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Topic: Economy of the Soviet Union


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In the News (Sun 19 Nov 17)

  
  Economy of the Soviet Union - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The Soviet Union forged the modern world's first centrally planned economy; and from a notably undeveloped position at the time of the Bolshevik Revolution, the Soviet economy developed into the most powerful in the world after that of the United States.
The Soviet Union became the world's leading producer of oil, coal, iron ore, cement, and steel; manganese, gold, natural gas and other minerals were also of major importance.
Organized on a large scale and highly mechanized, the Soviet Union was one of the world's leading producers of cereals, although bad harvests (as in 1972 and 1975) necessitated imports and slowed the economy.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Economy_of_the_Soviet_Union   (2587 words)

  
  Economy of the Soviet Union - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
According to Soviet reports, roughly 110 million Soviet workers took part in discussions in the final period of state planning in the late-1980s and early-1990s (even though such participation was mostly limited to a rubber-stamping of prepared statements during huge pre-staged meetings).
The Soviet Union became the world's leading producer of oil, coal, iron ore, and cement; manganese, gold, natural gas and other minerals were also of major importance.
Organized on a large scale and highly mechanized, the Soviet Union was one of the world's leading producers of cereals, although bad harvests (as in 1972 and 1975) necessitated imports and slowed the economy.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Economy_of_the_Soviet_Union   (2537 words)

  
 The Soviet Union Disintegrates
In 1960 the Soviet Union was producing 12.5 percent of the world's goods (from farm and factory), just under half that of the United States (25.9 percent) and the European Economic Community (26 percent).
The Soviet Union's most outspoken dissident, Andrei Sakharov (the father of the Soviet Union's hydrogen bomb) was allowed to return to Moscow from the city of Gorky, where he had been exiled for speaking out against Soviet troops being sent to Afghanistan.
In the Soviet Union, public mistrust of nuclear plants dashed hopes of nuclear energy as an inexpensive source of power, and plans were laid instead for building new natural gas pipelines.
www.fsmitha.com /h2/ch33.htm   (6856 words)

  
 Informat.io on Union Of Soviet Socialist Republics
The Soviet Union became the primary model for future Communist states during the Cold War; the government and the political organization of the country were defined by the only permitted political party, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union was established in December 1922 as the union of the Russian (colloquially known as Bolshevist Russia), Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Transcaucasian Soviet republics ruled by Bolshevik parties.
The Soviet Union occupied the eastern portion of the European continent and the northern portion of the Asian continent.
www.vacilando.eu /?title=union-of-soviet-socialist-republics   (6513 words)

  
 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal
According to Soviet reports, roughly 110 million Soviet workers took part in discussions in the final period of state planning in the late-1980s and early-1990s (even though such participation was mostly limited to a rubber-stamping of prepared statements during huge pre-staged meetings).
The Soviet Union became the world's leading producer of oil, coal, iron ore, and cement; manganese, gold, natural gas and other minerals were also of major importance.
The Soviet currency (ruble) was non-convertible after 1932 (when trade in gold-convertible "chervonets", introduced by Lenin in NEP years was suspended) until the late eighties.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=Economy_of_the_Soviet_Union   (2752 words)

  
 Soviet Economic Decline: Did an Oil Crisis Cause the Transition in the Soviet Union?
In the final years of the Soviet Empire, exactly from 1988 to 1992, the command economies were being forced either to use less oil, to switch to alternative energy sources, or to do both, and in a very short amount of time.
Furthermore, given the magnitude by which the Western economies were affected by their oil crisis, the Eastern economies would have been even more affected since they could not adapt as easily as the West had and because they had to reduce oil consumption even more.
It's just that Soviet natural resources are subject to the same laws of geology and supply that the US is. Incentives such as career advancement or even selling oil on the fl market all combined to induce the Soviets to find and produce as much oil as possible and it did.
www.hubbertpeak.com /reynolds/SovietDecline.htm   (7668 words)

  
 Economy of the Soviet Union
The Soviet Union was the first country to base its economy on communist principles, were the state owned all the means of production and farming was collectivized.
The Soviet NEP (1921-29) was essentially a period of "market socialism" quite similar to the Dengist reforms in Communist China after 1978 in that both foresaw a role for private entrepreneurs and markets based on trade and pricing rather than centralized planning.
However, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Yeltsin was a strong executive with strong formal delegated powers able to implement radical (and unpopular) economic reforms under his leadership by executive decree and unconstitutional actions like his dissolution of the Duma in 1993.
www.fastload.org /ec/Economy_of_the_Soviet_Union.html   (5388 words)

  
 Beware of Misleading Soviet Terms
A few Soviet terms, used by the U.S. media, requiring better definition am: Black market - This is the huge sector of the Soviet economy that operates outside state control as a free market.
Conservatives in the West are anti-communist and pro-free market-the exact opposite of "conservative" hard-line communists in the Soviet Union.
For the commuxiist@hard-liners,"'sovereignty" for the republics'is used-to describe-a new-Soviet Union in which-the powers-of the Soviet goverriment.over the-republics would-remain -largely intact.
www.heritage.org /Research/RussiaandEurasia/EM308.cfm   (1038 words)

