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Topic: Economic inequality

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In the News (Tue 20 Aug 19)

  Economic inequality - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A country's economic structure or system (such as capitalism, socialism and everything in between), ongoing or past wars, and individuals' different abilities to create wealth are all involved in the creation of economic inequality.
Economic inequality is thought to reduce distributive efficiency within society.
One argument in favor of the acceptance of economic inequality is that, as long as the cause is mainly due to differences in behavior, the inequality provides incentives that push the society towards economically healthy and efficient behavior, and is therefore beneficial.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Economic_inequality   (4530 words)

 ILO-Global economic inequality and international trade-Ajit K. Ghose
Overall, the trends in global economic inequality are thus explicable in terms of the interactions between the effect of trade and the effect of demographic change.
Declining international inequality is thus a new feature of the world economy; indeed, it is a feature that distinguishes the current period of globalization from the earlier period (1870-1910) which was associated with growth of international inequality.
The contrasting trends in the two inequalities throughout the eighties and the nineties led to their convergence; towards the end of the nineties, the two inequalities were roughly of the same order.
www.ilo.org /public/english/employment/strat/publ/ep01-12.htm   (9173 words)

 DAILY BRUIN ONLINE - Capitalist policies lead to social, economic inequality   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Thus, the response of economic policies in the United States and abroad has been aimed at centralization of capital by corporate mergers along with increasing exploitation of labor, anti-union activities and reduction of corporate taxes in an attempt to prevent the falling rate of profit partly caused by competing Japanese and German manufacturing industries.
By the mid-1990s, it became quite clear that neo-liberal economic policies (those that favor an unfettered access to markets, cuts in social services and the dismantling of the welfare state) have failed to fulfill their promise of economic growth and stability in Western industrial nations as well as developing countries.
Economic studies indicate that wages for college graduates have steadily declined, partly due to the increasing reliance of the American economy on an unskilled labor force.
www.dailybruin.ucla.edu /db/issues/99/10.18/view.farahmandpur.html   (843 words)

 Economics and Economic Justice
Normative economics itself may be partly guilty for this state of affairs, in view of its repeated failure to provide conclusive results and its long-lasting focus on impossibility theorems (see § 4.1).
This method of construction of an index of inequality, often referred to as the ethical approach to inequality measurement, is most useful when the argument of the social welfare function, and the object of the measurement of inequality, is the distribution of individual well-being (which may or may not be measured by income).
Welfare economics is the traditional generic label of normative economics, but, in spite of substantial variations between authors, it now tends to be associated with a particular subcontinent of this domain, maybe as a result of the development of "non-welfarist" approaches and of approaches with a broader scope, such as the theory of social choice.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/economic-justice   (11432 words)

 Economic Growth and Income Inequality: Reexamining the Links - Finance & Development - March 1997
Measures of inequality tend to be quite different across regions but to remain relatively stable within regions and individual countries, regardless of the considerable changes in aggregate income that have taken place.
And since we are primarily interested in assessing the impact of economic growth on the poor, it is important to complement the analysis of overall changes in income with a more detailed assessment of the welfare of the bottom quintiles of the population.
Periods of growth are associated with an increase in inequality almost as often (43 cases) as with a decrease in inequality (45 cases).
www.worldbank.org /fandd/english/0397/articles/0140397.htm   (2580 words)

 Economic Inequality
Many believe that economic inequality is a disturbing trend because of the increasing polarization of what had been an admirably pluralistic society.
The consequences of this economic segregation are significantly reduced educational and vocational opportunities for those in lower income groups.
The major justification advanced by Republicans in support of their economic agenda is that policies which reward wealthy Americans are beneficial for the economy as a whole in that they encourage investment and foster job growth.
www.newsbatch.com /econ.htm   (2351 words)

 Inequality and Risk
Economic inequality is not just a consequence of startups.
To the extent you reduce economic inequality, you decrease the number of startups.
If we're determined to eliminate economic inequality, there is still one way out: we could say that we're willing to go ahead and do without startups.
www.paulgraham.com /inequality.html   (2635 words)

Common forms of egalitarianism are material or economic egalitarianism, moral egalitarianism, legal egalitarianism, democratic egalitarianism, political egalitarianism, gender egalitarianism and opportunity egalitarianism.
Economic egalitarianism, popular with liberals throughout much of the 20th Century, has given way to a concern not that everyone be strictly equal in material possession, but rather that everyone be equal in having enough material goods to successfully fulfill his or her native human capacities.
Libertarianism can be understood as radical political egalitarianism, according to which everyone is equal (or nearly equal) in coercive political power, because no one has any (or those who have it have little and are strictly limited in their use of it).
egalitarianism.ask.dyndns.dk   (655 words)

