /e/e2055.html   (613 words)

 Resource Library/Living Buddhism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
In the Buddhist texts, the usage of the term samgha was strictly distinguished from that of bhikkhu or bhiksu.
One reason why the Mahayana Buddhists were able to develop and maintain the characteristics of a lay movement was that stupas, that is, the places they gathered for worship and practice, were managed by lay believers.
Early Mahayana Buddhists proudly called themselves the “bodhisattva-samgha,” that is, a group of ordinary people who saw their innate Buddhahood and strove to manifest it while helping others do the same.
www.sokaspirit.org /resource/buddhism_12.shtml   (3107 words)

 Buddhism - Wikibooks
Ironically, the most important question in Buddhist Studies is whether or not it is accurate to think of Buddhism as a religion.
As such, Buddhist Studies is very much both about methodology as well as understanding the historical as well as current context.
The main themes of Buddhist thought in its many forms, are identified and discussed.
en.wikibooks.org /wiki/Buddhism   (322 words)

 Vinaya schools: Lu/Ritsu (from Buddhism) --  Encyclopædia Britannica   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
school of Buddhist moral discipline primarily concerned with vinaya, or the rules of monastic and religious practice.
The school was founded in China in the 7th century by the monk Tao-hsüan on the basis of Theravada texts that emphasized the letter of the law, as compared with the later Mahayana texts that relied on the spirit, or essence, of the moral law.
It varies less from school to school than does either the Sutta (discourses of the Buddha and his...
www.britannica.com /eb/article-68701?tocId=68701   (923 words)

 Buddhist Studies: Abhidhamma
This was as far as the Buddha himself went, but the early Buddhists continued the process of analysis until they arrived at what they believed to be the most basic constituents of reality which were called Dhammas.
The early Buddhists however came to understand change as being a discreet momentary event.
The Sutta Pitakas of the early Buddhist schools were almost identical while the Abhidammas theories often differed greatly from each other.
www.buddhanet.net /e-learning/dharmadata/fdd17.htm   (327 words)

 One of earliest Buddhist manuscripts acquired by University of Washington
A birch bark manuscript from a Buddhist monastery, believed to have been written in the first or second century A.D., was recently acquired by the University of Washington Libraries and will become a key component of the Early Buddhist Manuscripts Project.
Gandhara was an early, vibrant center of Buddhism and occupied a pivotal role in the spread of Buddhism from India to Central Asia, China and the rest of East Asia.
The Early Buddhist Manuscripts Project is a partnership between the UW and the British Library.
www.washington.edu /newsroom/news/2002archive/08-02archive/k082002a.html   (753 words)

 HINAYANA FACTS AND INFORMATION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Hinayana as ''ancient tradition'' would include those schools who solely followed such sutras, some of whom actively rejected the Mahayana sutras during the time of the rise of the Mahayana, around 2,000 years ago, cognate with most of the Early_Buddhist_Schools.
Those who assert the idea tend to be among those who subscribe the idea of an early Mahayana schism, and who believe that there was a strong history of polemics between the early Mahayana and other early Buddhist schools.
Another argument for criticism of the Hinayana by the early Mahayana is a citation from the Lotus Sutra, where a large number of Bikkhus are said to have walked out of the discourse.
velocipay.com /Hinayana   (2006 words)

 [No title]
Outright rejection of the possibility of Buddhist environmental ethics on the grounds that the otherworldliness of "canonical " Buddhism implies a negation of the natural realm for all practical purposes (e.g., Hakamaya [6]).
In fact, the //Sarvaastivaada// came under attack from a variety of other Buddhist schools [10] under the suspicion that these two interrelated //hetu// undermined the basis of temporal causation understood as essential to the efficacy of ethical and soteriologically meaningful activity.
This seems to have led some early Buddhist schools to emphasise spatiality as against temporality, perhaps because this was perceived as entailing fewer intractable philosophical problems.
ftp.cac.psu.edu /pub/jbe/vol1/harris.txt   (4130 words)

 Buddhist Schools: Japanese Buddhist Schools.
835 C.E), this lineage grew to rival the Tendai lineage as early as the late ninth century.
The Shingon belief system was tantric and taught that through mantras (short, repetitive incantations), meditation and the performance of hand gesture one can gain access to the power of the Buddhas and bodhisattvas.
Eisai, whose form of Zen took on the name of Rinzai (Lin-chi, Ch.) affirmed the authority of the traditional Buddhist scriptures and used the koan or meditational riddle as a means of transcending linear thinking.
www.buddhanet.net /e-learning/history/b3schjap.htm   (457 words)

