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# Topic: Eccentricity orbit

 Eccentricity (orbit) - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article The eccentricity of this conic section, the orbit's eccentricity, is an important parameter of the orbit that defines its absolute shape. Eccentricity may be interpreted as a measure of how much this shape deviates from a circle. Through time, the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit slowly changes from nearly 0 to almost 0.05 as a result of gravitational attractions between the planets (see graph [1]). www.startsurfing.com /encyclopedia/e/c/c/Eccentricity_(orbit).html   (197 words)

 Eccentricity (orbit) - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25) The eccentricity of this conic section, the orbit's eccentricity, is an important parameter of the orbit that defines its absolute shape. Eccentricity may be interpreted as a measure of how much this shape deviates from a circle. Through time, the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit slowly changes from nearly 0 to almost 0.05 as a result of gravitational attractions between the planets (see graph [1] (http://www.museum.state.il.us/exhibits/ice_ages/eccentricity_graph.html)). www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Eccentricity_%28orbit%29   (193 words)

 * Eccentricity- (Meteorology): Definition The deviation of the earth's orbit from elliptical to nearly circular. Eccentricity - a dimensionless quantity describing the elliptical shape of a planet's orbit. Climate change may result from such factors as changes in solar activity, long-period changes in the Earth's orbital elements (eccentricity, obliquity of the ecliptic, precession of equinoxes), natural internal processes of the climate system,... en.mimi.hu /meteorology/eccentricity.html   (257 words)

 The Motion of Comets Eccentricity is a mathematical measure of departure from circularity. In general both the size and shape of a comet's orbit are changed by the non-gravitational forces -- not by much but by enough to totally confound all of the celestial mechanics experts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Sometimes the orbits are so elongated that, because we can observe only a small part of them, they cannot be distinguished from a parabola, which is an orbit with an eccentricity of exactly one. www.solarviews.com /french/comet/motion.htm   (1023 words)

 The Seasons and the Earth's Orbit - Milankovitch Cycles   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25) We have all been taught that the seasons are caused by the tilt of the Earth's axis of rotation - the 23.4° offset of the axis from a direction perpendicular to the Earth's orbital plane. The Earth's orbit is an ellipse, and there is a slow change in its orientation, which gradually shifts the point of perihelion in space. The mechanism by which the Earth's orbital eccentricity could affect the climate in such a direct and important way is not known, although recent evidence (published in 2000) indicates that atmospheric carbon dioxide may play a leading role in amplifying the orbital effect. aa.usno.navy.mil /faq/docs/seasons_orbit.html   (1561 words)

 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25) The eccentricity, axial tilt, and precession of the Earth's orbit vary in several patterns, resulting in 100,000 year ice age cycles of the Quaternary glaciation over the last few million years. The eccentricity is a measure of the departure of this ellipse from circularity. As the eccentricity of the orbit evolves, the semi-major axis of the orbital ellipse remains unchanged. www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=Milankovitch_cycles   (2310 words)

 NOAA Paleoclimatology Program - Orbital Variations and Milankovitch Theory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25) The earth's orbit around the sun is not quite circular, which means that the earth is slightly closer to the sun at some times of the year than others. The "roundness", or eccentricity, of the earth's orbit varies on cycles of 100,000 and 400,000 years, and this affects how important the timing of perihelion is to the strength of the seasons. The combination of the 41,000 year tilt cycle and the 22,000 year precession cycles, plus the smaller eccentricity signal, affect the relative severity of summer and winter, and are thought to control the growth and retreat of ice sheets. www.ngdc.noaa.gov /paleo/milankovitch.html   (862 words)

 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Periapsis In astronomy, an apsis (plural apsides "ap-si-deez") is the point of greatest or least distance of the elliptical orbit of a celestial body from its center of attraction (the center of mass of the system). , the speed corresponding to a kinetic energy which, at any position of the orbit, added to the existing kinetic energy, would allow the orbiting body to escape (the square root of the sum of the squares of the two speeds is the local escape velocity). After this the periapsis altitude began to descend, and final atmospheric entry of the orbiter was expected to occur in late 1992, around orbit 5000, nearly 14 years after orbit insertion. www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Periapsis   (575 words)

 Spectroscopic binary - TheBestLinks.com - Circle, Ellipse, Eccentricity, Orbit, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25) Unless the plane of the orbit happens to be perpendicular to the line of sight, the orbital velocities will have components in the line of sight and the observed radial velocity of the system will vary periodically. If the orbit is elliptical, the shape of the curve will depend on the eccentricity of the ellipse and the orientation of the major axis with reference to the line of sight. It is impossible to determine individually the semimajor axis a and the inclination of the orbit plane i. www.thebestlinks.com /Spectroscopic_binary.html   (368 words)

 Cnes - Glossary An orbit’s eccentricity, usually denoted by e, is the eccentricity of the conic section (circle, ellipse, parabola or hyperbola) described by a satellite or celestial body. If the eccentricity is zero, the orbit is a circle; if less than one, an ellipse; if equal to one, a parabola; and if greater than one, a hyperbola. Orbit describing an ellipse, that is, with an eccentricity less than 1. www.cnes.fr /web/458-glossary.php?items_category=2&items_letter=E&keywords=&bookmark=1   (367 words)

