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Topic: Eccentricity mechanics

In the News (Fri 24 May 13)

 Final Gallery   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) Orbital Mechanics, also called flight mechanics, is the study of the motions of artificial satellites and space vehicles moving under the influence of gravity, atmospheric drag, thrust, as well as a myriad of other factors. Orbital mechanics is a more contemporary derivation of celestial mechanics, which is the study of the movements of natural celestial bodies such as moons and planets. Eccentricity is the distance between the foci divided by the length of the major axis and is a number between zero and one. aerospacescholars.jsc.nasa.gov /has/Students/finalGall.cfm?id=132   (705 words)

 Orbital eccentricity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The eccentricity of this conic section, the orbit's eccentricity, is an important parameter of the orbit that defines its absolute shape. Eccentricity may be interpreted as a measure of how much this shape deviates from a circle. Orbital mechanics require that the duration of the seasons be proportional to the area of the Earth's orbit swept between the solstices and equinoxes, so when the orbital eccentricity is extreme, the seasons that occur on the far side of the orbit (aphelion) can be substantially longer in duration. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Eccentricity_(orbit)   (536 words)

 Putting Planet X to the Test And it turns out the laws of orbital mechanics are actually simpler than many other areas in physics because drag is usually negligible, and planetary bodies, asteroids, stars, etc, do not have the ability to alter their course like a space craft would. This is determined by the eccentricity of the orbit. The eccentricity and the semi-major axis are both important in determining the size and shape of the orbit. www.geocities.com /quarkburger/px.html   (1004 words)

 Eccentricity -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Physics Eccentricity -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Physics The following table gives the energy and orbit shape corresponding to various values of eccentricity. Circular Orbit, Eccentricity Perturbations, Elliptical Orbit, Hyperbolic Orbit, Parabolic Orbit scienceworld.wolfram.com /physics/Eccentricity.html   (79 words)

 Chapter 5 -- Orbital Mechanics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) Orbital mechanics is the study of the motion of human made objects as they travel around a principal body, in the majority of flights the Earth. The eccentricity measures the deviation of an ellipse from a circle. If the eccentricity is equal to zero the curve is a circle; if the eccentricity is between zero and one the curve is an ellipse; if the eccentricity equals one the curve is a parabola; and, if the eccentricity is greater than one the curve is a hyperbola. www.space.edu /projects/book/chapter5.html   (5633 words)

 Gravitation and Mechanics--1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) Eccentricity equals the distance between the foci divided by the major axis. The definition of an ellipse is a closed plane curve generated in such a way that the sums of its distances from the two fixed points (the foci) is __________________. Eccentricity equals the distance between the foci divided by the _________________ axis. www.au.af.mil /au/awc/awcgate/jplbasic/bsf3-1.htm   (311 words)

 eccentrics - Columbia Encyclopedia article about eccentrics (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab2.cs.unc.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) The distance between the center of the shaft and the center of the disk is the eccentricity. A simple form of cam is a circular disk set eccentrically on a shaft in order to induce (when the shaft rotates) a rising and falling motion in a rod or some other moving part held against its edge. and cranks crank, mechanical linkage consisting of a bar attached to a pivot at one of its ends in such a way that it is capable of rotating through a complete circle about the pivot. columbia.thefreedictionary.com.cob-web.org:8888 /eccentrics   (305 words)

 Final Gallery   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) Orbital mechanics is the study of how planets, satellites, and spacecraft move in relation to each other while subject to gravity and other forces. Orbital mechanics, however, is derived from celestial mechanics and is based on Isaac Newtonâs laws of motion and law of universal gravitation. Orbital mechanics provides a solid foundation of knowledge for basic movement in space, and it will prove to be valuable for any space mission either in the present or in the years to come. aerospacescholars.jsc.nasa.gov /has/Students/finalGall.cfm?id=1061   (920 words)

 Quantum Mechanics Examples The aim of quantum mechanics is to calculate this range of possible particle positions and the relative probability of those positions. In quantum mechanics the topic is the motion of an electron under the influence of the electrostatic attractive force of the nucleus...atomic physics. For eccentricities similar to those of the planets it would be hard to distinguish the elliptical orbit from a circle (although for some planets--like Mars--the position of the Sun would look noticeably "off-center"...because the Sun is at a focus rather than the center). www.physics.csbsju.edu /QM   (2551 words)

 [No title] In the semi major axis vs. eccentricity plot, the source regions of the NEO population are bounded by white curves and labeled. While the former occurs at 2.5 AU, independant of eccentricity and inclination, the location of the nu6 resonance is roughly independent of the eccentricity but is a function of the inclination. As we know from statistical mechanics, the residence time distribution is equivalent to the orbital distribution of the steady state population of NEOs originating from that source. www.esa.int /gsp/completed/card00_S92/methodology.html   (609 words)