 Buddhism --  Encyclopædia Britannica   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
It is based mainly on the rigorous intellectual disciplines of Madhyamika and Yogacara philosophy and utilizes the symbolic ritual practices of Vajrayana (Tantric Buddhism).
Pure Land schools believe that rebirth in Amitabha's Western Paradise, Sukhavati (known as the Pure Land, or Pure Realm), is ensured all those who invoke Amitabha's...
While celibacy has been a normal requirement of the Buddhist clergy (all of whom are monks), many of the clergy in pre-20th century Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and Japan married.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9105944?tocId=9105944   (828 words)

 Hinayana   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Hinayana is used as a name to refer variously (to one or more of doctrines, traditions, practitioners or thoughts that are) generally concerned with the achievement of Nirvana as a Sravaka-Buddha or a Pratyeka-Buddha, as opposed to the achievement of liberation as a Samyaksam-Buddha.
Hinayana as ancient tradition would include those schools who solely followed such sutras, some of whom actively rejected the Mahayana sutras during the time of the rise of the Mahayana, around 2,000 years ago, cognate with most of the Early Buddhist Schools.
It is primarily the interpretation of Hinayana as a tradition that has led to the most concern, especially as many people have seen the term as a slur against the schools of Nikaya Buddhism—schools that solely follow the sutras given by Buddha that admonish the practitioner to achieve Sravaka-Buddhahood.
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/H/Hinayana.htm   (2098 words)

 University Week: Scholars working to decipher ancient Buddhist manuscript
This manuscript was of particular interest to Salomon because he directs the Early Buddhist Manuscripts Project, which began in 1996 as a partnership with the British Library to analyze a scroll that came into the library’s possession.
Salomon was able to demonstrate that this was among the oldest Buddhist manuscripts in existence, dating from the first or second century.
The Early Buddhist Manuscripts Project group, consisting of Salomon, Cox, post-doctoral researchers and several graduate students, meets at least once a week to discuss a portion of the text.
depts.washington.edu /~uweek/archives/2002.08.AUG_22/news_a.html   (1261 words)

 Sarnath   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Isipatana is the name used in the Pali Canon, and means the place with the holy men (Pali: ishi, Sanskrit: rishi) fell to earth.
Sarnath means "Lord of the Deer" and relates to another old Buddhist story in which the Buddha is a deer and offers his life to a kind instead of the doe he is planning to kill.
Sarnath became a major centre of the Sammatiya school of Buddhism (one of the early Buddhist schools of the Shravakayana (formerly known as the hinayana).
www.theezine.net /s/sarnath.html   (555 words)

 Shunyata and Prititya Samutpada in Mahayana
This was necessary, in part, because of the tendency among certain early Buddhist schools to assert that there were aspects of reality that were not sunya, but which had inherent in them their "own-being".
But it is important to appreciate that understanding absolutely everything as sunya could imply that even those things most revered by Buddhists (such as the arhant ideal and the rules laid down in the vinaya) were empty.
It is wonderfully subtle, and Buddhist philosophers have developed it beautifully.
www.humboldt.edu /~wh1/6.Buddhism.OV/6.Sunyata.html   (1088 words)

 Buddhist pilgrimage (from Buddhism) --  Encyclopædia Britannica   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
During these early centuries of Buddhist history there were at least four major pilgrimage centres—the place of the Buddha's birth at Lumbini, the place of his Enlightenment at Bodh Gaya, the Deer Park in Varanasi (Benares) …
Records indicate that pilgrimages were made to Jerusalem as early as the 2nd century; and excavations in the 1940s at St. Peter's Basilica in Rome unearthed a 2nd-century...
Pali is a western Indian dialect that was adopted by the Theravada school of Buddhism, and it is often identified with Buddha's own speech.
0-www.britannica.com.library.unl.edu /eb/article-68761   (982 words)

 Readings in Buddhist Philosophy
The scriptures of the Pali canon, the oldest written form of Buddhist texts, is in a language which was no longer spoken when the text were written down and includes distinctive features of the Magadhi dialect which suggest that great effort was made to preserve exactly the words of the Buddha.
The problem of explaining Buddhist concepts to people who lived outside the milieu of Indian thinking was severe and challenged the ingenuity of Buddhist thinkers who wanted to be understood while remaining true to the original doctrine.
The third phase of Buddhist philosophy is the formation of schools of Buddhist philosophy.
www.as.miami.edu /phi/bio/Buddha/bud-read.htm   (384 words)

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