 Quaest.io on Eccentricity Orbit   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25) Through time, the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit slowly changes from nearly 0 to almost 0.05 as a result of gravitational attractions between the planets (see graph [1]). In other values, Mercury (with an eccentricity of 0.2056) holds the title as the largest value among the planets of the Solar System. Orbital mechanics require that the duration of the seasons be proportional to the area of the Earth's orbit swept between the solstices and equinoxes, so when the orbital eccentricity is extreme, the seasons that occur on the far side of the orbit (aphelion) can be substantially longer in duration. www.quaest.io /?title=eccentricity-orbit   (527 words)

 Starry Night Support Center - KnowledgeBase   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25) The shape of a planet's orbit and the planet's position in that orbit is defined by the planet's orbital elements. Comets orbits are extremely elliptical, so the distance between comet and parent body is usually measured at pericenter, the point in their orbit where they are closest to the parent. Eccentricity: Eccentricity describes the shape of the orbit, based on a ratio of the distance of the focus from the center of the orbit's ellipse to the length of its semi-major axis. www.starrynight.com /support/support_trio/index.php?action=kb&article=172   (1886 words)

 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Orbital eccentricity Their comparatively high eccentricities are probably due to the influence of Jupiter and to past collisions. Periodic comets have highly eccentric elliptical orbits, whose eccentricity will be just less than 1; Halley's Comet's elliptical orbit having a value of 0.967. The length of the seasons is proportional to the area of the Earth's orbit swept between the solstices and equinoxes. www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Eccentricity_%28orbit%29   (715 words)

 ISAW - Planet Orbit Exercise Set the semi-major axis to 1.2 AU and the scaling factors at the default value of "2" and then notice what happens to the orbit as the eccentricity is changed from 0 to 0.10 to 0.50 to 0.90. On the printout of the orbit of the default object, mark the aphelion and perihelion points in its orbit. Turn in your worksheet, the printout of the orbit of default object (or that assigned by the instructor), and the printout of the orbit of Mars. www.bridgewater.edu /~rbowman/ISAW/PlanetOrbitEx.html   (1080 words)

 Eccentricity of an Orbit Scientists use a special term, "eccentricity", to describe how round or how "stretched out" an ellipse is. If the eccentricity of an ellipse is close to one (like 0.8 or 0.9), the ellipse is long and skinny. The eccentricity of Earth's orbit is very small, so Earth's orbit is nearly circular. The Sun is not at the center of an elliptical orbit. www.windows.ucar.edu /tour/link=/physical_science/physics/mechanics/orbit/eccentricity.html   (339 words)

 CelesTrak: "Basics of the Geostationary Orbit" While each satellite will complete its orbit in the same time it takes the earth to rotate once, it should be obvious that the geosynchronous satellite will move north and south of the equator during its orbit while the geostationary satellite will not. Orbits with non-zero eccentricity (i.e., elliptical rather than circular orbits) will result in drifts east and west as the satellite goes faster or slower at various points in its orbit. Since the geostationary orbital plane is not coincident with the plane of the earth's orbit (the ecliptic) or that of the moon's orbit, the gravitational attraction of the sun and the moon act to pull the geostationary satellites out of their equatorial orbit, gradually increasing each satellite's orbital inclination. www.celestrak.com /columns/v04n07   (1553 words)

 How Eccentric!   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25) Scientists use the term eccentricity to describe the shape of an ellipse. (Eccentricity literally means "off center"—exactly what the sun is compared to Earth's orbit!) A circular orbit has an eccentricity of zero. From planets with higher eccentricity, the change in the sun's apparent size would be more noticeable. www.classzone.com /books/earth_science/terc/content/investigations/es2603/es2603page04.cfm   (139 words)

 loan Eccentricity_ orbit - loan-reports.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25) Scaling of distances (including sizes of bodies, while keeping the densities the same) gives similar orbits without scaling the time: if for example distances are halved, masses are divided by 8, gravitational forces by 16 and gravitational accelerations by 2. Similarly, when an object is dropped from a tower, the time it takes to fall to the ground remains the same with a scale model of the tower on a scale model of the earth. for an elliptical orbit with semi-major axis a, of a small body around a spherical body with radius r and average density Ï, where T is the orbital period. www.loan-reports.com /Eccentricity_%28orbit%29   (399 words)

 NASA Observatorium Education-Reference Module   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25) The elliptical orbit has the shape of a "squashed" circle, although there is a precise mathematical equation that describes it. An eccentricity of zero (when the arrow is at the bottom of the bar) means the orbit is a circle. Note that the sizes of the Earth, satellite, and orbit are not drawn to realistic scales. observe.arc.nasa.gov /nasa/education/reference/orbits/orbit1.html   (166 words)

