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Topic: Economic history of the Soviet Union


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  The Soviet Union and the United States   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Relations between the Soviet Union and the United States were driven by a complex interplay of ideological, political, and economic factors, which led to shifts between cautious cooperation and often bitter superpower rivalry over the years.
The Soviet Union and the United States stayed far apart during the next three decades of superpower conflict and the nuclear and missile arms race.
Beginning in the early 1970s, the Soviet regime proclaimed a policy of dtente and sought increased economic cooperation and disarmament negotiations with the West.
www.ibiblio.org /expo/soviet.exhibit/intro2.html   (356 words)

  
  History of the Soviet Union - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Soviets were the bodies of direct popular democracy; although they held no official position of power in the provisional government, they exerted considerable influence over the hearts and minds of the working classes.
On December 29, 1922 the RSFSR, the Transcaucasian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic, and the Byelorussian and Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republics signed a Treaty of Creation of the USSR forming the Soviet Union by a conference of the representatives, which was confirmed on December 30, 1922 by the 1st Congress of Soviets of the USSR.
The Soviet NEP (1921-29) was essentially a period of "market socialism" similar to the Dengist reforms in Communist China after 1978 in that both foresaw a role for private entrepreneurs and limited markets based on trade and pricing rather than fully centralized planning.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/History_of_the_Soviet_Union   (2186 words)

  
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Soviet industry was owned and managed by the state, and agricultural land was divided into state farms, collective farms, and small, privately held plots.
Soviet foreign policy, long hampered by the hostility of the nations of Europe and America and by pervasive mutual distrust, was carried out first by Georgi Chicherin and from 1930 by Maxim M. Litvinov.
In the technological race between the Soviet Union and the West (principally the United States), the USSR exploded (1953) a hydrogen bomb; announced (1957) the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles; orbited (1957) the first artificial earth satellite (called Sputnik); and in 1961 sent Yuri Gagarin in the first manned orbital flight.
www.bartleby.com /65/un/UnionSov.html   (5286 words)

  
 Soviet Union - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Soviet Union was established in December 1922 as the union of the Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, and Transcaucasian Soviet republics ruled by Bolshevik parties.
In contrast to the revolutionary spirit that accompanied the birth of the Soviet Union, the prevailing mood of the Soviet leadership at the time of Brezhnev's death in 1982 was one of aversion to change.
The Soviet Union occupied the eastern portion of European continent and northern portion of Asian continent.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /soviet_union.htm   (4120 words)

  
 History of the Soviet Union (1985-1991) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In all, the very positive view of Soviet life which had long been presented to the public by the official media was being rapidly dismantled, and the negative aspects of life in the Soviet Union were brought into the spotlight.
On March 17, 1991, in an all-Union referendum 78% of all voters voted for the retention of the Soviet Union in a reformed form.
As the Soviet Union was unraveling, Gorbachev and U.S. President George H.W. Bush declared a U.S.-Soviet strategic partnership at the summit of July 1991, decisively marking the end of the Cold War.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Collapse_of_the_Soviet_Union   (2509 words)

  
 History of the Soviet Union (1985-1991) - InformationBlast
In 1989 the communist governments of the Soviet Union's satellite states were overthrown one by one with feeble resistance from Moscow.
In all, the rosy view of Soviet life which had long been presented to the public by the official media was being rapidly shot to pieces, and the shortcomings of the Soviet system openly exposed.
Yeltsin and the dissolution of the Soviet Union
www.informationblast.com /Collapse_of_the_Soviet_Union.html   (1671 words)

  
 A brief history of Russia Japan Alternate History
The worsening economic conditions in the USSR fomented the apparition of independent clandestine sindicates among Soviet workers,whose standard of living still was being affected by the efforts and destruction of the previous wars.
However, the Soviet government was unable to tell the difference between popular pressure in support of economic reform and economic paralysis brought by the generalized discontent among the peasants and workers.
The economic growth was not the same everywhere: several regions of the Soviet Union (the Far East, Leningrad, Ukraine) began to operate as a separate entity in global trade and their growth rates were up to 6-7%, and found particularly strong trading partners with the U.S., Japan and the members of the AELE.
www.angelfire.com /gundam/japanese_empire/altjap/soviet.htm   (2647 words)

