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Topic: Eastern Question


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  Eastern Question - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The "Eastern Question," in European history, encompasses the diplomatic and political problems posed by the decay of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey).
The Eastern Question is normally dated to 1774, when the Russo-Turkish War ended in defeat for the Ottoman Turks.
The Eastern Question emerged as the power of the Ottoman Empire began to decline during the seventeenth century.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Eastern_Question   (4367 words)

  
 HighBeam Encyclopedia - Eastern Question   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
EASTERN QUESTION [Eastern Question] term designating the problem of European territory controlled by the decaying Ottoman Empire in the 18th, 19th, and early 20th cent.
The Eastern Question came into sharp focus during the reign of Czarina Catherine II with the first two of the Russo-Turkish Wars (1768-74, 1787-92), when Russia, in alliance with Austria, planned the partition of the Ottoman Empire.
The apostasy question in the context of Anglo-Ottoman relations, 1843-44.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/E/EasternQ1.asp   (953 words)

  
 EASTERN QUESTION, THE - Online Information article about EASTERN QUESTION, THE
Alliance, seemed to endorse the claim of Russia to regard the Eastern Question as " her domestic concern " in which " Europe " had no right to interfere.
San Stefano, the terms of which were modified in Turkey's favour by the congress of Berlin (1878), which marks the beginning of the later phase of the Eastern Question.
The establishment of a united Turkey on a constitutional and nationalist basis was, however, not slow in producing a fresh complication in the Eastern Question.
encyclopedia.jrank.org /DRO_ECG/EASTERN_QUESTION_THE.html   (2359 words)

  
 AllRefer.com - Eastern Question (Turkish And Ottoman History) - Encyclopedia
Eastern Question, term designating the problem of European territory controlled by the decaying Ottoman Empire in the 18th, 19th, and early 20th cent.
The Eastern Question came into sharp focus during the reign of Czarina Catherine II with the first two of the Russo-Turkish Wars (1768–74, 1787–92), when Russia, in alliance with Austria, planned the partition of the Ottoman Empire.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29, connected with the Greek war, ended successfully for Russia (see Adrianople, Treaty of), but the subsequent Russian assistance to Turkey against Muhammad Ali of Egypt, followed by a Russo-Turkish alliance (1833), greatly disquieted Britain and France.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/E/EasternQ.html   (820 words)

  
 Marriott, The Eastern Question. Chapter 1
In the dawn of authentic history it is represented by the contest between the Greeks and the Persians, the heroic struggle enshrined in the memory of Marathon, Thermopylae, and Salamis.
In the vocabulary of English diplomacy the Eastern Question was not included until the period of the Greek War of Independence (1821-9), though the phrase is said to be traceable at least as far back as the battle of Lepanto (1571).
Hitherto, the Eastern Question had meant the growth or the decline of Ottoman power; a struggle between the Turks on the one hand and Austrians and Venetians on the other.
www.shsu.edu /~his_ncp/Marr01.html   (5358 words)

  
 The Great Powers and the "Eastern Question"   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
The diplomacy of the Eastern Question began in the Early Modern Period, before modern nationalism or representative governments.
In Eastern Europe and the Balkans, a succession of states have opposed Russian interests (or at least perceived Russian interests): the French under Napoleon, then the British Empire, the Germans and their allies during the two world wars, and most recently the United States.
The diplomacy of the Eastern Question was managed from the top down, by actors who defied or ignored popular wishes and the implications of social change.
www.wvi.com /~jfiske/easternquestion.htm   (4407 words)

  
 The Eastern Question
In Russia a powerful national and religious sentiment regards the possession of Constantinople, the ancient seat of the head of the Eastern Church, as a manifest destiny and urges forward every measure which tends to accomplish it.
This invasion imparted to the question a graver aspect than it had heretofore presented, and diplomacy hastened to interpose its good offices.
The Sultan was declared to possess the right of erecting fortifications both on the coast and on the land frontier of this province, and of maintaining troops there.
www.oldandsold.com /articles35/modern-europe-28.shtml   (4476 words)

  
 Eastern Question - Search Results - MSN Encarta   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Eastern Question, term coined apparently in 1821 to describe various international problems concerning the Ottoman empire, in particular the Greek...
The roots of the conflict lay in the Eastern Question posed by the decline of the Ottoman Empire, a development fraught with explosive implications...
It now became a question of implementing the various schemes of...
uk.encarta.msn.com /Eastern_Question.html   (118 words)

  
 H-Net Review: Theophilus C. Prousis on The Eastern Question, 1774-1923   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
The work under review lucidly explains the intricate diplomacy of the Eastern Question from the late eighteenth to the early twentieth centuries, and the primary sources in the documents section illustrate perspectives and issues addressed in the text.
The "Eastern Question" is the term used in diplomatic and historical writing for the question of the Ottoman Empire's political status and continued viability, a question of no small importance in view of the Empire's strategic position astride the Balkans, Near East, and eastern Mediterranean.
Any scholar who assumes the challenge of crafting a succinct introduction to the Eastern Question in eighty pages can hardly be expected to master all the available primary and secondary sources, and A. Macfie is to be commended for his adept handling of works on British policy and strategy.
www.h-net.org /reviews/showrev.cgi?path=23534863098154   (2358 words)

