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Topic: Earth's mantle

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In the News (Mon 20 Nov 17)

 Mantle (geology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The convection of the Earth's mantle is a chaotic process (in the sense of fluid dynamics), which is thought to drive the motion of plates.
Earth's mantle is the thick shell of rock surrounding the Earth's outer core, and lies directly beneath the Earth's thin crust.
There are different theories, according to which the Earth's mantle is divided into different floors of separate convection. /wiki/Mantle_(geology)   (1140 words)

 Earth's Interior
The part of the mantle near the crust, about 50-100 km down, is especially soft and plastic, and is called the asthenosphere.
The earth is divided into four main layers: the inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust.
Convection in the mantle drives plate tectonic motions of the sea floor and continents. /ftp/pub/louie/class/100/interior.html   (1483 words)

 Michael Wysession
He has a 20-minute 'movie' of the Earth's core, mantle and surface, showing what happens below us in a earthquake when one seismic wave follows another, wreaking havoc and making the Earth shudder.
He has mapped various sections of the Earth and is most noted for his map of the Earth's core-mantle boundary.
Wysession, who is the first geologist to map the Earth's core-mantle boundary, some 2,000 miles below our feet, is a great explainer of the Earth's functions and processes. /sb/page/normal/24.html   (146 words)

The mantle is composed primarily of magnesium, silicon, and oxygen in the form of silicate minerals.
The temperature of the mantle can be as high as 3,700°C/6,692°F. Heat generated in the core causes convection currents in the semi-liquid mantle; rock rises and then slowly sinks again as it cools, causing the movements of the tectonic plates.
The boundary (junction) between the mantle and the crust is called the Mohorovicic discontinuity, which lies at an average depth of 32 km/20 mi. /reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0006334.html   (456 words)

 Evolving Earth: Plate Tectonics
Earth's crust is the thin shell that lies atop the thick mantle, and it is reasonable to assume that the crust is extracted from the mantle, especially the outermost part of the mantle.
late tectonics says that the Earth's strong outer layer (called the lithosphere, which consists of crust and uppermost mantle) is broken into a mosaic of plates that slowly move over a mechanically weaker layer (the asthenosphere, which is part of the upper mantle).
If the Earth is not to inflate like a balloon by the creating new material at the ocean ridges, then material must be consumed elsewhere at the same rate. /globalchange1/current/lectures/evolving_earth/evolving_earth.html   (456 words)

 The Earth's Mantle
They have also known that the earth's mantle, the layer between the earth's crust and core, was the major player in the movement of the plates.
The computers produced 3D images of the mantle that suggest the existence of a superplume under Africa and possibly another one under the Pacific.
There are cooler and warmer sections of the mantle that are in constant flux with one another, much like gathering storm clouds. /library/scripts/mantle.html   (239 words)

 Mapping the Earth's Mantle in 4D
Geochemical methods of diamond exploration rely on recognizing indicator minerals that formed in the earth's upper mantle, within the diamond stability field, and were entrained in rapidly rising volatile-rich magmas and emplaced in or on the crust (Fig.
Geophysics can probe physical properties of the earth, such as wave velocity, but what about the composition and petrology of mantle rocks, and the chemical processes that drive the evolution of the mantle and crust?
Garnet chemistry reflects exposure of the upper mantle to metasomatism by infiltrating melts and fluids. /research/mantle/DI_mantle.html   (1566 words)

 Unique U.S. Seisometer Array Shows Core-Mantle Boundary
As this cold rock reaches the bottom of the mantle, it pushes aside what is known as a chemical boundary layer into two large lumps, one beneath the central Pacific, and one beneath western Africa, that serve as the birth place for most of the Earth's hotspot plumes.
Liverpool Scientist Discovers New Layer Of The Earth (April 14, 2005) -- A University of Liverpool scientist has discovered a new layer near the Earth's core, which will enable the internal temperature of the Earth's mantle to be measured at a much deeper level...
This occurs in the upper mantle for the predominant mineral olivine, which gets aligned in the direction that the rock is convecting, or flowing. /releases/1999/04/990405070114.htm   (1128 words)

