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Topic: Effects of nuclear explosions


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In the News (Wed 19 Jun 19)

  
 Nuclear winter --  Britannica Student Encyclopedia
The damaging effects of the light, heat, blast, and radiation caused by nuclear explosions had long been known to scientists, but such explosions' indirect effects on the environment remained largely ignored for decades.
term for environmental devastation predicted as consequence of hundreds of nuclear explosions in a nuclear war; certain scientists contended that such explosions would deplete Earth's protective ozone layer and send up smoke, soot, and dust that would block sunlight, causing a temporary cooling of Earth's surface; the resulting semidarkness, extreme cold, and high...
term for environmental devastation predicted as consequence of hundreds of nuclear explosions in a nuclear war; certain scientists contended that such explosions would deplete Earth's protective ozone layer and send up smoke, soot, and dust that would block sunlight, causing a temporary cooling of Earth's surface; the resulting semidarkness, extreme cold, and…
www.britannica.com /ebi/article-9331718   (839 words)

  
 nuclear explosion testing - StormingMedia
Further Studies of the Seismic Characteristics of Russian Explosions in Cavities: Implications for Cavity Decoupling of Underground Nuclear Explosions Date: JAN 96
A Wavelet Analysis of Mining Explosions: Observations Relating to Verification of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Date: 17 NOV 97
Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Weapon Effects Test, Evaluation, and Simulation Date: APR 2005
www.stormingmedia.us /keywords/nuclear_explosion_testing.html   (1436 words)

  
 Carl Sagan / The Nuclear Winter
Scientists initially underestimated the effects of fallout, were amazed that nuclear explosions in space disabled distant satellites, had no idea that the fireballs from high-yield thermonuclear explosions could deplete the ozone layer and missed altogether the possible climatic effects of nuclear dust and smoke.
In "The Nuclear Winter" (1983), Sagan explored the unforeseen and devastating physical and chemical effects of even a small-scale nuclear war on the earth's biosphere and life on earth.
We knew that nuclear explosions, particularly groundbursts, would lift an enormous quantity of fine soil particles into the atmosphere (more than 100,000 tons of fine dust for every megaton exploded in a surface burst).
www.cooperativeindividualism.org /sagan_nuclear_winter.html   (2748 words)

  
 Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety Policy Samuel Rosenbloom
Rosenbloom is considered an expert in the study of the interaction of high altitude nuclear weapons explosions with the atmosphere and the effects of such explosions on weapon and communication systems.
He is the author of a nuclear safety directive, DOE 5480.24, "NUCLEAR CRITICALITY SAFETY." The purpose of DOE 5480.24 is to protect the public, workers, and essential operations from the effects of a criticality incident.
The research goals were in two areas 1) mitigation of the effects of aging and 2) nuclear power plant efficiency.
www.eh.doe.gov /nsps/weare/s_rosenbloom.html   (583 words)

  
 Ch. 2: Warnings and Communications - Nuclear War Survival Skills
Nuclear explosions on or near the ground may produce damaging EMP effects over areas somewhat larger than those in which such equipment and buildings would be damaged by the blast effects.
When Hiroshima and Nagasaki were blasted by the first nuclear weapons ever to be used in war, very few of the tens of thousands of Japanese killed or injured were inside their numerous air raid shelters.
Three or four nuclear weapons skillfully spaced and detonated at high altitudes over the United States would produce EMP effects that might knock out most public power, most radio and TV broadcasting stations lacking special protection against these effects, and most radios connected to long antennas.
www.oism.org /nwss/s73p913.htm   (2900 words)

  
 Naval nuclear propulsion (from nuclear engineering) --  Encyclopædia Britannica
The damaging effects of the light, heat, blast, and radiation caused by nuclear explosions had long been known to scientists, but such explosions' indirect effects on the environment remained largely ignored for decades.
The energy released by the fission or the fusion of nuclei, in the form of heat, light, or other radiation, is called nuclear...
Nuclear warships are capable of nearly unlimited high-speed…
www.britannica.com /eb/article-64708?tocId=64708   (851 words)

  
 Foreign Affairs - Nuclear Winter Reappraised - Starley L. Thompson and Stephen H. Schneider
The potential global environmental effects of nuclear explosions that were known before 1982?radioactive fallout and the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer?were almost universally accepted in the strategic weapons community as being far short of true doomsday proportions.
Despite early suggestions that a nuclear winter was quite probable as long as a substantial number of large cities were attacked, many scientists concluded that the magnitude of effects would indeed be strongly dependent on uncertain, or even unknowable, factors.
The discovery of "nuclear winter" has challenged this skepticism because it has been much more compelling scientifically than the earlier predictions of global environmental effects.
www.foreignaffairs.org /19860601faessay7798/starley-l-thompson-stephen-h-schneider/nuclear-winter-reappraised.html?mode=print   (900 words)