  
 Exploring Chinese History :: Politics :: Conflict and War :: Soviet Aggression
Soviet forces invaded Manchuria in 1929 to support the Soviet claims to the disputed Chinese Eastern Railway; they withdrew after Chinese acceptance of the Soviet position regarding the railway.
In August 1945 the Soviet Union concluded a treaty of friendship and alliance with the Republic of China’s Kuomintang (KMT) government, granting it economic concessions and defense facilities, as previously agreed upon by the wartime Allies.
Although the Soviets promised to respect KMT sovereignty in Manchuria, they stripped the region of nearly all of its industrial machinery, resisted efforts by the Chinese government to reestablish its authority, and gave arms taken from captured Japanese soldiers to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), the KMT’s adversary in a civil war.
www.ibiblio.org /chinesehistory/contents/03pol/c04s05.html   (788 words)

  
 10/29/02 - My Time with Soviet Economics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Soviet Union wasted its resources because the success indicator for Soviet managers allowed them to be successful even though their output was poorly related to the needs of users.
Soviet planners served primarily as supply agents for enterprises, endeavoring to supply the enterprises with sufficient inputs to fulfill their gross output targets.
In my account, Soviet economic history is a product of the interaction of utopian intentions with a refractory reality, an interaction that ended in the abandonment of the original aims of the revolution (Roberts 1970, 1971a, 1971c, 1971d, 1973a, 1990; Roberts and LaFollette 1990).
www.vdare.com /roberts/soviet_economy.htm   (1708 words)

  
 IALHI News Service: The Soviet Experiment   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Not surprisingly, given the author's long-standing expertise and interest, considerable attention is given to the history and experience of the Soviet Union's various nationalities.
Thus for this particular reviewer, who is primarily an economic and social historian, there is too little on the problems of the Soviet economy in the 1930s and the effect of the Purges on economic performance in these years.
Overall Suny's book presents a well-written survey of the Soviet Union over the seventy years of its existence; the quality of writing and its scope and coverage make it a very useful text for the students of those of us who teach the twentieth-century history of Russia and the Soviet Union.
www.iisg.nl /~ialhi/news/i0010_9.html   (1170 words)

  
 Foreign relations of the Soviet Union Summary
Established in 1949 as an economic bloc of communist countries led by Moscow, the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) served as a framework for cooperation among the planned economies of the Soviet Union, its allies in Eastern Europe and, later, Soviet allies in the Third World.
In the 1970s, the Soviet Union achieved rough nuclear parity with the United States, and surpassed it by the end of that decade with the deployment of the SS-18 missile.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian Federation claimed to be the legal successor to the Soviet Union on the international stage despite its loss of superpower status.
www.bookrags.com /Foreign_relations_of_the_Soviet_Union   (2037 words)

  
 The Cold War Museum - Fall of The Soviet Union
By the time of the 1985 rise to power of Mikhail Gorbachev, the Soviet Union's last leader, the country was in a situation of severe stagnation, with deep economic and political problems which sorely needed to be addressed and overcome.
In a last-ditch effort to save the Soviet Union, which was floundering under the impact of the political movements which had emerged since the implementation of Gorbachev's glasnost, a group of "hard-line" Communists organized a coup d'etat.
Now that the Soviet Union, with its centralized political and economic system, has ceased to exist, the fifteen newly formed independent countries which emerged in its aftermath are faced with an overwhelming task.
www.coldwar.org /articles/90s/fall_of_the_soviet_union.asp   (1193 words)

