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Topic: Ecosystem diversity

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In the News (Mon 22 Apr 19)

 [No title]
Ecosystems should be managed for their intrinsic values and for the tangible or intangible benefits for humans, in a fair and equitable way.
Ecosystem functioning and resilience depends on a dynamic relationship within species, among species and between species and their abiotic environment, as well as the physical and chemical interactions within the environment.
The ecosystem approach must utilize adaptive management in order to anticipate and cater for such changes and events and should be cautious in making any decision that may foreclose options, but, at the same time, consider mitigating actions to cope with long-term changes such as climate change.
www.biodiv.org /programmes/cross-cutting/ecosystem/principles.asp   (1008 words)

 Genetic diversity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms.
For example, the Irish potato famine can be attributed in part to the fact that there were so few different genetic strains of potatoes in the country, making it easier for one virus to infect and kill much of the crop.
The neutral theory of evolution proposes that diversity is the result of the accumulation of neutral substitutions.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Genetic_diversity   (231 words)

 UNEP-Caribbean Environment Programme_Biodiversity
Ecosystem diversity is the highest level on the hierarchy of biological diversity.
Ecosystem diversity is harder to measure than species or genetic diversity because the boundaries of communities and ecosystems are often hard to define.
In ecosystems where there are a lot of sessile organisms and where the predation pressure is high (such as coral reefs) there is also likely to be a high diversity of defensive chemicals, which are of interest to the pharmaceutical industry.
www.cep.unep.org /issues/biodiversity.html   (7407 words)

 Alcoa: Environment: Biodiversity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Genetic diversity is the sum total of genetic information contained in the genes of the individual animals, plants, and microorganisms that inhabit the earth.
Ecosystem diversity relates to the variety of habitats, biotic communities and ecological processes that occur on earth.
Ecosystem diversity is easier to measure and is often used as the basis of land management and conservation.
www.alcoa.com /global/en/environment/position_papers/biodiversity.asp   (1052 words)

 Biodiversity and Its Value: Biodiversity Series, Paper No. 1
Ecosystem diversity relates to the variety of habitats, biotic communities, and ecological processes, as well as the tremendous diversity present within ecosystems in terms of habitat differences and the variety of ecological processes.
Ecosystem diversity encompasses the broad differences between ecosystem types, and the diversity of habitats and ecological processes occurring within each ecosystem type.
When ecosystems are diverse, there is a range of pathways for primary production and ecological processes such as nutrient cycling, so that if one is damaged or destroyed, an alternative pathway may be used and the ecosystem can continue functioning at its normal level.
www.deh.gov.au /biodiversity/publications/series/paper1/index.html   (6301 words)

 Genetic, Species and Ecosystems Diversity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Biological diversity or biodiversity is generally divided into three fundamental categories: genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity.
In practice, the physical conditions in ecosystems are so important to the organisms in them that the concept of a community is not a very useful one unless it is considered in the context of ecosystems.
Ecosystems differ not only in the species composition of their communities, but also in their physical structures (including the structures created by organisms) and in what the species in their communities do.
www.bwf.org /bk/pamayanan/r-genetic.html   (971 words)

 Environmental Protection Agency
Ecosystem management is widely proposed in the popular and professional literature as the modern and preferred way of managing natural resources and ecosystems.
In ecosystem management, scientists should avoid value-laden terms such as "degradation, sick, destroy, safe, exploitation, collapse, and crisis" unless they are accompanied with an explicit definition of what the desired condition of the ecosystem is as defined by society.
Ecosystem management can take advantage of the ability of ecosystems to respond to a variety of stressors, natural and man-made, but there is a limit in the ability of all ecosystems to accommodate stressors and maintain a desired state.
www.epa.gov /naaujydh/pages/staff/lackey/pubs/pillars.htm   (5245 words)

 Ecosystem Diversity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Broadly speaking, the diversity of an ecosystem is dependent on the physical characteristics of the environment, the diversity of species present, and the interactions that the species have with each other and with the environment.
The physical characteristics of an environment that affect ecosystem diversity are themselves quite complex (as previously noted for community diversity).
Ecosystems may be classified according to the dominant type of environment, or dominant type of species present; for example, a salt marsh ecosystem, a rocky shore intertidal ecosystem, a mangrove swamp ecosystem.
cnx.org /content/m12156/latest   (770 words)

 [No title]
The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way.
As described by the Conference of the Parties, the ecosystem approach is the primary framework for action under the Convention.
The Conference of the Parties, at its Fifth Meeting, endorsed the description of the ecosystem approach and operational guidance and recommended the application of the principles and other guidance on the Ecosystem Approach (decision V/6).
www.biodiv.org /programmes/cross-cutting/ecosystem   (196 words)

 Microbial Diversity and Ecosystem Functions - the Unmined Riches
Microbial diversity can be regarded on one hand as a problem, for example due to the large variety of microorganisms causing (new emerging) diseases and on the other hand as a solution due to the rich biotechnological potential including disease control.
The relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning and its contribution to the resistance of ecosystems are a hotly discussed issue in ecology.
One type of implications is that the diversity and functions of the unseen majority are also the unmined riches (Wilson, 1992), the source of new biotechnological applications.
www.ejbiotechnology.info /content/vol5/issue1/issues/02   (3378 words)