  
 What is nuclear winter?
In the theory of Nuclear Winter, after the explosions of a nuclear exchange have died down--the spread of smoke in the atmosphere from nuclear-started fires, could absorb sunlight, darken the sky and ultimately lower the temperature of the Earth from 1 to 5 degrees Centigrade within a few months.
The effects of a nuclear exchange are well known: many films and books are devoted to elucidating the damage done to people, buildings, and the environment by a nuclear blast.
But we can all hope that nuclear war, depending as it does on the hatreds and fears of mankind, will never be quite so random.
nyny.essortment.com /whatisnuclear_rioc.htm   (540 words)

  
 YesPakistan.com: 11 Steps to Nuclear War Fallout Survival
Because most people in Canada probably would not be affected by the blast and heat effects of nuclear explosions, protection against fallout is all that is required by them.
If you were near the explosion without adequate protection and managed to survive the effects of blast and fire, you could still be seriously affected by immediate radiation.
Because fallout is carried so far and covers such a large area, it could be the greatest danger to the largest number of Canadians in a nuclear war.
www.yespakistan.com /nuke/11steps.asp   (7296 words)

  
 A lecture by Michael Crichton
The following year, five scientists including Richard Turco and Carl Sagan published a paper in Science called "Nuclear Winter: Global Consequences of Multiple Nuclear Explosions." This was the so-called TTAPS report, which attempted to quantify more rigorously the atmospheric effects, with the added credibility to be gained from an actual computer model of climate.
In 1975, the National Academy of Sciences reported on "Long-Term Worldwide Effects of Multiple Nuclear Weapons Detonations" but the report estimated the effect of dust from nuclear blasts to be relatively minor.
Just as the earliest studies of nuclear winter stated that the uncertainties were so great that probabilites could never be known, so, too the first pronouncements on global warming argued strong limits on what could be determined with certainty about climate change.
cfa-www.harvard.edu /~scranmer/SPD/crichton.html   (5057 words)

  
 Nuclear explosion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The dominant effects of a nuclear weapon (the blast and thermal radiation) are the same physical damage mechanisms as conventional explosives, but the the energy produced by a nuclear explosive is millions of times more per gram and the temperatures reached are in the tens of millions of degrees.
Nuclear explosions are associated with "mushroom clouds" although mushroom clouds can occur with ground based chemical explosions and it is possible to have an air burst nuclear explosion without these clouds.
The rest of the energy is dissipated as a more powerful thermal pulse.
www.sterlingheights.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Nuclear_explosion   (2634 words)

  
 Open Directory - Society: History: By Time Period: Twentieth Century: Atomic Age
Nuclear And Thermonuclear Weapons - Database of nuclear explosions, image gallery of test photos of US and other nuclear tests, chronology and background information on nuclear weapons.
Nuclear weapon research on the Internet - In depth collection of links to nuclear news, information, research, searches on nuclear topics, software to model nuclear blast effects, history, commentary, and links pages.
Nuclear Age Timeline - Nuclear Age Timeline, The timeline traces the nuclear age from the discovery of x-rays and radioactivity to the explosion of the first atomic bomb through the cold war to its thaw and the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex.
dmoz.org /Society/History/By_Time_Period/Twentieth_Century/Atomic_Age   (3624 words)

  
 NewHampshire.com: News: NH lacks solid plan
for mass evacuee influx
Emergencies of "prime consideration" that could activate the city's plan cover a wide spectrum: Major fires, explosions, the release of hazardous materials, building collapses, power blackouts, drinking water shortages and civil unrest; transportation accidents, on the roads, the rails and with airplanes; tropical and winter storms and floods; nuclear explosions or power plant accidents.
In the Red Cross plan, the Manchester area is identified as a "host community" were an emergency at the Seabrook Station nuclear power plant to trigger an evacuation of the Seacoast Region.
There is reference to the proximity of the chapter's communities to metropolitan Boston and its suburbs "with two major highways providing direct access." Also noted is the fact that "any weapons of mass destruction/terrorist event has a strong likelihood of secondary events or cascading effects.
www.newhampshire.com /articles/showularticle.cfm?id=60272   (1209 words)