 Science News - Global Earth Tremors Update: 3-16-03
Global Earth tremors are underway as the Earth's mantle is already off balance by the shifting magma= mass within the planet, and in response to centrifugal forces acting upon the heavier portions, the mantle is threatening to break free from it's fixed position relative to the gyroscopic core.
It is therefore a logical conclusion that these global tremors are caused by volcanic upheavals within the core of the Earth, with resulting variable affects to the weight distribution of the Earth's mantle.
As a result of the absorption of this electrical energy into the Earth at the poles, and a process known as electromagnetic induction - Faraday's Law Of Induction, caused by moving magnetic fields in close proximity to the Earth, more electrical energy will be induced within the Earth's mantle and transfer to the planet's core. /ScienceNews/globaltremors.htm   (1128 words)

 Earth's Crust, Lithosphere and Asthenosphere
The tectonic plates are made up of the Earths crust and the upper part of the mantle layer underneath.
The tectonic plates are made up of Earths crust and the upper part of the mantle layer underneath.
The plates that fit like puzzle pieces around the Earth are made of Earths crust and the upper part of the mantle layer. /earth/interior/earths_crust.html   (1128 words)

Irifune, T. and A.E. Ringwood, 1993, Phase transformations in subducted oceanic crust and buoyancy relationships at depths of 600±800 km in the mantle, Earth Planet.
Helffrich, G.R. and B.J. Wood, 2001, The Earths mantle, Nature, 412, 501–507.
Stixrude, L., R.J. Hemley, Y. Fei and H.K. Mao, 1992, Thermoelasticity of silicate perovskite and magnesiowustite and stratification of the Earths mantle, Science, 257, 1099-1101. /Eclogite.html   (4892 words)

 The Mantle
The function of the mantle is to separate the inner mantle and the outer mantle.
The upper layer of the outer mantle consists of the same material but is stiffer because of its lower temperature.
The inner mantle for the biggest part probably consists of sulphides and oxides of silicon and magnesium. /~ll125/en/mantle.htm   (490 words)

 Earth's Unseen Region
The core-mantle boundary, a blazing (6,000 degrees Fahrenheit) chemical cauldron, is the rocky interface between the Earth's hard mantle and its liquid iron core.
The new map of the core-mantle boundary will help geologists understand how the Earth is evolving, and how from its dynamic inception 4.5 billion years ago, it is cooling off in space.
But Wysession, who has mapped localized regions and activities in the core-mantle boundary throughout the decade, has concentrated on understanding the lower half of the Earth's structure and chemistry to get "a whole Earth" catalog. /feature/1996/July96-Core.html   (1067 words)

 Looking deep in Earth, researchers see upwellings that could be root of volcanic islands
The material's high density might also indicate the existence of core material in this region, although leaking of the molten iron of the core in the mantle is not expected from current geophysical Earth models.
In "Seismological Constraints on a Possible Plume Root at the Core Mantle Boundary," the researchers describe a small and highly active region of inner Earth that is peculiar on several levels.
The researchers, which include two seismologists from Arizona State University, have detected a relatively small and isolated patch of exotic material, called an ultra low velocity zone (ULVZ), that may in fact be a "root" for mantle plumes that connect Earth's hot and tumultuous core and its surface. /pub_releases/2005-06/asu-ldi053105.php   (940 words)

The Earth is made up of three layers: the crust, the mantle and the core.
The earth's crust is cold, the mantle is hot and the core is even hotter, thus providing us with the explanation.
A Hot Spot is caused by the magma that rises or plumes from the core to the surface causing volcanoes by penetrating the mantle. /Peterson/funda/Links/Landforms/Landforms.html   (2513 words) - Hole Drilled to Bottom of Earth's Crust, Breakthrough to Mantle Looms
Scientist said this week they had drilled into the lower section of Earth's crust for the first time and were poised to break through to the mantle in coming years.
It marks the division between Earth's brittle outer crust and the hotter, softer mantle.
Hole Drilled to Bottom of Earth's Crust, Breakthrough to Mantle Looms /technology/050407_earth_drill.html   (746 words)