  
 Soviet Union - ECONOMIC STRUCTURE
The economy of the Soviet Union differs significantly from market economies; the country's massive and diverse economic resources are largely state owned.
It is the most extensive form of ownership in the economy, incorporating all major industrial entities: the banking, transportation, and communication systems; a majority of trade and public services; and much of the agricultural sector.
All-union (see Glossary) planning and control for each major sector of the economy is handled by relevant branch ministries, subordinate to the Council of Ministers and aided by a variety of planning agencies (see Administrative Organs, ch.
www.country-data.com /cgi-bin/query/r-12700.html   (714 words)

  
 Wikinfo | Soviet Union
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR or Soviet Union; Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, SSSR written in the Cyrillic alphabet as СССР) was a communist-ruled union with a single-party system that existed from 1922 until 1991.
Under Premier Joseph Stalin, the Soviet Union emerged from the World War II as a major world power with a territory including the Baltic States and a significant portion of the territory of pre-war Poland together with a substantial sphere of influence in Eastern Europe.
The Soviet Union was so large, in fact, that even after all associated republics gained independence Russia, remains the largest country by area (with Canada second), and remained quite ethnically diverse, including, e.g., minorities of Tatars, Udmurts, and many other non-Russian ethnicities.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=USSR   (611 words)

  
 US let Soviets obtain faulty technology, book says - The Boston Globe
WASHINGTON -- In January 1982, President Ronald Reagan approved a CIA plan to sabotage the economy of the Soviet Union through covert transfers of technology that contained hidden malfunctions, including software that later triggered a huge explosion in a Siberian natural gas pipeline, according to a new memoir by a Reagan White House official.
Reed writes that the pipeline explosion was just one example of "cold-eyed economic warfare" against the Soviet Union that the CIA carried out under Director William J. Casey during the final years of the Cold War.
The role that Reagan and the United States played in the collapse of the Soviet Union is still a matter of intense debate.
www.boston.com /news/nation/washington/articles/2004/02/27/us_let_soviets_obtain_faulty_technology_book_says?mode=PF   (720 words)

  
 The Political Economy of Lithuania - Albert Cizauskas
In the collapsing economy of the Soviet Union, Lithuania has been one of the few islands of relative plenty, a land flowing with milk and vodka, and much else besides, commodities much in demand in the Soviet Union, which, when smuggled, commanded a price several times their value in Lithuania itself.
The Soviet leader publicly acknowledged that he was also a doctrinaire Communist, guided by two inflexible principles: opposition to the private ownership of property and an unwavering belief in the geographic integrity of the Soviet Union.
Soviet economists are prone to raise the question, "Who Owes Whom?" to intimate that Lithuania's negative trade balance, as reported by the Soviet Union, and supposed lack of natural resources, argue for a structural inability to pay its own way.
www.lituanus.org /1992_1/92_1_06.htm   (4281 words)

  
 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for glasnost
(in the former Soviet Union) the policy or practice of restructuring or reforming the economic and political system.
Perestroika [restructuring] was the term attached to the attempts (1985-91) by Mikhail Gorbachev to transform the stagnant, inefficient command economy of the Soviet Union into a decentralized market-oriented economy.
Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's policy of glasnost, or general openness.
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=glasnost&StartAt=11   (1373 words)

  
 Economy of the Soviet Union - Education - Information - Educational Resources - Encyclopedia - Music
Like other Communist states in the former Warsaw Pact, the Soviet Union forged a centrally planned economy.
Perhaps belatedly, calls for greater freedom for managers to deal directly with suppliers and customers were gaining influence among reform-minded Communist cadres during the mid-1970s and 1980s.
The Soviet currency (ruble) was non-convertible until the late eighties.
www.music.us /education/E/Economy-of-the-Soviet-Union.htm   (2468 words)

  
 Soviet Union Economy 1991 - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International ...
The plans vary from proposals for (a) quick marketization of the economy; (b) gradual marketization; (c) a period of retrenchment to ensure a stable base for future marketization; and (d) a return to disciplined central planning and allocation.
The economy, caught between two systems, is suffering from even greater mismatches between what is being produced and what would serve the best interests of enterprises and households.
Official Soviet statistics report GNP fell by 2% in 1990, but the actual decline was substantially greater.
www.theodora.com /wfb1991/soviet_union/soviet_union_economy.html   (565 words)

  
 Central Asia: Analysts Say Independence Has Been Mixed Bag - RADIO FREE EUROPE / RADIO LIBERTY   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
After years of Soviet domination, independence was hoped to usher in a period of rapid political and economic development.
The transition from an economy that was integrated within the broader economy of the Soviet Union into the international economy was a very mammoth job that has not yet been completed," she said.
The collapse of the Soviet Union created a political vacuum that was to be filled by pluralistic, democratic systems across the region.
www.rferl.org /featuresarticle/2004/08/57741713-e821-41a2-8a8b-b7115fddcb2d.html   (733 words)

