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Topic: Economic sanction

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  Economic sanctions - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons.
Economic sanctions include, but are not limited to, tariffs, trade barriers, import duties, and import or export quotas.
The United Nations imposed stringent economic sanctions upon Iraq after the first Gulf War, and these were mantained partly as an attempt to make the Iraqi government co-operate with the UN weapons inspectors' monitoring of Iraq's weapons and weapons programs.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Economic_sanction   (273 words)

 A User's Guide To Economic Sanctions
Economic sanctions may be employed to deter military aggression or to force an aggressor to withdraw its armed forces from a disputed territory.
Sanctions against countries that seek to acquire weapons in violation of international regimes controlling the proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and missile technology are far more likely to be effective if applied multilaterally and targeted against the offending country's leaders and armed forces.
Economic sanctions can be an important strategic weapon in the foreign policy arsenal; but they are only one step below a blockade or other military action, and their application should be given the same sober consideration accorded the commitment of U.S. troops to battle.
www.heritage.org /Research/PoliticalPhilosophy/BG1126.cfm   (7622 words)

 sanction. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
A sanction may be either positive, i.e., the promise of reward for desired conduct, or negative, i.e., the threat of penalty for disapproved conduct, but the term is most commonly used in the negative sense.
Economic sanctions were applied against Italy during its invasion of Ethiopia (1935) in the League’s most famous, and notably ineffective, use of its power.
In the 1990s economic sanctions were imposed on Iraq after its invasion of Kuwait, and the Security Council approved the use of force to expel Iraqi forces from Kuwait.
www.bartleby.com /65/sa/sanction.html   (425 words)

 TakingITGlobal - Panorama - Are economic sanctions effecti
My own belief is that economic sanctions have the ability to be reasonably effective in promoting changes within nation-states, but only under certain conditions and more often than not it seems that the local population is punished when sanctions are put in place, rather than the state.
Economic sanctions are used in international political economy as a tool for foreign policy, using trade as a way to punish a nation.
Economic sanctions are used as another way to try and force a state to implement changes before military intervention is used.
www.takingitglobal.org /express/panorama/article.html?ContentID=2454   (511 words)

 What are Unilateral Economic Sanctions?
Unilateral economic sanctions are imposed by one country against another to cut off trade and business relations, such as import and export of goods and financial loans.
The unilateral economic sanctions mean that a company may not do business with the offending country, including employing labor, investing funds, importing raw or consumer goods, or exporting their own products.
Often their sanctions have invited retaliation from developed countries in Europe that decide to boycott U.S. goods, further weakening the economy, because they do not agree on the method of unilateral economic sanctions.
www.wisegeek.com /what-are-unilateral-economic-sanctions.htm   (469 words)

 U.S. Economic Sanctions: Lessons from the Iranian Experience - Statistical Data Included Business Economics - Find ...
Although the global economic, financial, and military influence of the U.S. enables it to use sanctions as an instrument of foreign policy, the efficacy of sanctions is still in great doubt.
Economic sanctions are presumed to set in motion a change of events that will, in time, induce the target country to comply with U.S. wishes.
Additionally, the relative political and economic importance on the global stage of the U.S. and the target is a critical factor in affecting the policy of third countries and of regional and international organizations.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m1094/is_3_36/ai_78177925   (943 words)

 Burma Case Study
Economic Sanction vs FDI: Policy Determinations for Burma
In this situation, the United States has imposed economic sanction on Burma while the Japanese government has determined that the constructive engagement is the better solution.
The U.S. has suspended economic aid, withdrawn GSP and OPIC, implemented an arms embargo, blocked assistance from international financial institutions, downgraded their representation from Ambassador to Charge, and imposed visa restrictions on senior leaders and their families.
www.american.edu /TED/burma.htm   (1379 words)

 Democratic Voice of Burma   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
The sanction must be targeted only to Burmese Regime (Army Senior Generals and their relatives and also some business men who corrupt the gouvernment and who are very closed to the gouvernment).
Sanctions imposed by individual countries or organization - US and EU, won't be effective in changing government in Burma as long as China and Asian are supporting the regime.
The media should encourage to those who, not the junta, are affected by the sanctions not to disappoint but to endure the suffering for a little while.
www.dvb.no /talk/sanctions.html   (2633 words)

 Sanctions Against Iraq - Global Policy Forum - UN Security Council (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab1.tamu.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
The sanctions remained in place thereafter, despite a harsh impact on innocent Iraqi civilians and an evident lack of pressure on Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein.
The United States and the UK used their political muscle and veto power to keep sanctions in force and to allow minor reforms, until they decided to lift them in May 2003, after the war and occupation.
From the earliest days of the sanctions, critics pointed to many serious flaws, including the humanitarian suffering of innocent civilians, the lack of clear criteria for lifting, and the failure of the sanctions to put direct pressure on Iraq's leaders.
www.globalpolicy.org.cob-web.org:8888 /security/sanction/indexone.htm   (706 words)