 Keplerian Elements Tutorial   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25) Orbits with inclination near 90 degrees are called polar (because the satellite crosses over the north and south poles). The RAAN of your satellite's orbit is just the angle (measured at the center of the earth) between the place the Sun's orbit pops up past the equator, and the place your satellite's orbit pops up past the equator. Satellites in highly eccentric orbits are often turned off near perigee when they're moving the fastest, and therefore difficult to use. www.amsat.org /amsat/keps/kepmodel.html   (2793 words)

 Sixth Orbit Catalog - Notes A family of possible orbits were determined for the F component relative to AB pair (Note: only the shortest-period solution is presented here.) Kiy2001 00063+5826 STF3062 - One component is variable, P = 1.08 d, probably due to partial eclipses. Using the elements P, T, e, and the longitude of periastron for the 9-year orbit, from a spectroscopic orbit by Ziska & Beardsley (AJ 86, 1944, 1981), and assuming the orbit edge-on, the semi-axis major and the node are based on a single speckle observation. Baz1989d - Lippincott (1955) orbit is based on the astrometric elements Lip1955 combined with Baade's observation of the companion in 1955. ad.usno.navy.mil /wds/orb6/orb6notes.html   (10501 words)

 DASL - Eccentricity of Earth's Orbit   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25) Determine the degree of error in your estimate of the eccentricity. In 1601, Johannes Kepler determined that the orbits of the planets were elliptical in shape, rather than circular as was previously thought. Eccentricity is a measure of how circular the orbit of a planet or satellite is. For a perfectly circular orbit the eccentricity is zero; elliptical orbits have eccentricities between zero and one. eo.nso.edu /dasl/Lessons/Aphelion/index3.htm   (356 words)

 Eccentricity -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Physics of the orbit, for the eccentricity e gives where m is the mass of the orbiting body, into (2) gives Circular Orbit, Eccentricity Perturbations, Elliptical Orbit, Hyperbolic Orbit, Parabolic Orbit scienceworld.wolfram.com /physics/Eccentricity.html   (64 words)

 Seasons on Mars On Earth, axial tilt determines nearly all of the annual variation, because Earth's orbit is nearly circular. But Mars has the highest orbital eccentricity of any planet except Pluto; the distance from the Sun to Mars varies from 1.64 AU to 1.36 AU over a martian year. However, remember the eccentricity of Mars' orbit -- this causes the solar input when one pole is in sunlight to be significantly different than that when the other pole is in sunlight. www.msss.com /http/ps/seasons/seasons.html   (900 words)

 Pluto Pluto is usually farther from the Sun than any of the nine planets; however, due to the eccentricity of its orbit, it is closer than Neptune for 20 years out of its 249 year orbit. Although it is common for a satellite to travel in a synchronous orbit with its planet, Pluto is the only planet to rotate synchronously with the orbit of its satellite. Pluto's temperature varies widely during the course of its orbit since Pluto can be as close to the sun as 30 AU and as far away as 50 AU. www.solarviews.com /eng/pluto.htm   (1731 words)

 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Eccentricity (orbit) eccentricity (symbol e) One of the elements of an orbit. It is found by dividing the distance between the two foci of the ellipse by the length of the major axis. The satellite is lifted from the earth's surface by a rocket and, once placed in orbit, maintains its motion without further rocket propulsion. www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=Eccentricity+(orbit)   (805 words)

 SPACE.com -- Eccentric Worlds: Strange Orbits Puzzle Astronomers An elliptic orbit is characterized by the eccentricity, which is how much a planet's distance from its star varies as it carves out a year. Some have eccentricities of 80 percent, which is as high as the crazy orbits of some comets in our solar system. There are many theories for generating — or driving — eccentricities, but the two main ideas are that the planet interacts early on with gaps in the planet-formation disk or later on with another planet. www.space.com /scienceastronomy/050510_eccentric_orbits.html   (936 words)

 Ec '''Eccentric''' is from the Greek languageGreek for ''out of the centre'', as opposed to concentric, ''in the centre''. * In astrodynamics, the Eccentricity (orbit)eccentricity of an orbit can be calculated from orbital state vectors as an absolute value of eccentricity vector or using other methods based on orbital energy and angular momentum. * In mechanical engineering, an eccentricity (mechanics)eccentric is a wheel that rotates on an axle that is displaced from the focus of the circle described by the wheel —in other words, a mechanical motion that can operate either as a cam or a crank, depending upon how it is driven. www.looked.com /Topicdetails.aspx?Topicid=40176&name=&catid=135&topicname=Eccentricity   (210 words)

 Sea and Sky's Tour of the Solar System: Other Uranian Moons Below is a listing of the largest of these moons in the order of their orbit from Uranus. It is also one of two moons that orbit inside the synchronous orbit radius of Uranus. It is the second of two moons that orbit inside the synchronous orbit radius of Uranus. www.seasky.org /solarsystem/sky3h7.html   (918 words)

 [No title] The Earth's orbit around the sun is not a circle, but rather it is an ellipse. The shape of the elliptical orbit, which is measured by its eccentricity, varies from between one and five percent through time. For example, when the orbit is highly elliptical, one hemisphere will have hot summers and cold winters; the other hemisphere will have warm summers and cool winters. www.museum.state.il.us /exhibits/ice_ages/why_glaciations1.html   (789 words)

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