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Topic: Earths atmosphere

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In the News (Sat 25 May 19)

  Venus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Venus has the densest atmosphere of the terrestrial planets, consisting mostly of carbon dioxide, and the atmospheric pressure at the planet's surface is 90 times that of the Earth.
Earth's crust is continually recycled by subduction at the boundaries of tectonic plates, and has an average age of about 100 million years, while Venus' surface is estimated to be about 500 million years old.
Entering the atmosphere on 15 December 1970, the parachute is believed to have partially torn during the descent, and the probe struck the surface with a hard, yet not fatal, impact.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Venus   (5785 words)

 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Earth
Earth (often referred to as "the Earth") is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest.
The atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered by the presence of life forms, which create an ecological balance that modifies the surface conditions.
The tide is the cyclic rising and falling of Earths ocean surface caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and the Sun acting on the Earth.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Earth   (2191 words)

 The Earth's Atmosphere
The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that becomes thinner until it gradually reaches space.
Due to increases in gases, like carbon dioxide, that trap heat being radiated from the Earth, scientists believe that the atmosphere is having trouble staying in balance creating the greenhouse effect.
The atmosphere is divided into five layers depending on how temperature changes with height.
www.windows.ucar.edu /tour/link=/earth/Atmosphere/overview.html   (285 words)

 Terrestrial Planet Atmospheres
Atmospheric CO traps IR radiation (heat), thereby increasing the surface temperature to levels compatible with the sustainability of life.
The atmospheres of Venus, Earth and Mars are secondary atmospheres.
The latter evolution of this outgassing is driven primarily by the surface temperature and chemistry of the planet.
zebu.uoregon.edu /~js/ast221/lectures/lec14.html   (1611 words)

 Planetary orbit - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article
The point where the orbiting body is closest to Earth is the perigee, called periapsis (less properly, "perifocus" or "pericentron") when the orbit is around a body other than Earth.
The point where the satellite is farthest from Earth is called apogee, apoapsis, or sometimes apifocus or apocentron.
There are also specific terms for orbits around particular bodies; things orbiting the Sun have a perihelion and aphelion, things orbiting the Earth have a perigee and apogee, and things orbiting the Moon have a perilune and apolune (or, synonymously, periselene and aposelene).
www.startsurfing.com /encyclopedia/o/r/b/Orbit.html   (2537 words)

 The Earths Atmosphere
The atmosphere is a thin layer of gas which surrounds the Earth.
The atmosphere has changed a lot compared to the Earth's early atmosphere, but for the last billion years it has remained pretty constant.
The earth is surrounded by a blanket of gases.
www.moorlandschool.co.uk /earth/atmosphere.htm   (961 words)

Troposphere is heated primarily by the Earths surface and cools by radiation with increasing altitude until the....
Earth's Orientation: Inclination of the axis is 23 1/2 degrees from the perpendicular to the plane of the earths orbit -- It is called the "inclination of the axis".
Therefore, the earth is warmer (cooler) in Northern (Southern) hemisphere summer (winter) even though the elliptical orbit of the earth brings the earth closer to the sun in winter.
classweb.howardcc.edu /jalpert/l4.html   (3445 words)

 Ice Ages and the Greenhouse effect
Solar radiation entering the Earths atmosphere is predominately short wave, while the heat radiating form the earth is long wave.
Because the atmosphere of the earth doesnt allow this long wave radiation to leave, the solar energy is then trapped and forces the temperature of the earth to increase.
One theory proposed as the cause of this decrease in carbon dioxide levels in our atmosphere is that mountain uplift lead to enhance weathering of silicate rocks, and thus the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
www.atmos.washington.edu /1998Q4/211/project2/travis.htm   (1149 words)