  
 Alienation and the Soviet Economy: The Collapse of the Socialist Era
In 1971, Paul Craig Roberts created a firestorm among professional Sovietologists by proclaiming that the economies of the USSR and its East Bloc allies were doomed because their “planned” economies were, in reality, anything but planned.
Fortunately, an increasing amount of research is being devoted to the development of explicitly or implicitly polycentric models of the Soviet economy, based on analyses of individual decision-making behavior.
After reading Alienation and the Soviet Economy, one student remarked that Professor Roberts was the first scholar he had ever read who explained the Soviet economy in its own terms, thus clarifying a number of problems which had previously perplexed him.
www.independent.org /store/book_detail.asp?bookID=30   (1208 words)

  
 Fall of Soviet Union - History Forum
However, the particular reason of the fall of the Soviet Union can be accounted by the rapid fall of oil prices since the middle of the 1980s.
The Soviet economy had reached its rendezvous with futility by the end of Premiere Khruschev's reign in 1964.
The CIA estimates of Soviet GNP growth tell the story: 5.1% per year in the later 1960's; 3% in the early 70's; 2.3% for the rest of that decade.
www.simaqianstudio.com /forum/index.php?showtopic=1082   (2536 words)

  
 Foundation for Teaching Economics | Economic Demise of the Soviet Union
This six-hour seminar provides the lesson plans and background information that enable social studies teachers to explain why the economy of the Soviet Union collapsed.
Weaknesses in the economy of the Soviet Union were apparent from its inception.
The Stalinist growth strategy was based on a policy of forced investment from the top, but the institutions that were used to implement this growth strategy took economic power and rights away from individual households and assigned them to the elite.
www.fte.org /teachers/programs/edsu   (329 words)

  
 Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / Country Studies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography
Linden, Carl A. Khrushchev and the Soviet Leadership, 1957- 1964.
Mystics and Commissars: Sufism in the Soviet Union.
Soviet Language Policy and Education in the Southern Tier, 1950 to 1982.
lcweb2.loc.gov /frd/cs/soviet_union/su_bibl.html   (11845 words)

  
 RAND | Notes | Defeated by a maze : the Soviet economy and its defense-industrial sector
Defeated by a maze : the Soviet economy and its defense-industrial sector
Since the 1970s, the U.S. government, academia, and research organizations have been dissatisfied with attempts to model the economy of the Soviet Union and its embedded defense-industrial sector.
In this Note, principles drawn from the history of economic thought are related to some of the key features of Russian and Soviet history to define and interpret the functionally distinct character of the Soviet defense sector.
www.rand.org /pubs/notes/N2644   (256 words)

  
 Russia Map - Europe
The brutal rule of Josef STALIN Russian o f th e Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives.
The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize Communism, Map of Russia Europe and Asia.
Users can also consult all legislation currently in force or under discussion, access the websites of each of the EU institutions opportunity to participate in the global Member States European Economic and Social Committee expresses the opinions of organised civil society on economic and social issues research independent state.
www.europe-atlas.com /russia-map.htm   (3045 words)

  
 CIA Sabotage 'Helped Crush Soviet Economy'
WASHINGTON -- In January 1982, U.S. President Ronald Reagan approved a CIA plan to sabotage the economy of the Soviet Union through covert transfers of technology that contained hidden malfunctions, including software that later triggered a huge explosion in a Siberian natural gas pipeline, according to a new memoir by a Reagan White House official.
Thomas Reed, a former Air Force secretary who was serving in the National Security Council at the time, describes the episode in "At the Abyss: An Insider's History of the Cold War," to be published next month by Ballantine Books.
You might also be interested in our free E-mail News Summary, which delivers our entire edition every day straight to your inbox.
www.themoscowtimes.com /stories/2004/03/01/202.html   (229 words)

  
 WashPost: CIA slipped bugs to Soviets - washingtonpost.com Highlights - MSNBC.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
In January 1982, President Ronald Reagan approved a CIA plan to sabotage the economy of the Soviet Union through covert transfers of technology that contained hidden malfunctions, including software that later triggered a huge explosion in a Siberian natural gas pipeline, according to a new memoir by a Reagan White House official.
Reed writes that the pipeline explosion was just one example of "cold-eyed economic warfare" against the Soviet Union that the CIA carried out under Director William J. Casey during the final years of the Cold War.
Directorate T's operating arm to steal the technology was known as Line X. Its spies were often sprinkled throughout Soviet delegations to the United States; on one visit to a Boeing plant, "a Soviet guest applied adhesive to his shoes to obtain metal samples," Weiss recalled in his article.
www.msnbc.msn.com /id/4394002   (1067 words)

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