 Malaysia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
After the May 13 racial riots of 1969, the controversial New Economic Policy - intended to increase the share of the economic pie owned by the bumiputeras as opposed to other ethnic groups - was launched by Prime Minister Tun Abdul Razak.
Its main objective was the elimination of the association of race with economic function, and the first five-year plan to begin implementing the NEP was the Second Malaysia Plan.
This incident led to the adoption of the New Economic Policy as a two-pronged approach to address racial and economic inequality and to eradicate poverty in the country.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Malaysia   (7283 words)

 University of Texas Inequality Project (UTIP)
UTIP is a small research group concerned with measuring and explaining movements of inequality in wages and earnings and patterns of industrial change around the world.
The methods we use to measure inequality are presented in the tutorials section and the working paper series section.
We have also used pay inequality as an instrument to estimate measures of household income inequality, for a large panel of countries from 1963 through 1999.
utip.gov.utexas.edu   (231 words)

 04/16/01 - Samuelson's Slip-Up on Inequality
Newsweek's economics pundit, is both an acute thinker and a brave one.
In reality, inequality poses the single largest long-term political threat to the free market policies he advocates.
Fortunately, there is one win-win policy that would reduce inequality in America, yet preserve the free market and the virtues of hard work and self-reliance that it inculcates.
www.vdare.com /sailer/samuels_slipup.htm   (711 words)

 On Economic Inequality
Under these circumstances, an exclusive concentration on inequalities in income distribution cannot be adequate for an understanding of economic inequality....
His research has ranged over a number of fields in economics, philosophy, and decision theory, including social choice theory, welfare economics, theory of measurement, development economics, moral and political philosophy, and the economics of peace and war.
This annual publication that ranks countries on a variety of economic and social indicators owes much to the contributions by Sen among other social choice theorists in the area of economic measurement of poverty and inequality.
www.ou.edu /cas/psc/booksen4.htm   (1031 words)

 Rick Wolff, "Economic Inequality and US Politics"
The growing inequality between the rich, on the one hand, and the middle and poor, on the other, helps to explain many important features of recent US history.
The economic difficulties besetting the US working class turn many of its members away from politics and even from merely voting.
Rick Wolff is Professor of Economics at University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
mrzine.monthlyreview.org /wolff131205.html   (1239 words)

 NOW with David Brancaccio. Politics & Economy. Losing Ground: Global Inequality | PBS
The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OCED) has found the United States to be the most unequal society of all industrialized nations.
The Gini coefficient is the standard equation used by economists to determine economic equality among and within nations.
Note: Although the U.S. ranks last among OECD nations in terms of income equality, in 1993 the poorest 10% of the U.S. population was still wealthier than two-thirds of the rest of the world.
www.pbs.org /now/politics/income.html   (316 words)

 :: University of Texas Inequality Project ::
The MacArthur Network on the Effects of Inequality on Economic Performance brings together economists, political scientists, and sociologists from different countries who have engaged in work on a framework for understanding the consequences of economic inequality and the constraints facing attempts to alleviate it.
The World Bank conducts research in inequality on its different shapes and forms in the word, in transition economies and in how it effects political and economic variables.
The research unit on Industry and Innovation (Lab.RII), from Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, is specialized in international industrial economics, labor economics and economics of innovation.
utip.gov.utexas.edu /links.html   (405 words)

 Effects of Inequality on Economic Performance
The establishment of the network was motivated by recent developments in economics that challenge two views long held by most economists: Inequality goes hand-in-hand with a nation's economic success, and that reducing economic inequalities inevitably compromises efficiency.
The network's goal is to create a better framework for understanding the consequences of economic inequality and the constraints facing attempts to alleviate it.
The Network on the Effects of Inequality on Economic Performance brings together economists, political scientists, and sociologists from the United States, India, and Europe with expertise ranging from field work in economic anthropology to microeconomic theory.
globetrotter.berkeley.edu /macarthur/inequality   (356 words)

 Amazon.com: On Economic Inequality (Radcliffe Lectures): Books: Amartya Sen,James E. Foster   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
assesses various approaches to measuring inequality and delineates the causes and effects of economic disparities.
Despite the fact that the discipline of economic inequality measurement is thriving in the last twenty or so years (may be thirty something if you count from Atkinson (1970) paper), the textbook format publications of the general character are rare; I can only think of Lambert (2002) as another major source.
I would comment that generalized entropy measures are important, if not central, in the inequality measurement due to their nice properties, but are not the only measures possible.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0198281935?v=glance   (1234 words)