 Milankovitch cycles - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab2.cs.unc.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) The eccentricity is a measure of the departure of this ellipse from circularity. As the eccentricity of the orbit evolves, the semi-major axis of the orbital ellipse remains unchanged. Orbital mechanics require that the length of the seasons be proportional to the areas of the seasonal quadrants, so when the eccentricity is extreme, the seasons on the far side of the orbit can be substantially longer in duration. en.wikipedia.org.cob-web.org:8888 /wiki/Milankovitch_cycles   (2417 words)

 Orbital Mechanics The root of orbital mechanics can be traced back to the 17th century when mathematician Isaac Newton (1642-1727) put forward his laws of motion and formulated his law of universal gravitation. Inclination is the angular distance between a satellite's orbital plane and the equator of its primary (or the ecliptic plane in the case of heliocentric, or sun centered, orbits). is the Earth's equatorial radius, a is the semi-major axis in kilometers, i is the inclination, e is the eccentricity, and www.braeunig.us /space/orbmech.htm   (6414 words)

 b33 The Milankovitch insolation hypothesis for climatic cycles He found that cycles of high eccentricity follow upon each other for hundreds of thousands of years and then cycles of low eccentricity become the pattern as is the case today and calculably was so for the last 10,000 years. Earth's present eccentricity is about 1% and its highest eccentricity for a time during the ice ages was 6%. At times of low eccentricity such as exists today winters are evidently of too brief for low-latitude snow accumulations to last into summer and induce an ice age. geowords.com /histbooknetscape/b33.htm   (2168 words)

 Celestial Mechanics The eccentricity of an ellipse is related to "a" and "b" by the relation: Since a=4 and the eccentricity is 0.5, the exact length of the semi-minor axes is given by; As an example, the orbital eccentricity of the planet Mercury is 0.206, with an aphelion distance of 0.467 A.U. is equal to 150 billion meters). www.southalabama.edu /physics/animation/facteach011.html   (728 words)

 Milankovitch Theory and Climate   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) Because the underlying celestial mechanics is relatively arcane, but necessary for the understanding of the science issues, and the geological record has potential to help constrain celestial mechanical issues, a short review of the relevant concepts is presented here. Thus, the 404 ky eccentricity cycle, very important for this workshop, is derived from g2-g5 = 1/404 = (g2 + p) - (g5 + p). Using a time scale derived by tuning to the most stable of the eccentricity cycles, the 404 ky cycle (see Laskar, this report, and Olsen, this report) the other long eccentricity cycles can be identified and their component g frequencies solved for (e. www.ldeo.columbia.edu /~polsen/nbcp/cmintro.html   (1354 words)

 Basics of Space Flight Section I. The Environment of Space Upon completion of this chapter you will be able to describe the force of gravity, characteristics of ellipses, and the concepts of Newton's principles of mechanics. Eccentricity is the distance between the foci divided by the major axis. Therefore, a circle is an ellipse with an eccentricity of zero. www2.jpl.nasa.gov /basics/bsf3-1.htm   (325 words)

 History and Philosophy of Western Astronomy Most comet orbits have large eccentricities (some are so eccentric that the aphelion is around 100,000 AU while the perihelion is less than 1 AU!). The eccentricity of the ellipses increases from top left to bottom left in a counter-clockwise direction in the figure but the semi-major axis remains the same. As the eccentricity increases, the Sun's position is closer to one side of the elliptical orbit, but the semi-major axis remains the same. www.astronomynotes.com /history/s7.htm   (1569 words)

 Eccentricity of an Orbit (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab2.cs.unc.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) The eccentricity of Earth's orbit is very small, so Earth's orbit is nearly circular. This means that the orbiting object moves closer towards and further away from the central body during the course of an orbit. Parabolic and hyperbolic trajectories are not orbits; they only result in a single close pass by the parent body, while orbits result in repeated close approaches. www.windows.ucar.edu.cob-web.org:8888 /tour/link=/physical_science/physics/mechanics/orbit/eccentricity.html&edu=high   (594 words)

 A Detailed Classical Description of the Advance of the Perihelion of Mercury It is well known in classical mechanics, that in a orbital motion around a central field, the kinetic energy of an orbiting mass is always (minus) half of the potential energy. Classical mechanics predicts that the orbiting velocity of a planet is larger when the number of meters measured from the Sun to the planet is smaller. Therefore in that case, the perimeter of the ellipse with a small eccentricity is equal to the circumference of the circle. www.newtonphysics.on.ca /MERCURY/Mercury.html   (9400 words)

 Kepler's First Law of Planetary Motion The distance of the line from the origin thus fluctuates between a(1 – e) and a(1 + e), and the result is a flattened circle or ellipse; the point O (the origin) is its focus. All planetary orbits resemble ellipses, each with its own value of e or eccentricity: the smaller e is, the closer the shape to a circle. Comets in general have an eccentricity e close to 1, suggesting they have come from the very distant fringes of the solar system. www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov /stargaze/Skepl1st.htm   (1383 words)

