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Topic: Economic stratification

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  Economic stratification -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-07)
Economic stratification refers to the condition within a society where social classes are separated, or stratified, along economic lines.
While in any system individual members will have varying degrees of wealth, economic stratification typically refers to the condition where there are meaningful gaps between the wealth controlled by various groups, and few instances in the transitional regions.
A historical example of runaway stratification is the (The economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s) Great Depression of the late (The decade from 1920 to 1929) 1920's and (The decade from 1930 to 1939) 1930's.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/e/ec/economic_stratification.htm   (536 words)

 Sociology Department: Courses
Economic sociologists view economic activity as socially structured via networks, corporate hierarchies, associations, and state bureaucracies, as well as by systems of impersonal exchange.
Stratification is the study of the structure and dynamics of the unequal distribution of resources that are socioculturally defined as scarce: who gets what, when, how, and why in the form of income, power, prestige, and knowledge, and with what consequences.
Prerequisite: Sociology 211 and one upper-division course in sociology or consent of the instructor.
academic.reed.edu /sociology/courses.html   (1824 words)

 PUREPOLITICS.COM - Globalization & Democracy "Have Fun"
One could argue that a definitive turning point in the economic inequality debate occurred in the 1980s, when the leaders of the United States, Britain and Germany adopted tougher domestic and international policies, and as a result, economic inequality was pushed off the radar screen.
Economic aid to developing countries was decreased, economic assistance became conditional on the Washington consensus, and the role of the state was diminished which resulted in a less active role in redistribution within the economy.
Those countries that were dependent on economic aid from the West suffered greatly and in many countries, the result of these steps led to a marked exacerbation of inequality and polarization.
www.purepolitics.com /lona.htm   (1629 words)

 Economic Stratification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-07)
Social Stratification: socially structured inequality of entire categories of people who have different access to social rewards as a result of their status.
Economic expansion and further schooling--increasing wealth and a blurring of distinctions in social ranking.
from economic policies--60% of growth in after tax income went to the wealthiest 660,000 families: rose from $315,000 to $560,000 (77%).
www.umsl.edu /~rkeel/010/econstra.html   (2063 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-07)
Knowing if economic stratification is more prevalent in urban areas than rural will give policy makers the opportunity to develop the proper strategies to either keep citizens complacently subdued or create redistributive wealth tactics to equalize wage differences.
Economic Stratification Derivation Levels of economic stratification are derived from Gini coefficient calculations of individual wages (household wage divided by number in household), as reported within the CPS.
Rural and Urban Differentiation For the purpose of arriving at a state level economic stratification figure and for comparative reasons, rural and urban dwellers are dichotomized based on their CPS responses to two questions.
oregonstate.edu /~crawfose/research_writing/SOC516--Final.doc   (3669 words)

 Chapter Two
It is argued that this most characteristic economic preoccupation of the Nanyang Chinese can be best understood in terms of their regional inter-positionality as an entrepreneurial pariah class of merchant-middlemen mediating the relations between the "dual economies" of the local native context and the larger regional/global market economy.
Economic stratification in Overseas Chinese society of Sarawak for instance is arranged like a pyramid of social relations with the base represented by laborers and agriculturalists of the rural zones, with an intermediary class of "rural bazaar shopkeepers in the middle" and an elite of big businessmen at the apex.
Social stratification is transmitted through the generations and between different groupings and sub-groupings--it delimits group boundaries and asymmetries of power, and, in the sense of transcending the lived experience of any single individual, must be considered to be corporate in structure.
www.lewismicropublishing.com /Publications/OverseasChinese/OverseasChinese2.htm   (5215 words)

 Faculty Bios   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-07)
Prior research includes case studies of stratification and mobility in Africa, and cross-national and comparative studies of the impact of economic policies and institutional forces on educational outcomes and social well-being.
Current research focuses on population dynamics and economic growth; the global diffusion of the Internet; cross-national studies of deforestation and atmospheric degradation; the process of democratization and causes of civil war, and the measurement of globalization.
In addition to a monograph in progress on employment segregation and earnings gaps, he is collaborating on studies of wealth inequality among race-ethnic groups, of race-ethnic differences in home equity, and of race and sex disparities in traffic stops and concomitant interactions with police.
www.sociology.ohio-state.edu /UndergradProgram/Faculty_Bios.html   (1964 words)

 Inequality and Economic Performance, Theoretical Studies - Socio-political Instability
Second, stratification makes inequality in education and income more persistent across generations; the same is true for total wealth, provided the rich succeed in capturing the rents created by their secession.
Economic stratification combines with strong neighborhood feedback effects in transmitting economic status across generations, leading to persistent income inequality.
The study demonstrates that the evolutionary pattern of the human capital distribution, the income distribution, and economic growth are determined simultaneously by the interplay between a local home environment externality and a global technological externality.
www1.worldbank.org /prem/poverty/inequal/abstracts/theory/soc_pol.htm   (1653 words)