  
 Catholic Culture : Document Library : Why Is There an Eastern Question?
Separation from Constantinople in religious matters is a question of national life or death; and this has been forcibly brought out by a recent occurrence.
The Bulgars are proverbially grateful, and hold Russia in the highest regard for having given them independence, even though they paid over five million francs for the service and knew that she was seeking her own selfish ends.
One last chance was offered her after her fall, but she was swept along in the general torrent and was unable to avail herself of the opportunity.
www.catholicculture.org /docs/doc_view.cfm?recnum=971   (4014 words)

  
 HISTORY 593: STUDIES IN EUROPEAN DIPLOMATIC HISTORY THE EASTERN QUESTION
The Eastern Question emerged as a problem in European diplomacy in the late 17th century following the first major defeat of the Ottoman Empire at the hands of European powers.
Thoughout the 19th and early 20th century the issue of the continued existence and territorial integrity of the Ottoman Empire, with its spawling domain along the eastern Mediterranean, was a constant factor in European international politics.
The colloquium will look at the problems, crises, wars, treaties, and conferences surrounding the Eastern Question by having each member of the class represent the point of view or interests of one of the powers involved.
www.shsu.edu /~his_ncp/593Syl.html   (904 words)

  
 2.2 The Eastern Question   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
' Hitherto', writes Henry Craik, ' a great part of the Eastern Question has been the gauging of the ambitions that found in the East and its disturbances a field for their own satisfaction: it suggests a collision of aims, mutual suspicion, rival claims to undertake the task of reform' (Craik, 256.).
Politically engaged people and historians at the time of the reform attempts were aware of the complexity of the Eastern Question.
The action of the Great Powers in the Eastern Question deserves, I think, to be studied as a whole, and to be studied textually in the documents which are its official record.
www.victorianweb.org /history/dora/dora10.html   (445 words)

  
 ComingAnarchy.com » Blog Archive » The Eastern Question: Part III   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
In Part I and Part II, I discussed today’s eastward expansion of the west in the context of the “Eastern Question” which dealt with maintaining the balance of power in Europe as the Ottoman empire decayed.
The west in the broadest sense is expanding its system, running its source code in more countries and that is part of the Eastern Question.
Thus the latest Eastern Question deals more with the balance of power between stability and chaos than among states.
cominganarchy.com /archives/2005/05/03/the-eastern-question-part-iii   (1386 words)

  
 Disagreements over the Solution of the Eastern Question and Reorganization of the Monarchy
The question of Bosnia and Hercegovina, both then and later, they regarded as an exclusively Serbian issue, in the belief that the best and only solution was for these areas to be attached to Serbia after their liberation.
On the contrary, for as long as the question of Austria's reconstitution was topical, there were reasons enough for dissension and even open conflicts between the Serbian and Croatian national movements.
In their opinion, the National Party, having a different view of how the Eastern Question should be settled from the Serbs, endeavoured to realize the greater Croatian idea, to expunge the Serbian name in Croatia and to eventually to Croatize the Serbs.
www.suc.org /culture/library/Krestic/files/6.htm   (1838 words)

  
 History of THE CRIMEAN WAR   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
It refers to the danger posed by the weakness of the Ottoman empire, with the sultans in Istanbul proving unable to control the vast empire assembled by their more warlike ancestors.
The intrinsic danger in the Eastern Question is not the internal threat posed to the sultans.
The Straits become the military and the diplomatic focal point of the Eastern Question.
www.historyworld.net /wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=aa47   (2101 words)

  
 Al-Ahram Weekly | Opinion | Revisiting the 'Eastern Question'
The term the Eastern Question was coined in the mid-19th century in the course of intense speculation over the fate of the declining Ottoman Empire.
Surprised by this sudden threat European powers, which at the time were conspiring to drive the final nails into the Ottoman coffin, rallied their forces against the new upstart in the eastern Mediterranean.
This latter-day version of the Eastern Question began with the victory of the Islamic revolution led by Khomeini in 1979 and grew more compelling the more it became apparent that the revolutionary state could become the locus of a new project of autonomous revival that would threaten the Western grip over the region.
weekly.ahram.org.eg /2006/787/op2.htm   (1788 words)

  
 The Eastern Question: The Middle East in the 19th Century
European penetration of the Middle East and the response of the respective states in the region, principally, the Ottoman Empire, Iran and Egypt, but also to a lesser extent North Africa, form the major theme of this paper.
The relative success of reform programs in each of these three areas is compared and contrasted looking in particular at the consequences of reform for their relations with Europe.
Broader aspects of the ‘Eastern Question’ are also investigated with a view to analysing developments within the context of European history.
www.st-andrews.ac.uk /academic/history/modhist/hons/3324.shtml   (266 words)