 AEI - Short Publications
Economic sanctions have had a long history of controversy in the United States, where their deployment is much more common than in other industrialized democracies.
Particularly when sanctions are imposed only by the United States, rather than through a broad multilateral arrangement, opponents argue that the United States is often as disadvantaged as the target regime, because U.S. trading opponents are able to grab commercial opportunities denied to American firms.
Sanctions proponents, by contrast, assert that a policy option between mere diplomatic words and military force enhances the United States' international flexibility, and demonstrates the seriousness of American objections to the sanctioned regimes.
www.aei.org /publications/pubID.16558,filter.all/pub_detail.asp   (737 words)

 SSRN-Reaching Multinational Corporations: A New Model for Drafting Effective Economic Sanctions by Jason Weida   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
The reach of an economic sanction over foreign corporations is limited only by the degree of ownership/control which a particular entity possesses over other entities within a multinational enterprise.
While policy congruence with regard to an economic sanction may exist between the sender and some states which host corporations subject to trade restrictions, that similarity of interests may not exist in a number of other host states neutral towards or hostile to the policy objectives of the sender.
Consider an economic sanction which prohibited only United States parents from engaging in trade with a target, and mentioned foreign subsidiaries only to the extent that parents would be held liable for any trading violation of the subsidiary.
papers.ssrn.com /sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=747864   (740 words)

Supporters say this economic weapon is needed to uphold American values in the international arena.
Not only has the federal government used the sanctions weapon against some seventy-five countries, but more than 200 state and local governments have imposed their own sanctions.
Sanctions range from a total trade ban to cutting off arms sales, reducing foreign aid, freezing assets, increasing tariffs, limiting exports or imports or canceling air links.
www.fas.org /nuke/control/export/news/000104-sanctions1.htm   (786 words)

 Iraq sanctions - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In as much as the economic sanctions were designed to topple Saddam they were a failure, however the sanctions caused the death of between 400 thousand and 800 thousand Iraqi children (Seatlle-Post Intelligencer August 7, 2003, archived at: [3]; Hartford Courant, October 23, 2000, [4]).
Critics of the sanctions say that hundreds of thousands of Iraqis, disproportionately children, died as a result of them, [5] although certain skeptics claim the numbers to be less.
As the sanctions faced mounting criticism of its humanitarian impacts, Iraq was in 1996 allowed under the UN Oil-for-Food Programme (under Resolution 986) to export $5.2 billion (USD) of oil every 6 months with which to purchase items needed to sustain the civilian population.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Iraq_sanctions   (1316 words)

 Root Cause of Burma's economic disasters: Sanction or Junta?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
The root causes of Burma’s economic disasters can be seen since 1988, after the military junta brutally killed unarmed civilians and students demonstrating for political change.
Hence, it is evident that the junta ignores the economic, social and infrastructure development for the country’s majority.
Sanctions bring blows to the foreign companies who entered into joint ventures directly with the military regime, businessmen close to the junta and the drug lords who collaborate with the generals.
www.mizzima.com /archives/news-in-2004/news-in-apr/28-apr04-27.htm   (1410 words)

President, if we use unilateral economic sanctions to advance our foreign policy, we must be more sparing in their use, we must improve the process by which we consider international sanctions, and find ways to increase their effectiveness once they are implemented.
If unilateral sanctions are approved and implemented, the amendment requires annual reporting on their economic costs and benefits to the United State and any progress they are having on achieving the stated foreign policy goals.
When the United States imposes unilateral economic sanctions, when we fail to pass fast track negotiating authority, when we fail to renew IMF funding and when we threaten to withhold regular trading status with China, the prestige and authority of the United States in foreign affairs is greatly and permanently diminished.
www.fas.org /spp/starwars/congress/1998/s980715-sanctions2.htm   (19837 words)

 Voices in the Wilderness : Activists to Fast for Ending Iraq Economic ‘Exploitation’
Hans von Sponek, who resigned as director of the UN Humanitarian Assistance program in Iraq in 2000 in protest at the international economic sanctions, will join the fasters.
Voices in the Wilderness was formed in 1996 to challenge and oppose the international economic sanctions imposed against the Iraqi people.
Economic pundits have said that the prevailing corruption in state-run institutions and fraudulent American contractors have taken their toll on Iraq’s economy, scaring away many potential investors and businessmen.
vitw.org /archives/920   (587 words)

 Bush allows U.S. businesses into Libya - World News - MSNBC.com
The easing of sanctions imposed in 1986 and those imposed under a 1996 Libya sanctions law will allow a resumption of oil imports from Libya.
Sanctions also could be applied under the law to foreign companies that made investments in either country in excess of $40 million.
The main remaining sanction is Libya’s presence on the U.S. list of state sponsors of terrorism.
www.msnbc.msn.com /id/4816708   (551 words)

 Sanctions Policy Reform Act
It is the purpose of this Act to establish an effective framework for consideration by the legislative and executive branches of unilateral economic sanctions in order to ensure coordination of United States policy with respect to trade, security, and human rights.
It is the sense of Congress that any unilateral economic sanction legislation that is introduced in or reported to a House of Congress on or after the date of enactment of this Act should--
The purpose of such notice and opportunity for comment shall be to allow the formulation of an effective sanction that advances United States national security and economic interests, and to provide an opportunity for negotiations to achieve the objectives specified in the law authorizing imposition of a unilateral economic sanction.
www.theorator.com /bills109/s270.html   (3592 words)