 Temperate Forest Foundation: Diversity
Compositional diversity refers to the fundamental elements of diversity: the species, as well as the genetic diversity that makes up the species, plus the communities and ecosystems that provide their context.
There is little argument that structural diversity is critically important to biological diversity, or that a diverse landscape is important to overall forest health.
Because functional diversity is less tangible than either compositional or structural diversity, it is often ignored in discussions on biological diversity.
www.forestinfo.org /Discover/diversity.htm   (588 words)

 Australia's Biodiversity - Ecosystem diversity
Ecosystem diversity is the variety of ecosystems in a given place.
An ecosystem is a community of organisms and their physical environment interacting together.An ecosystem can cover a large area, such as a whole forest, or a small area, such as a pond.
An ecosystem may be as large as the Great Barrier Reef or as small as the back of a spider crab's shell, which provides a home for plants and other animals, such as sponges, algae and worms.
www.amonline.net.au /biodiversity/what/ecosystem.htm   (102 words)

 Biodiversity and Ecosystem Processes
It has been suggested that diversity has a role in ecosystem productivity, that plant diversity influences soil processes, that diversity of organisms in the soil influence ecosystem processes and that diversity influences the stability of ecosystems.
In New Zealand ecosystems there are opportunities to examine the consequences of novel organisms on both aboveground and belowground components of communities, notably influences of introduced browsing animals and functionally different types of plants.
On these islands, seabirds are major drivers of ecosystem functioning, through their burrowing activity and transport of nutrients from the sea to land.
www.landcareresearch.co.nz /research/biodiversity/forest/biodiversity_ecosystem.asp   (700 words)

 diversity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
An ecosystem is the result of all the biological, climatic, geological and chemical "ingredients" in a particular area.
The ecosystem of all forests is a complex web of interconnected living and dead organisms.
Variation from region to region of a temperate forest may be a consequence of diverse historical conditions, such as fire, insect infestations, or other natural changes, together with soil and altitude conditions.
www.cotf.edu /ete/modules/temprain/trdiversity.html   (383 words)

 Ecosystem Diversity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Understanding ecosystem diversity---the different kinds of systems in the marine environment, where they are located, and their geographic extent---is one of the most fundamental axes of marine conservation.
Detailed knowledge of entire ecosystems potentially permits the conservation of entire suites of species, protecting not only individual species of immediate concern, but the system that supports such species, as well as co-occurring species that may now or in the future be threatened.
Recent discoveries of novel ecosystem diversity and of novel ecosystem function indicate that the oceans are a vast untapped frontier for the discovery of novelty at even the level of entire ecosystems.
www.agu.org /revgeophys/butman01/node18.html   (170 words)

 What is Biodiversity? - National Zoo| FONZ
Ecosystem diversity refers to the variety of habitats and climates on Earth.
Genetic diversity ensures that parents pass on the traits (such as disease resistance and physical features) that their offspring need to survive.
When small populations are isolated from other populations of their species, they may be forced to inbreed, possibly leading to a loss of genetic diversity and to the extinction of the population.
nationalzoo.si.edu /ConservationAndScience/MAB/whatisbio.cfm   (1905 words)

 Thunder Basin Grasslands Prairie Ecosystem Association
Thunder Basin Grasslands Prairie Ecosystem Association (Association) is a non-profit organization established to provide private landowner leadership in developing a responsible, common sense, science-based approach to long-term management of their lands.
In this way, an ecosystem management plan defines the ecological sustainability of the landscape, or the extent of goods and services that can be supplied in perpetuity while conserving biological diversity and ecosystem integrity.
This approach will identify and quantify the array of ecosystems in the landscape that occurred under historical disturbance regimes, and subsequently will identify threshold levels for amounts of each ecosystem that must be represented and distributed within the landscape to meet the ecological objectives.
www.emri.org /Projects/TBGPEA/tbgpea_wy.htm   (763 words)

 9(h) Species Diversity and Biodiversity
Species Level or Species Diversity - Species diversity is the number of different species of living things living in an area.
Ecosystem Level or Ecosystem Diversity - Ecosystem diversity is the variation of habitats, community types, and abiotic environments present in a given area.
An ecosystem consists of all living and non-living things in a given area that interact with one another.
www.physicalgeography.net /fundamentals/9h.html   (758 words)

 Eco-Online What's biodiversity - Three types of biodiversity - Ecosystem diversity
Ecosystems are the combination of communities of living things with the physical environment in which they live.
There are many different kinds of ecosystems, from deserts to mountain slopes, the ocean floor to the Antarctic, with coral reefs and rainforests being amongst the richest of these systems.
Maintaining this ecological diversity is important for the health of the planet.
www.eco-online.qld.edu.au /novascotia/whatsbio/ecosystem.html   (265 words)