  
 Soviet-Empire.com - View topic - Lies Concerning the History of the Soviet Union
The history of the millions of people who were allegedly incarcerated and died in the labour camps of the Soviet Union and as a result of starvation during Stalin's time.
In fact what took place in the Soviet Union at the beginning of the 1930s was a major class struggle in which poor landless peasants had risen up against the rich landowners, the kulaks, and had begun a struggle for collectivisation, a struggle to form kolkhozes.
Soviet society was forced to make great efforts in the decade from 1930-1940, when the major part of its resources was dedicated to its defence preparations for the forthcoming war against the Nazis.
www.soviet-empire.com /ussr/viewtopic.php?t=28616   (11946 words)

  
 [No title]
Now, as we study the history of the Soviet Union, its members have broken it apart, the Communist Party is struggling to define a new role for itself, and the revolutionary history is being repudiated.
This course covers the history of the Soviet Union from its birth in 1917, through its emergence as a superpower, to the dissolution of Soviet communism in recent years, with emphasis on the first decades of Soviet rule.
Soviet history has involved not just a few Marxist leaders but millions of peasants, workers, and intellectuals, with great variety in their backgrounds, ideas, desires, and behavior.
abacus.bates.edu /acad/depts/history/222.html   (1153 words)

  
 Economic History - National Economies and the Global Economy
The need for a larger economic base was closely linked with Japanese conceptions of coming wars, the effect of the great depression and a rise in anti-Japanese feeling in China.
The Soviet economy had been in a period of stagnation for two decades and was in desperate need of reform.
Throughout history military power has been paramount and economic power a luxury.
www.historyorb.com /economic   (383 words)

  
 Soviet Economic Decline: Did an Oil Crisis Cause the Transition in the Soviet Union?
Possibly military defense spending did play a role in further economic collapse, and as Dallin has said, Gorbechev and his policy of glasnost were a big factor in changing Soviet society since this allowed people to feel freer to react politically and express their desire to change communist rule.
It's just that Soviet natural resources are subject to the same laws of geology and supply that the US is. Incentives such as career advancement or even selling oil on the fl market all combined to induce the Soviets to find and produce as much oil as possible and it did.
Eventually the Soviet and Eastern European economies were forced to cut oil consumption in order for the Soviet Union to be able to export oil for needed revenue to pay interest on foreign debts and buy essential Western technology.
www.hubbertpeak.com /reynolds/SovietDecline.htm   (7668 words)

  
 Seventeen Moments
Ultimately, the economic machine created by the Bolsheviks, which had allowed the country to grow rapidly into an industrial giant, led to the impoverishment of the Soviet people.
Was Lenin's revolution one of history's great events, later perverted by Stalin; or was the October Revolution, which rejected God, dispossessed large segments of the population, and made the entire people subject to the state, flawed from the moment of inception?
Soviet citizens were forced to understand them as a whole.
www.soviethistory.org   (490 words)

  
 Economic history of Russia and the Soviet Union
Economic history of Russia and the Soviet Union
The economic history of Russia and the Soviet Union, 1900–1991
The final section of the paper examines the economic reforms during the perestroika, economic collapse, and the break-up of the Soviet Union.
www.history.ox.ac.uk /ecohist/synopses/1a_economic_business/econ_history_soviet_union.htm   (177 words)

  
 Soviet Union - dKosopedia
The Soviet Union was a country whose official name was the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or U.S.S.R. It was created after World War I out of the remnants of the Russian Empire, and it was the first country in the world to be based on the economic principles of Karl Marx.
Russia occupies about 80% of the territory of the former Soviet Union, and is considered to be its sucessor.
The increasing economic complexity in the late 20th century added to the troubles in the Soviet Union, creating a shortage economy as Gosplan (the planning agency) had to struggle to manage the sprawling nation's resources.
www.dkosopedia.com /index.php/Soviet_Union   (436 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Divergence is a major theme in economic history, and it was addressed in a conference at Nuffield organized by Robert Allen and John Darwin and devoted to Ken Pomeranz's book The Great Divergence - this one between China and Europe.
The conference brought together leading scholars at Oxford, the London School of Economics, and other universities to assess Pomeranz's claim that the Chinese economy was on a similar level of development with Europe's in the eighteenth century.
One paper, which worked out the history of the extinction of bowhead whales in the eastern arctic between 1600 and 1900 was published in the year.
www.nuff.ox.ac.uk /sociology/Group/2001_02/Allen.html   (445 words)