 Earth's Primordial Atmosphere
Since all the planets including Earth were still forming during the Suns T-Tauri phase, the strong stellar winds likely blew away the existing atmosphere and in its place was an atmosphere captured from the surrounding nebula and solar wind.
This means that the Earth's atmosphere is enriched in nitrogen relative to the Sun, and the extra nitrogen must have come from somewhere.
This suggests that, with Earth at least, the atmosphere is continually replenished by volcanic activity.
www.windows.ucar.edu /tour/link=/earth/past/earths_primordial_atm.html&edu=high   (374 words)

 Ozone Layer
Likewise the lower levels of the atmosphere are filled with compressed air while the upper levels, such as the stratosphere, contain very 'thin' uncompressed air.
Although the stratosphere layer is over four times thicker than the lower atmosphere, the stratosphere holds so little gas that ozone is still considered one of the minor trace-gases of the overall atmosphere.
Every 1% decrease in the earths ozone shield is projected to increases the amount of UV light exposure to the lower atmosphere by 2%.
www.nas.nasa.gov /About/Education/Ozone/ozonelayer.html   (912 words)

 SPACE.com -- SETI"s Planetary Instruction Kit: Venus and Mars
By dissolving carbon dioxide and re-releasing it into the atmosphere, the oceans can be thought of as controlling the temperature of our planet (this process is, of course, much more complex).
When water vapor reached the upper atmosphere, the ultraviolet light from the Sun would break it into its components -- oxygen and hydrogen -- the latter of which escaped into space.
As Venus oceans were evaporating, their carbon dioxide was released into the atmosphere, which caused increasing heat, which, in turn, caused increasing evaporation, and so on.
www.space.com /searchforlife/seti_solarsystem_three_010216.html   (843 words)

 Harvard Gazette: Researchers close in on date of critical rise in Earth's oxygen
The initial rise in oxygen is thought to be the first of two major periods of change in the Earth's atmosphere that ultimately led to the air we breathe today.
That ancient atmosphere probably also featured a gentle rain of powdery yellow particles of sulfur, which in today's atmosphere is bound up in compounds with oxygen.
Bekker, a postdoctoral fellow in the Earth and Planetary Sciences Department until December, when he moved to the Carnegie Institution in Washington, D.C., and Holland were joined on the project by colleagues from the Carnegie Institution, Colorado State University, and Rand Afrikaans University in South Africa.
www.news.harvard.edu /gazette/2004/02.12/11-o2.html   (726 words)

 Mars Pathfinder - Science Results - Astronomical Targets
The "you are here" notation marks where Earth was situated in the sky at the time the image was taken.
The clouds consist of water ice condensed on reddish dust particles suspended in the atmosphere.
By contrast, the molecules in the Earth's atmosphere intercept about as much of the blue sunlight as the Mars dust does, because blue light is scattered easily by Earths' atmosphere (and red light is not, giving the Earth its blue sky).
mars.jpl.nasa.gov /MPF/science/astronomical.html   (686 words)

On earth the element oxygen comprises 47% of the earth's crust (by mass) that is made up by minerals that are oxygenated (silicates, carbonates, etc).
The atmospheric concentrations of Oxygen have had - and continue to - exert the greatest effect and influence to life on this planet.
The small differences in isotopic abundance is present in all chemistry on earth and arises due to small differences in reaction rate or diffusion rate of chemical substrates.
www.rsbs.anu.edu.au /ResearchGroups/PBE/Oxygen/O2_2_Abundence.htm   (1036 words)

 Volcanic & Air Quality SO2 Service   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
Schematic representation of the slant path (thick red lines) of incoming sunlight through the earths atmosphere to the satellite, associated with the footpoint F, the point on the earths surface the satellite is looking at.
A part of the light reaching the satellite is reflected by the earths surface, another part is scattered higher in the atmosphere.
Schematic representation of the slant path (thick red lines) of incoming sunlight through the earths atmosphere to the satellite, associated with the footpoint F, the point on the earths surface the satellite is looking at, in the presence of clouds.
www.oma.be /BIRA-IASB/Molecules/SO2archive/info/?kind=scdvcd   (624 words)