  
 The Great Powers and the "Eastern Question"   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
In Eastern Europe and the Balkans, a succession of states have opposed Russian interests (or at least perceived Russian interests): the French under Napoleon, then the British Empire, then the Germans and their allies during the two world wars, and most recently the United States.
In 1876, William Gladstone (a past and future Prime Minister) wrote a pamphlet called "The Bulgarian Horrors and the Question of the East" condemning the massacres that the Turks carried out while suppressing the latest Balkan revolt.
In fact, Austria proved to be too weak to prevent the creation of successor states, even though the existence of Serbia and Romania raised serious questions about the future of Habsburg-ruled Serbian and Romanian minorities.
www.lib.msu.edu /sowards/balkan/lect10.htm   (4613 words)

  
 Eastern Question - ENCYCLOPEDIA - The History Channel UK
Eastern Question, term designating the problem of European territory controlled by the decaying Ottoman Empire
The Eastern Question came into sharp focus during the reign of Czarina Catherine II with the first two of the Russo-Turkish Wars
See M. Anderson, The Eastern Question, 1774-1923 (1966); A. Toynbee, The Western Question in Greece and Turkey (1970); D. Djordjevic and S. Fischer-Galati, The Balkan Revolutionary Tradition (1981).
www.thehistorychannel.co.uk /staging/search/search.php?word=EasternQ   (847 words)

  
 Eastern Question
This term covered the problems caused in the nineteenth century through the decline in power of the Ottoman Empire.
Lord Morley summed up the Eastern Question as "that intractable and interwoven tangle of conflicting interests, rival peoples, and antagonistic faiths".
These policies wore carried out from the direction of the Black Sea coast, the eastern flank as Persia declined, and later from the Balkans.
www.thecorner.org /hist/europe/east-qtn.htm   (756 words)

  
 Causes of the War Part 1 - The Eastern Question
Just to add that Oriental History is a subject I have only ever touched on when the Occident has been involved, and I'm looking forward to putting that right thanks to your site.
I just wanted to add to the welcomes, and say that the Crimean War is also something I'd love to learn more about.
My research interest right now is the British empire, and of course--as you know--the "Great Game" refers to the collosal struggle between Britain and Russia during the 19th century, of which the Crimean War was the most violent episode....
www.suite101.com /discussion.cfm/crimean_war/32439/219303   (242 words)

  
 Eastern Question
Eastern Question, term designating the problem of European territory controlled by the decaying
The Eastern Question came into sharp focus during the reign of Czarina
Congress of Vienna: Consequences - Consequences Although the territorial changes brought about by the Congress of Vienna did not...
www.infoplease.com /ce6/history/A0816586.html   (853 words)

  
 The Open Door Web Site : History : The Eastern Question
Unlike in western Europe, within the frontiers of Bosnia, Croatia, Serbia, Rumania, Bulgaria and Greece are peoples of different languages and religions who are not happy to be part of that country and who are sometimes prepared to fight for their independence.
All the eastern Mediterranean and south-east Europe in the 18th century had belonged to the Ottoman Empire.
Turkey was the "sick old man of Europe", dying and having its possessions divided up by its avid neighbours.
www.saburchill.com /history/chapters/empires/0057.html   (213 words)

  
 ComingAnarchy.com » Blog Archive » The Eastern Question: Part I   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
If one heard the phrase “Eastern Question” one or two hundred years ago, he’d know that this so-called problem encompassed the diplomatic and political issues arising from the slow decay of the Ottoman empire.
Today, the Eastern Question is not about the decay of an empire but rather the integration of the Ottoman’s historical heir, modern day Turkey, into Europe.
An interesting set of questions will be if Turkey can maintain its adherence to secularism or will grow more Islamist.
www.cominganarchy.com /archives/2005/04/22/the-eastern-question-part-i   (1136 words)

  
 Bible Readings for the Home Circle - 1914 edition - Chapter 65 - The Eastern Question
In the breaking up of the Roman Empire the Turks gained possession of the Holy Land in A. 1058, and finally of Constantinople, and considerable portions of eastern Europe,—the kingdom of the north,—in 1453, to which, with varying fortunes and shrinking geographical boundaries, it as held ever since.
Not from love for Turkey, but for fear of the international complications that its downfall might entail.
"The Balkan, or Near Eastern, question has been one of the most complicated political problems of the world's history for half a century.
www.preparingforeternity.com /br1914/brhc65.htm   (1782 words)

  
 Question about eastern culture imagery techniques..
Psychology forum home -> Psychology -> Question about eastern culture imagery techniques..
I'm not exactly sure if this is the place to ask this, or if anyone here would know anything about this, but i'll go ahead and give it a shot.
I have been for about a year, and I am all about health, weight lifting, etc. I was once reading a story about a bodybuilder who could use eastern culture imagery techniques to do insane physical feats, such as lift over 200 pounds purely from his testicles.
www.uncommonforum.com /viewtopic.php?t=8163   (330 words)

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