  
 Revolution Betrayed: Chapter 2
A short outline of the economic history of the Soviet Union in connection with the policy of the government is absolutely necessary both for diagnosis and prognosis.
The economic problems of the Soviet government in those years came down chiefly to supporting the war industries, and using the scanty resources left from the past for military purposes and to keep the city population alive.
In those years of economic chaos and civil war in the villages, the Soviet Union was essentially paralyzed in the face of a foreign enemy.
www.marxists.org /archive/trotsky/works/1936-rev/ch02.htm   (6021 words)

  
 Amazon.co.uk: Books: A History of the Soviet Union   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
However Hosking, like many other authors of Soviet history, was possibly too eager to re-issue his history after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Although the early years of the Soviet Union affected the entire history of the country the latter years should not be overlooked so easily.
Soviet history is a complex and evolving subject, the wealth of books available makes it difficult to identify a suitable overview to the subject.
www.amazon.co.uk /exec/obidos/ASIN/000686287X   (616 words)

  
 [No title]
Russia, in its current form and as the dominant power in the Soviet Union, has presented the world with extensive and intriguing experiments in economics by establishing alternative economic systems in the twentieth century.
The first part of the course considers the economic history of the Soviet Union, its relationship with other countries, the theory of the centrally planned economy, and the actual performance of this economic system.
Essay (5 to 10 pp) on a topic from the economic history of Russia.
www.umich.edu /~iinet/crees/outreach/lotspeichruseconsyl.html   (1244 words)

  
 Modern History Sourcebook: Soviet Statement: Friendship and Co-operation Between the Soviet Union and Other Socialist ...
The Soviet Government is ready to discuss with the governments of other socialist states measures insuring the further development and strengthening of economic ties between socialist countries, in order to remove any possibilities of violating the principle of national sovereignty, mutual advantage, and equality in economic relations.
In the Polish Republic, Soviet military units are stationed on the basis of the Potsdam Four-Power Agreement and the Warsaw Treaty.
The Soviet Government expresses confidence that the peoples of the socialist countries will not permit foreign and internal reactionary forces to undermine the basis of the people's democratic regimes, won and consolidated by the heroic struggle and toil of the workers, peasants, and intelligentsia of each country.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/mod/1956soviet-coop1.html   (997 words)

  
 Amazon.com: Books: Gulag : A History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Acronymns and Soviet terms are clearly explained, and kept to a minimum, so a familiarity of Soviet history is not required.
One of the main thesis of Applebaum's work is that to understand the essence of the Soviet concentration camps one needs to treat it as a part of the history of the Soviet Union: "...the Gulag did not emerge, fully formed, from the sea, but rather reflected the general standards of the society around it.
For the history of the Soviet Union is a part of a still broader history of Russia itself.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/1400034094?v=glance   (2671 words)

  
 Afghanistan: Lessons from the Last War
The Soviet reservists, who comprised the majority of the troops initially sent in, were pulled into full-scale combat operations against the rebels, while the regular Afghan army was often unreliable because of the desertions and lack of discipline.
The Soviet troops also suffered from the confusion about their goals—the initial official mission was to protect the PDPA regime; however, when the troops reached Kabul, their orders were to overthrow Amin and his regime.
Criticism of the Soviet policy of national reconciliation in Afghanistan and analysis of general failures of the Soviet military mission there is presented in Colonel Tsagolov’s letter to USSR Defense Minister Dmitry Yazov of August 13, 1987.
www.gwu.edu /~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB57/soviet.html   (2702 words)

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