 S. 1413--free trade, unilateral and economic trade sanctions
It is the purpose of this Act to establish an effective framework for consideration by the legislative and executive branches of unilateral economic sanctions.
In the event of such a waiver, the requirements waived shall be met during the 60-day period immediately following the imposition of the unilateral economic sanction, and the sanction shall terminate 90 days after being imposed unless such requirements are met.
The President may waive any of the requirements of paragraphs (1)(B), (1)(D), and (2) of subsection (d) in the event that the President determines that the unilateral economic sanction is related to actual or imminent armed conflict involving the United States.
www.usaengage.org /archives/legislative/s1413.html   (3016 words)

 China cautions US, Europe against imposing economic sanction on Iran - Irna
It pointed to dependence of Western states on Iranian oil and transit of oil from the Strait of Hormuz, which is under full control of Iran, and said impacts of an economic sanction against Iran on Western states could be well predicted.
There is no doubt that economic sanction against Iran or resorting to military options not only would not settle dispute over Iran's nuclear case, but would further complicate the issue, the radio said.
The radio said there was a link between the US pressure to impose sanctions against Iran or resort to military option and the US presidential election in November, adding that the US Republicans intend to accelerate sanctions against Iran to win the election.
www.irna.ir /en/news/view/menu-234/0608287195150623.htm   (334 words)

 Open Directory - Society: Issues: Economic: Sanctions: Iraq   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Campaign Against Sanctions on Iraq - Details of the society campaigning to lift the U.N. sanctions against Iraq.
Iraqi children - Johanna Berrigan, a Catholic Worker lay person out of Philadelphia, is used to working with poor people, but she wasn't prepared for a "death row for infants" that she found in Baghdad hospitals.
Sanctions on Iraq - A comprehensive site on the effects of the embargo and action people can take.
dmoz.org /Society/Issues/Economic/Sanctions/Iraq   (302 words)

 Economic Sanctions and Presidential Decisions (1403967253) DRURY - Palgrave Macmillan
Economic Sanctions and Presidential Decisions (1403967253) DRURY - Palgrave Macmillan
This important contribution to the debate over the efficacy of economic sanctions develops a rational theory of why leaders choose sanctions, rather than another foreign policy tool, what type, whether to sustain them, and when to terminate them.
This study examines the record of French and EU interactions with China, Japan, and Vietnam in the areas of economic exchanges, political security relations, and human rights to establish if there has been a trend of converging \'European\' politics and collective European conceptions of interest and identity.
www.palgrave-usa.com /catalog/product.aspx?isbn=1403967253   (624 words)

 [No title]
`(1) CURRENT SANCTION- The term `current sanction' means a unilateral economic sanction that is in effect on the date of enactment of the Agricultural Trade Freedom Act.
`(B) in the case of a new sanction, on the date of the imposition of the new sanction.
`(II) in the case of a new sanction, the likely effect of the proposed sanction on the reputation of United States producers as reliable suppliers of agricultural commodities in general, and of specific agricultural commodities identified by the Secretary.'.
www.agriculturelaw.com /legis/bills/s566.htm   (1853 words)

 The Cost of Economic Sanctions on Major Exporters to Iran
The Cost of Economic Sanctions on Major Exporters to Iran
has imposed a partial but broad economic sanction on
Advanced European and Asian countries, on the other hand, have maintained close economic ties with Islamic Republic of Iran in this period and will have to give up their current share of
www.payvand.com /news/06/may/1046.html   (499 words)

 Iraqi regime puts Kurdish town of Makhmur under economic sanction (KurdishMedia.com)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Iraqi regime puts Kurdish town of Makhmur under economic sanction (KurdishMedia.com)
Kurdistan Democratic Union-Qrarachogh Region has accused Iraqi authorities of putting a strong economic sanction against Makhmur, Kendinawa and Qeraj.
The announcement, a copy of which Azzaman received yesterday, from the Union added that the Iraqi Government prevents food, equipments, electrical equipments and other necessities of living to reach Makhmoor.
www.kurdmedia.com /articles.asp?id=1874   (250 words)

 IndiaDaily - Nepal drifting towards China? India planning economic sanction?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
They need help from Indian Army to fight the Maoists, At the same time India and the rest of the world is determined in seeing Nepal’s democracy back.
Desperate and frustrated India is slowly thinking about economic sanctions against Nepal.
Unless China who does not know what democracy is, joins India in scaling Nepal Royal ambitions down, reluctantly Nepal will slowly drift towards China.
www.newsindia.com /editorial/2036.asp   (503 words)

 Does Sentencing Felony Probationers to Community Service Affect Recidivism and Economic Sanction Compliance?: A ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Does Sentencing Felony Probationers to Community Service Affect Recidivism and Economic Sanction Compliance?: A Four-Year Longitudinal Study
PDF How to Access: This document requires Adobe Reader in order to be viewed.
Change the data in the field or fields that contain duplicate data, remove the index, or redefine the index to permit duplicate entries and try again.
www.nicic.org /Library/007808   (217 words)

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