 Celestial Mechanics The Earth's orbit has an eccentricity of 0.017, also very small, so I will describe it as being circular. The linear velocity of the Earth through space with respect to the Sun is 29.8 km/s which is 0.01% of the speed of light, so relativistic effects will be ignored. kg), M is the mass of the body causing the central force, and e is the eccentricity of the orbit which can be derived as shown from the initial conditions stated above. www.onr.com /user/driven/celestial_mechanics.htm   (2025 words)

 Eccentricity of an Orbit (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab2.cs.unc.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) Astronomers use a special word to describe how round, or how long and skinny, and ellipse is. The word they use is "eccentricity". If the eccentricity of an orbit is close to zero, the ellipse is nearly a circle. Earth's orbit has a small eccentricity, close to zero. www.windows.ucar.edu.cob-web.org:8888 /tour/link=/physical_science/physics/mechanics/orbit/eccentricity.html&edu=elem   (212 words)

 [No title] The computational methods used by software to predict a satellite's position rely on celestial mechanics for the basic calculations, followed by adjustments with astrodynamical methods and factors. Symbolized as "e," it is the degree of "ovalness" of the ellipse. Skinny ellipses have eccentricities close to one while roundish ellipses have an "e" near to zero. home.att.net /~sue.worden/SeeSat-FAQ/Chapter-05.txt   (3928 words)

 Civil Engineering Books - Soil Mechanics A textbook addressing the subject of soil mechanics as it relates to the behavior of unsaturated soils, or, more specifically, addressing that class of problems where the soils have a matric suction or where the pore-water pressure is negative. Designed especially for those students who will probably not be taking further courses in soil mechanics or foundation engineering, this text uses only simple mathematics and an emphasis on applications to explore the nature of soils and how various soil materials may influence certain construction... Reviews the basic theory of soil mechanics and describes the experiments which determine soil properties in the laboratory. www.strunet.com /books/soil_mechanics01.html   (780 words)

 Celestial Mechanics Newton's formulation of mechanics, which involved the new concepts of mass and force, was subjected to intense, but sterile, criticism by Ernst Mach (1838-1916) and others, which did not change its application to the slightest degree, and shed no light on its fundamentals. This branch of mechanics is usually called analytical mechanics, and mechanics with forces is called vector mechanics, from the convenient use of that formalism. Since the ellipse is the locus of points the sum of whose distances to the two foci is a constant, 2a, the length of the radius from a focus to the end of the minor axis is a. www.du.edu /~jcalvert/phys/orbits.htm   (10768 words)

 Civil Engineering Books - Soil Mechanics - 2 The stability of mechanical and civil engineering structures is affected by forces such as wind gusts, transport loads, acoustic pressures, etc. The behavior of the materials of which the structures are made are key areas of research and application in mechanical, civil, and aerospace engineering,... The teory is excellent, this book explains to you everything about soil mechanics, but the practice (examples and exercises) is not so good and sometimes that´s what really matters to you. A text in the basic theory and principles of soil mechanics, for undergraduate courses toward degrees in civil engineering and allied disciplines. www.strunet.com /books/soil_mechanics02.html   (870 words)

 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Eccentricity eccentric ECCENTRIC1 [eccentric] in mechanics, device for changing rotary to back-and-forth motion. Much was hoped from the handsome, talented, and liberal young prince at his accession, but his prodigality and eccentricity soon alienated his subjects. Generation of bimanual trajectories of disparate eccentricity: levels of interference and spontaneous changes over practice.(Abstract) www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=Eccentricity   (601 words)

 Star One   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) This glossary supplies the definition of several technical terms used in the Celestial Mechanics pages, within the orbital control context. The larger the eccentricity the more elliptical the orbit (also see geostationary orbit and inclined orbit). INCLINED ORBIT - Orbit of a satellite around the Earth with a null eccentricity whose inclination is not maintained near zero. www.starone.com.br /english/starone/tecnologia/mecanica_glossario.php   (719 words)

 Hyperbolic, Parabolic or Elliptical Orbit? - Advanced Physics Forums A comet is first seen at a distance of d AUs from the Sun and is travelling with a speed of q times the Earth\'s speed. I know that, in general, and#949; (eccentricity) is less than, equal to, or greater than 1 for an ellipse, parabola, and hyperbola respectively. The orbit\'s eccentricity is given by: sqrt (1 + 2 E L^2/(m C^2)) www.advancedphysics.org /forum/showthread.php?t=872   (130 words)

 Celestial Mechanics With vector calculus, Newton was able to develop a cosmology which included the underlying cause of planetary motion, gravity, completed the solar system model begun by the Babylonians and early Greeks. The mathematical formulation of Newton's dynamic model of the solar system became the science of celestial mechanics, the greatest of the deterministic sciences. Although Newtonian mechanics was the grand achievement of the 1700's, it was by no means the final answer. zebu.uoregon.edu /~js/ast221/lectures/lec08.html   (1038 words)

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