 Astronomy dictionary - look up science words - by KidsAstronomy.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
Part of the Sun's atmosphere, it is visible during a total solar eclipse.
Objects moving around the Sun in the same direction as the Earth are moving it direct motion, objects moving in the opposite direction are moving in retrograde motion.
A light in the atmosphere caused by a meteor falling towards the Earth.
www.kidsastronomy.com /lowdictionary.htm   (1828 words)

 Introduction to X-ray Astronomy
So we are lucky that the Earths' atmosphere blocks X-rays from reaching the Earths' surface.
If all the water were in the atmosphere were condensed onto the surface, it would form a layer 10 m deep.
The Aurorae on Earth are sources of X-rays, as are those on Jupiter and Saturn.
www-xray.ast.cam.ac.uk /xray_introduction/History.html   (932 words)

 Titan exploration
Earth would become a moon of Saturn as we'd be orbiting it (disregarding for a minute the slight offset of Saturn give a "two-body" situation..but it would be very slight as Saturn is much more massive than Earth).
Earth radius is 12,756 K Saturn’s is 120,536 K. Earths and Saturn gravity is taken at its so called surface.
Earth's atmosphere is very poor in the hydrocarbons that given Titan its haze, so it would probably have a clear, dense nitrogen-oxygen atmosphere, over a surface of dry ice overlaying water ice.
uplink.space.com /printthread.php?Cat=&Board=sciastro&main=739&type=thread   (7871 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
An object at the Earth's surface moves faster at the equator--because it is moving through a 25,000-mile (40,000-kilometer) circle in 24 hours--than it does away from the equator, where it travels in a smaller circle in the same 24-hour period.
Since Earth is curved, the angle the sun’s radiation falls on the earth varies.
The change in angle of incidence of the solar radiation also changes the intensity and this solar altitude is very prominent on the earth with more intense radiation at the equator and less as you move toward the poles.
www.eoascientific.com /interactive/atmosphere/layers_of_earths_atmosphere.html   (546 words)

 GCSE GEOLOGICAL EARTH SCIENCE and ATMOSPHERIC EVOLUTION Revision at Doc Brown's Chemistry Clinic. btgeoanswpb ...
The average temperature of the Earth depends on the net effect of the Sun's input and the Earth's output of energy [mainly by heat/infrared (ir) radiation].
The CO in the atmosphere absorbs some of the re-radiated ir to keep the Earth warm and a constant CO concentration, also means a steady temperature.
"The Earth's lithosphere (the crust and the upper part of the mantle) is cracked into a number of large pieces (tectonic plates) which are constantly moving at relative speeds of a few centimetres per year as a result of convection currents within the Earth's mantle driven by heat released by natural radioactive processes.
www.wpbschoolhouse.btinternet.co.uk /page21/GeoChangesANS.htm   (6780 words)

 Thick Siderite Marine Beds Suggest High Co2 Levels In Earths Early Atmosphere
Carbon dioxide and oxygen, not methane, were prevalent in the Earth's atmosphere more than 1.8 billion years ago as shown by the absence of siderite in ancient soils but the abundance of the mineral in ocean sediments from that time, according to a Penn State geochemist.
The acidity of rainwater in the past was greater than it is now, and they found that the combination of greater acidity and oxygen in the atmosphere, not a low content of carbon dioxide, was the reason for the absence of siderite in some ancient soils.
The high abundance of siderite in marine sediments and their carbon isotope ratios can be explained only if the carbon dioxide pressure in the atmosphere was more than 100 times, perhaps as much as 1000 times, higher than today's level.
www.spacedaily.com /news/early-earth-04g.html   (648 words)

 Glossary continued
Heat energy enters the atmosphere, in a short wave-length form, however when the energy reflects off the earth it is in long wave form and so is trapped in the earths atmosphere.
Orbital forcing: A term used to describe, when the climate of earth is controlled by astronomic events, such as the orbit of the earth around the sun, which is something which is known to bring about significant changes in climate.
It is thought that tektites result from large meteoritic impact on earth; under the force of impact, solid rock in instantaneously changed into drops of molten liquid, which then solidify as a glass.
palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk /Palaeofiles/Triassic/glossary2.htm   (963 words)