 On Classes (1966) - Melbourne Anarchist Archives
Economic class is fairly basic to sociological investigation and in most societies the economic stratification is fairly obvious.
Economic principles of division may be in terms of difference in general economic function or in terms of a catalogue of different occupations; in terms of income level or source; in terms of income origin by economic sector e.g.
Racial divisions are not as objective as economic ones in that what is felt as a racial division in a society may have doubtful status.
www.takver.com /history/melb/maa08.htm   (994 words)

 CU Sociology Faculty : Victor Nee
In economic sociology, he is working on a collaborative research project with a group of economists employing data on firms listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange.
Also in the area of economic sociology, he is beginning work on a multi-year study of immigration and race in the American workplace.
This research project will integrate Nee's interests in economic sociology with his research on immigration and race relations in the U.S. In new institutional analysis, Nee is interested in deepening his work on understanding the relationship between formal and informal processes in institutional settings.
www.soc.cornell.edu /faculty/nee.shtml   (758 words)

 Pitirim Sorokin - Social Mobility   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-07)
According to the nature of the stratification, there are ascending and descending currents of economic, political, and occupational mobility, not to mention other less important types.
The opposite theoretical type of the inner structure of the stratification of the same height and profile is that in which the vertical mobility is very intensive and general; here the membranes between the strata are very thin and have the largest holes to pass from one floor to another.
If the highest ranks in the political, or economic, or occupational cone of both societies are taken, it is seen that in India almost all these ranks are determined by birth, and there are very few "upstarts" who climbed to these positions from the lowest strata.
www2.pfeiffer.edu /~lridener/DSS/Sorokin/SOCMOBLT.HTML   (3228 words)

 World Civilizations Online Chapter 1 -- Chapter 1 Outline
Economic specialization led to social stratification and the creation of elite classes of rulers.
Regional economic specialization often centered on commodities indigenous to the region in which the community was located.
Economic specialization and social stratification proved critical to the development of technological innovation in the fourth millennium B.C.E. During the thousand years after 4000 B.C.E. the shift from stone tools to bronze took place.
occawlonline.pearsoned.com /bookbind/pubbooks/stearns_awl/chapter1/objectives/deluxe-content.html   (1622 words)

 PartFive   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-07)
This is a clear indicator of the economic stagnation that plagues Nicaraguan society.
The white minority is distinctly over-represented among economic and political elites, thus the poor masses are forgotten.
Though there has yet to be seen any real economic growth or development in the nation, with increased foreign direct investment, tourism and standards of social welfare, coupled with prospective debt forgiveness, I have faith this culturally rich nation will someday thrive.
www.faculty.fairfield.edu /faculty/hodgson/Courses/so191/Project2002/AngelaS/PartFive.html   (1190 words)

At the very heart of class (economic) stratification is the ownership, or nonownership, and control, or non-control, of the means of production-the property and equipment necessary for the production of goods and services in society.
The individual person who is upset with his or her stratification position is encouraged by the culture's emphasis upon individualism and equality of opportunity to blame the self for not achieving more success.
Another problem uncovered in much stratification research is that people's understanding of the stratification system gets even foggier and more skewed as they try to perceive parts of the system removed from their own personal position.
www.phenomenologycenter.org /course/inequality.htm   (9626 words)

 Politically motivated violence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It has been said that "violence is the last option of a desperate man." Politically motivated violence has been used throughout history to greater and lesser effect by virtually every people in existence today.
The root causes of this form of violence may be traced to several fundamental factors economic stratification, moral dissociation, and/or psychological dysfunction.
The validity of the reasons for the violence are often highly dependent on who is doing the judging.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Politically_motivated_violence   (193 words)

 95-03-12: Statement by Bulgaria, HE Mr. Zhelyu Zhelev (EN)
The liberalization of economic life has unlocked free enterprise and broken the totalitarian stereotypes of uniformity and economic de-motivation.
This is an obstacle in the way of economic entrepreneurship and the creation of a middle class as the backbone of a democratic society.
The economic stratification in Bulgaria is accompanied by a drop of the standards of living for a wide cross-section of the population.
www.un.org /documents/ga/conf166/gov/950312154714.htm   (988 words)

 Sociology at Duke: Xueguang Zhou   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-07)
In a series of studies, I have been examining various aspects of the stratification patterns in the Chinese context and their relationships to macro-political processes and state policies.
In the area of economic sociology (organizations, markets and work), my interests are to examine how economic activities in the marketplace are shaped or affected by social relations and social institutions.
The main purpose of this project is to explore, and develop theoretical explanations for, how economic exchanges (e.g., contractual relationships) are molded by and structured by broad institutional arrangements such as trust, reputation, and cultural rules.
www.soc.duke.edu /dept/faculty/xzhou.html   (243 words)

Lifted barrier between internal and external economics, internal and external ethics, and the entrance of the commercial principle into the internal economy with the organization of labor on this basis.
In the middle ages, the position of the church on economic ethics was that it excluded ''higgling'' (cute word; he means haggling), overpricing and free competition and included the principle of a just price and the assurance to everyone of a chance to live.
Those strata which are decisive in stamping the characteristic features of an economic ethic may change in the course of history; nevertheless, as a rule one may determine the strata whose styles of life have been at least predominately decisive for certain religions.
ssr1.uchicago.edu /PRELIMS/Theory/weber.html   (14128 words)