 Society for Conservation Biology (SCB)
Ecosystem diversity: Different regions of the Earth also have different types and numbers of ecosystems (see "What is an ecosystem?").
The diversity of ecosystems is important because different ecosystems have different properties; for example, wetlands purify water and forests take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Ecosystems range in size from a few square meters to millions of square kilometers.
conbio.net /resources/Education/faq.cfm   (2520 words)

 Unit I - Ecosystem Diversity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Ecosystem diversity is perhaps the most difficult concept of biodiversity to understand because ecosystems are complex, intangible entities.
An ecosystem is often defined as a biological community (the living component) and the interactions between species and the physical environment (the nonliving component).
An ecosystem can be as small and obscure as a vernal pond or rotting log, or something as large and magnificent as the Florida Everglades or the Amazon rain forest.
www.uwsp.edu /cnr/wcee/biodiversity/sbiodiversity/Unit1/ecosystem.htm   (659 words)

 Glacier National Park Biodiversity Paper #2
"Ecosystem management" has become a buzzword in recent years for describing new approaches to managing parks and other protected areas, but there is some confusion and disagreement as to what ecosystem management really means.
Scientific information is necessary for understanding ecosystem processes and the consequences of human actions, but many management decisions will be driven more by values than by facts; it is up to the public to decide what values and priorities will guide ecosystem management.
A first step in cooperative ecosystem management is to understand the differing mandates, interests, or objectives of all the parties concerned with ecosystem issues.
www.nps.gov /glac/resources/bio2.htm   (2988 words)

 The State of British Columbia’s Forests - 2004   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
British Columbia is the most biologically diverse of any province or territory in Canada, and includes parts of 6 of the world’s 30 terrestrial ecoregions.
Ecosystem diversity refers to the variety of ecosystems, their organisms and the interactions of those with their environment.
Agricultural and urban development, fires and logging (see Ecosystem dynamics, Timber harvest, Silviculture) are pressures that have modified the province’s ecosystem diversity to date.
www.for.gov.bc.ca /hfp/sof/01.htm   (1467 words)

 Canadian Biodiversity: Theory: Ecosystem Functioning and Stability
Functional diversity is the variety of responses by species in the ecosystem to environmental change, or how many ways the ecosystem can respond to change.
A larger functional diversity can mean that the ecosystem is more stable, as some species will react well to environmental stress, while low functional diversity means that the community as a whole can react poorly to change.
Opposed to theories that assume a definite relationship between diversity and ecosystem functions is the idea that there is no fixed relationship, and that the functions of an ecosystem are the result of what the interactions between species are.
www.canadianbiodiversity.mcgill.ca /english/theory/ecosystemfunction.htm   (1119 words)

 College of Environment and Design - Center for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Processes
Biological diversity, the numbers and kinds of organisms with which we share the planet, is declining at an alarming rate.
Biodiversity is the cornerstone of healthy ecosystems and, by extension, critical to the health of the environments in which we live.
The maintenance of healthy ecosystems is a clear challenge for the new millennium.
www.uga.edu /biodiversitycenter   (556 words)

 Environmental Endowments SDI Inventory
Ecosystems, Land Definition: An area on the Earth's land surface, extending to high-tide mark, with a characteristic physical environment and biological community.
Ecosystems, Estuarine Definition: Those ecosystems consisting of tidal catchments and adjacent tidal wetlands that are usually semi-enclosed by land but have open, partly obstructed, or sporadic access to the open ocean, and in which ocean water is at least occasionally diluted by freshwater runoff from the land.
Ecosystems, Marine Definition: Those ecosystems consisting of the open ocean overlying the continental shelf and its associated high-energy coastline, extending to the high-tide mark.
www.hq.nasa.gov /iwgsdi/FW_SDI_Env_Endow.html   (2524 words)

 Glacier National Park Biodiversity Paper #1
An ecosystem is "any part of the universe chosen as an area of interest, with the line around that area being the ecosystem boundary and anything crossing the boundary being input or output" (Agee and Johnson 1989), or "a community of organisms and their physical environment interacting as an ecological unit" (Lincoln et al.
1986.) The Crown of the Continent Ecosystem is particularly rich in community diversity because of the contrast in climates between the east and west sides of the Continental Divide, the large amount of topographic relief, and the presence of both calcareous (calcium-rich, derived from limestone) and non-calcareous soils (Lesica 1985, Edwards 1957, McClelland ca.
A major challenge for ecosystem researchers and managers, therefore, will be to distinguish between natural and inevitable changes (including species extinctions and immigrations see Information Papers 4 and 5) and human-caused changes that may be irreversibly diminishing biological diversity and ecosystem health.
www.nps.gov /glac/resources/bio1.htm   (2791 words)

 Institute of Ecosystem Studies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Some of the strongest effects of plant communities on ecosystem and community dynamics are mediated through their effects on other organisms that are key players in ecosystems.
Eviner's research focuses on understanding the ecosystem impacts of invasive plant species, the mechanisms responsible for successful invasions, and how invader effects on ecosystem processes may hinder the successful restoration of native plant species.
There has been a lot of attention paid to stoichiometric relationships among multiple elements, but the cycling of multiple elements are often uncoupled due to the different mechanisms that control their fluxes.
www.ecostudies.org /people_sci_eviner.html   (963 words)

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