 Blue Letter Bible - Help, Tutorials, and FAQs
The theory of evolution maintains that when the earth was formed a few billion years ago it had an atmosphere (called a reducing atmosphere) that was radically different from today.
The atmosphere supposedly consisted of methane, ammonia, hydrogen, and water vapor.
The doctrine from abiogenesis, on the other hand, teaches that certain unknown conditions in the primitive atmosphere and ocean acted upon certain mysterious chemicals existing at that time to synthesize still more complex chemicals, whatever they were, constituted the original living systems from which all living organisms later evolved.
www.blueletterbible.org /faq/nbi/610.html   (1887 words)

 SPACE.com -- GEODESIC Rocket Swoops Through Brilliant Aurora
Normally, Earths magnetic field acts as a barrier against penetration of harmful solar energy waves.
A total of over 99,000 frames of data -- 70,000 of which are usable for later analysis -- were taken and beamed back to mission controllers before the rocket reentered Earths atmosphere and ceased to function.
NASA is already planning to launch a second rocket to study Earths auroras and magnetic field.
www.space.com /missionlaunches/launches/geodesic_launch_000307.html   (673 words)

 ScienCentral Video News: Focus on Space (sidebar)
By using AO to compensate for the distortion caused by the atmosphere, scientists have made ground telescopes, like the Keck Telescope in Hawaii, as powerful as if they were in space.
The blue area represents where the information regarding turbulence in the Earths atmosphere goes, is routed back to the lens, which then constantly changes shape based on the information.
Scientists at Keck were recently able to see that Neptunes atmosphere is full of giant storm systems, which may be associated with the reappearance of a great dark spot.
www.sciencentral.com /articles/view.php3?language=english&type=article&article_id=218391461   (1365 words)

 Detritus of life abounds in the atmosphere - earth - 31 March 2005 - New Scientist
A global study has found that tiny fragments of biological detritus are a major component of the atmosphere, controlling the weather and forming a previously hidden microbial metropolis in the skies.
But new findings from Ruprecht Jaenicke, of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics at the University of Mainz, Germany, show that a large fraction of the aerosols in the atmosphere are biological in origin.
Jaenicke estimates that around a billion tonnes of bio-aerosols enter the atmosphere every year from fields and forests, animal pastures and cities.
www.newscientist.com /article.ns?id=dn7217   (539 words)

 Atmosphere - Miami Museum of Science-Ecolinks-Atmosphere
Our lives and the lives of most living things depend on the atmosphere that Our atmosphere is just the right pressure and makeup for supporting life.
Atmosphere - Envelope of gases that surrounds the Earth.
The Earth's atmosphere contains several different layers that can be defined Ozone is primarily found in the atmosphere at varying concentrations
gankao.com /?q=atmosphere   (267 words)

 What Is A Meteorite? (Information & Education) - Meteorites Australia
Meteor - is a meteoroid that has entered the Earths atmosphere and burns brightly leaving a flaming tail and sometimes smoke.
Meteorite - is a meteoroid that has survived entry through the atmosphere and reached the Earths surface.
There are some more interesting facts about Meteoroids and their journey through the Earths atmosphere.
www.meteorites.com.au /meteorite.html   (509 words)

 NASA Launches Aura to Study Earths Atmosphere   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
Aura, a mission dedicated to the health of the Earth's atmosphere, successfully launched today at 6:01:59 a.m.
Aura will survey the atmosphere from the troposphere, where mankind lives, through the stratosphere, where the ozone layer resides and protects life on Earth.
NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is dedicated to understanding the Earth as an integrated system and applying Earth System Science to improve prediction of climate, weather and natural hazards using the unique vantage point of space.
www.unexplainable.net /artman/publish/printer_986.shtml   (441 words)

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