 Stephanie Howling, Sociology Department, Harvard University   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-07)
A central assumption of stratification theory is that husbands and wives share equal ownership over family finances.
Using insights from stratification theory, exchange theory, gender display theory, and gendered exchange theory, models of plausible theoretical relationships between the amount of relative income an individual contributes to a marriage and the amount of family assets they control are presented.
In light of gendered exchange theory, I argue that these economic conditions reflect broad cultural devaluations of women’s paid employment and wages and reflect how the household is a locus of economic stratification along gendered lines.
www.wjh.harvard.edu /soc/gs/Howling_Stephanie?D=A   (224 words)

This stratification or grouping is important in large part because not all individuals are seen as having the ability to contribute to the generation of the required knowledge form.
This is closely interrela-ted with the school's role in the selection of agents to fill economic and social positions in a relatively stratified society that the analysts of the political economy of education have sought to portray.
The leverage available to the most benevolent educational reformer and policy specialist is limited by the lack of a constituency for change and the overwhelming momentum of the educational process in the direction of social reproduction of the existing polity.
www.uvm.edu /~radphil/applech2.htm   (7550 words)

 Course Syllabus
Conceptual frameworks for the analysis of global economic and social development, and practice models for the delivery of human services, are compared and contrasted.
Analysis of historical events suggest that economic forces in a country, the history of property relations and availabi-lity of resources appear to be major factors in shaping parameters of national social welfare and the methods of social work practice.
This course is designed to increase student awareness of social, poli-tical, economic and cultural diversity in terms of race, ethnicity, gender, and socio-economic class.
www.csus.edu /indiv/p/prigoffa/course3/syllabus.htm   (3251 words)

 H-Net Review: Elisa von Joeden-Forgey on Brickyards to Graveyards: From Production to Genocide in Rwanda
She shows that economic organization and political identity ("ethnicity") were very closely linked throughout this history, and therefore cannot be neatly teased apart for purposes of analysis.
The problem with prioritizing the economic factor in causal studies of the genocide is that the explanations we use to analyze economic life just do not appear to capture the complexities involved in explaining perpetrator violence, especially in cases of genocide.
Unlike more purely economic and environmental approaches to the genocide, Jefremovas raises the possibility that the social atomization--the degree to which people lack meaningful and trusting relationships outside of state-controlled relations of power--caused by extreme economic stratification can be a powerful facilitator of state-sponsored plans for genocide.
www.h-net.org /reviews/showrev.cgi?path=80031109089734   (2373 words)

 Cox, Assignment 1, INLS 270, UNC-CH   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-07)
More generally, the Reagan administration believed the "remedy to stagnating growth is to concentrate economic programs on restoring incentives to work and save..." [12] through the use of supply side economics.
Critics warned that the balooning deficit would increase the stratification between economic classes as government entitlement expenditures declined in order to help finance the debt.
After the ERTA, " a long economic expansion followed, it was accompanied by high and sustained federal deficits as tax revenues did not increase rapidly enough to balance the government expenditures."[11].
ils.unc.edu /inls70_F98/Assn1/Cox-Report.html   (1684 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-07)
Many visits for economical establishments were made in order to improve the survey tools and to test the questionnaire before implementing the survey; consequently some modifications were made on the questionnaire and on the instructions following the visits.
It was 3,590 Palestinian economic establishments distributed according to the economic activities and governorates.
Stratification by Region: the establishments were classified to regions: West Bank and Gaza Strip
www.pcbs.org /environm/00method.aspx   (409 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-07)
Racial stratification, not class stratification, is the underlying cause for continuing racial inequality in the U.S., says one scholar.
Social stratification is not necessarily bad or unexpected—as in the examples of age stratification.
Class stratification is based on social categories defined in economic terms.
www.ncrel.gap.smartlibrary.info /NewInterface/segment.cfm?segment=2618&table_of_contents=1979   (1387 words)

 The Kiss of Death: Preventing Chagas' Disease - Effects of Economic Stratification
However, economic, political, and social factors beyond peasants' control are also responsible for Chagas' disease.
It is difficult to assess the effect that the political economy plays in the spread of chagas in Latin America.
Peasants are victimized by racism, class stratification, genocide, and expulsion from their land.
www.uta.edu /chagas/html/prevEcon.html   (383 words)

 Introduction and Summary: Economic Inequality Seen As Rising, Boom Bypasses Poor   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-07)
Reinforcing the perception of growing economic stratification is significant evidence that the poor made only a marginal improvement in their financial well-being over the past decade, while middle- and upper-income Americans substantially bettered their lot in life.
The survey finds that despite the public's growing economic concerns, a majority (57%) have not thought much about the tax rebate checks of up to $600 they will be receiving later this year.
Surprisingly, hard-pressed people with family incomes of $30,000 annually or less are only marginally more likely to say they are anticipating the checks than those with incomes of at least $75,000 (37% vs. 32%).
people-press.org /reports/display.php3?ReportID=8   (676 words)

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