 Earth's Interior
Convection and the release of heat from the Earth's core drives further convection to release heat from the mantle.
Convection in the mantle drives plate tectonic motions of the sea floor and continents.
In this view of a flattened-out mantle from the northwest, the blue blobs show where colder, denser material is sinking into the mantle. /ftp/pub/louie/class/100/interior.html   (1483 words)

Combined with gravity models and decadal changes in Earth rotation, these results contribute to modeling of convection in the Earths mantle by providing constraints on related Earth interior processes.
SLR provides mm/yr accurate determinations of station motion on a global scale in a geocentric reference frame. /science_analysis/mantle.html   (174 words)

 700 million years ago Earth encountered major changes - PRAVDA.Ru
This drifting is caused by centrifugal forces influencing the Earth mantle areas of different density, it occurs at the depth of 3,000 kilometers and is autonomous from the drifting of lithosphere plates of the planet.
Scientists are well-aware that mantle and crust of the Earth slowly are moving along the surface of liquid outer space of the core, this process is called genuine Pole drifting.
According to David Evans from Yel University, 700 million years ago this process was faster as the Earth was hotter than today, convection flows in its mantle could make the substance of higher density be accumulated together. /science/19/94/377/12935_continents.html   (174 words) - mantle (Geology And Oceanography) - Encyclopedia
No direct observation of the mantle, or its upper boundary, has been made; its boundaries have been determined solely by abrupt changes in the velocities and character of seismic waves passing through the earth's interior (see seismology).
mantle, portion of the earth's interior lying beneath the crust and above the core.
The mantle continues to the Gutenberg discontinuity at the liquid outer core, with the base of the mantle located about 1,800 mi (2,900 km) below the earth's surface. /encyclopedia/M/mantle.html   (356 words)

Examination of the distribution and movements of elements in different parts of the earth (crust, mantle, hydrosphere etc.) and in minerals with the goal to determine the underlying legalities of distribution and movement.
Determination of the relative and absolute concentrations of the elements and their isotopes in the earth and on earth´s surface. /en/wikipedia/g/ge/geochemistry.html   (356 words)

  Suggested coloring of slices to enhance visibility and imply relative temperature in the Earths interior is:  inner core - white, outer core - yellow, mantle (below the lithosphere) - orange, upper mantle - red, lithosphere - brown.
   One of the confusing concepts of Earth structure is the distinction between chemical layering (crust, mantle and core) and mechanical layering (lithosphere, asthenosphere and mesosphere).
Educational Objective:  Develop understanding of the structure of the Earths interior (and ultimately, relationships to plate tectonics, occurrence of earthquakes and volcanoes, and the origin of the Earths magnetic field, etc.) by constructing a scale model of a “slice” of the interior of the Earth and studying the material properties of Earths interior. /~braile/edumod/earthint/earthint.htm   (2358 words)

 Theoretical and experimental evidence for a post-perovskite phase of MgSiO3 in Earth's D" layer
Panning, M. and Romanowicz, B. Inferences on flow at the base of Earth's mantle based on seismic anisotropy.
Fiquet, G. Mineral phases of the Earth's mantle.
Su, W. and Dziewonski, A. Simultaneous inversion for 3-D variations in shear and bulk velocity in the mantle. /doifinder/10.1038/nature02701   (2358 words)

 Inside the Earth [This Dynamic Earth, USGS]
The size of the Earth -- about 12,750 kilometers (km) in diameter-was known by the ancient Greeks, but it was not until the turn of the 20th century that scientists determined that our planet is made up of three main layers: crust, mantle, and core.
The mantle, which contains more iron, magnesium, and calcium than the crust, is hotter and denser because temperature and pressure inside the Earth increase with depth.
Below the crust is the mantle, a dense, hot layer of semi-solid rock approximately 2,900 km thick. /publications/text/inside.html   (2358 words)

 Books about Geology
Dynamic Earth: Plates, Plumes and Mantle Convection by Geoffrey F.
Here is an alphabetical list of books about Geology, Rocks, Minerals, Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and some other related geosciences topics, compiled by a science librarian, that are currently available (in print).
Environmental Geology: Facing the Challenges of the Changing Earth by Jon Erickson /~newbooks/geologybooks.html   (3658 words)

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