 Effects of Inequality on Economic Performance: Papers
Inequality, Cooperation, and Environmental Sustainability, co-edited with Pranab Bardhan and Samuel Bowles (forthcoming, Russell Sage Foundation).
Inequality, Cooperation, and Environmental Sustainability, co-edited with Jean-Marie Baland and Pranab Bardhan (forthcoming, Russell Sage Foundation).
"Wealth Distribution, Economic Efficiency, and Incentives: Theory and Application to the Rural Sector." Presented at a conference of the World Bank and the Brazilian Ministry of Land to the Reform on "Asset Distribution, Poverty and Economic Growth," July 1998.
globetrotter.berkeley.edu /macarthur/inequality/papers   (9122 words)

 Economic Inequality and Income Distribution - Wal-Mart
Economic inequality has become a focus of prime interest for economic analysts and policy makers.
It covers the practical and theoretical bases for inequality analysis and income distribution as well as providing applications to real world problems.
Special attention is given to an assessment of the merits and weaknesses of standard economic models and to illustrating the implications of distributional mechanisms using real data and illustrative examples.
www.walmart.com /catalog/product.gsp?product_id=411037   (599 words)

The journalist William Grieder and John Bogle, founder of Vanguard mutual funds, are both in search of a soul for capitalism, a way of bringing the bonds of civility to bear on the narrow definition of rational self-interest asserted by neoliberalism.
While there is much to appreciate in these proposals, especially Jacobs' well-taken observations on the early vertical integration of the American automobile industry and its subsequent effects on the destruction of the city of Detroit under globalization, they require accepting responsibility of externalities for which there is absolutely no incentive in the current environment.
The global justice movement has made inequality a worldwide public issue, primarily in terms of the economic exploitation of workers and environmental degradation in lesser-developed countries by transnational corporations.
www.logosjournal.com /issue_5.1/carducci.htm   (5811 words)

Neill, John, Poverty and Inequality: The Political Economy of Redistribution, W.E. Upjohn Institute, 1997.
Fortin, Nichole M. and Thomas Lemieux, "Institutional Changes and Rising Wage Inequality: Is There a Linkage?" Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol.
Behrman, Jere R., "From Parent to Child," in Poverty and Inequality: The Political Economy of Redistribution edited by Jon Neill, 1997.
www.economics.pomona.edu /cconrad/Econ122syl.html   (659 words)

 References: Inequality and Economic Performance
BĂ©nabou, R., 1996a, "Inequality and Growth", in: Bernanke, B. and J. Rotemberg (eds., NBER Macro Annual 1996, MIT Press: Cambridge, MA): 11-76.
Forbes, K.J., 1997, "A Reassessment of the Relationship Between Inequality and Growth", MIT (processed).
Solow, R.M., 1956, "A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth", Quarterly Journal of Economics, 70: 65-94.
www1.worldbank.org /prem/poverty/inequal/econ/refs.htm   (653 words)

 Econ 116: Race and the U
Write a 2-3 page essay focusing on one specific indicator of racial inequality and offer at least two explanations (speculative) for why there are differences by race.
Bohmer, Peter, "Marxist Theory of Racism and Racial Inequality," in Whitehead and Harris.
Conrad, Cecilia A., "Affirmative Action in University of California Admissions: An Economic Perspective," in California Policy Options, edited by Daniel J.B. Mitchell and Patricia Nomura, UCLA School of Public Policy and Social Research.
www.economics.pomona.edu /cconrad/Syll116.html   (1354 words)

 Inequality and Economic Performance
This site provides a primer into the relationship between inequality, poverty, and growth.
This image illustrates one possible way of how income inequality might economic growth.
If inequality is measured as the distance between the median and mean voter, then for a given income, greater inequality leads to the choice of a higher tax rate.
www1.worldbank.org /prem/poverty/inequal/econ/index.htm   (122 words)

 Finance, Technology and Inequality in Economic Development
Therefore, risk-averse agents would not be willing to improve the financial infrastructure to the level at which the technological switch occurs, resulting in a development trap.
" Inequality and Growth in a Panel of Countries," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol.
"A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol.
ideas.repec.org /p/wpa/wuwpdc/0504004.html   (1370 words)

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