  
 Department of Nuclear Engineering Catalog
Topical material of importance in nuclear engineering, such as controlled thermonuclear reactions, numerical analysis, Monte Carlo methods in radiation transport, effects of nuclear explosions, etc. Pr.: Consent of head of department.
Engineering approach to the quantum mechanics of the interaction of neutrons and other nuclear radiations with matter; theoretical methods for the evaluation of nuclear reaction cross sections required for engineering applications.
Neutron and Particle Interactions I. Neutron interactions and associated cross sections of importance to nuclear reactor theory; fission and its application to reactor design; energetics of multiple neutron scattering and neutron thermalization.
www.engg.ksu.edu /CATALOG/ne.html   (986 words)

  
 Nuclear Explosion Facts
This is a byproduct of the immediate energy release from a detonated nuclear device which, as well as the other effects mentioned above, also has the effect of altering the electrical properties of electrons in the nearby atmosphere.
It should be noted that all nuclear weapons detonated in the air give rise to fallout, but where and when it occurs depends primarily on the altitude of the explosion.
When a nuclear weapon explodes, in about a millionth of a second a temperature of up to eighteen million degrees Fahrenheit, comparable to that inside the sun, is produced.
www.geocities.com /CapeCanaveral/Lab/2742/numbers.htm   (3025 words)

  
 Effects of Nuclear Explosions
The high temperatures and energetic radiation produced by nuclear explosions also produce large amounts of ionized (electrically charged) matter which is present immediately after the explosion.
The larger the explosion, the higher and faster the fallout is lofted, and the smaller the proportion that is deposited in the lower atmosphere.
The release of ionizing radiation, both at the instant of explosion and delayed radiation from fallout, is governed by the physics of the nuclear reactions involved and how the weapon is constructed, and is thus very dependent on both weapon type and design.
nuclearweaponarchive.org /Nwfaq/Nfaq5.html   (14567 words)

  
 Environmental Effects of Nuclear Testing
Nuclear test explosions and the construction of supporting infrastructures have been linked with ciguatera outbreaks.(40) For example, the Tuamotu Archipelago was more or less free of ciguatera before the early 1960's.
Although the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty banned the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, underwater and in space, France was not a signatory to it, and the French government under President de Gaulle announced that it would continue its atmospheric nuclear tests using the Moruroa Atoll.
Although authorities at the testing center claimed that this was due to an accidental leak of exceptional character during post-test drilling for purposes of monitoring, the Cousteau Mission was not able to verify that directly.(30) In any case, even such a posttest valve decoupling accident constitutes a venting phenomenon.
canterbury.cyberplace.org.nz /peace/nukenviro.html   (4801 words)

  
 S/R 9: Green Parties Oppose French Nuclear Tests at Mururoa
While the French government claims there is no scientific evidence of adverse effects to ecosystems, this is based on meager scientific data.
Both the British and American governments avoid disposing of nuclear waste where it may come into contact with underground water because of the risk of contamination.
Further nuclear explosions waste the earth's resources, and are a step backwards in international relationships.
www.greens.org /s-r/09/09-01.html   (4801 words)

  
 Borealis project
For propulsion, antimatter catalyzed nuclear pulse propulsion will be used, utilizing the aforementioned method to reach fission, and creating a series of controlled micro-nuclear explosions to create the pulse that will provide the actual thrust.
By injecting a small amount of antimatter into a subcritical mass of deuterium, leading to the fission of it, anti-protons will decay to the point where they lie inside the nuclei, where they will annihilate with a proton; releasing a tremendous amount of energy, enough that the thermal effects will cause the nuclei to explode.
A Diametric drive employs negative matter to achieve propulsion without the expenditure of reaction mass; as such, only a finite amount of negative matter is needed for a specific drive, and that amount is enough to keep the field functioning for an unlimited time.
borealisproject.com /genesis.php   (3898 words)

  
 Weapons and Tactics -- Ch 11 - Brig (Retd) ZA KHAN
In mountainous terrain nuclear explosions are channelised in valleys, in plains and deserts the effects of nuclear weapons on troops in the open increases.
Enhanced Radiation Weapon (ERW) is a refinement of nuclear weapons for tactical use by maximising the effects of high energy neutrons and reducing the blast of an explosion.
Protection against ERW weapons is provided by 25 centimetres of concrete or 35 centimetres of moist earth, this reduces the ERW effects by 90 % and doubling of the protection reduces it to 1 %, armoured fighting vehicles reduce effects by about 25 % but causes armour to become radio active.
www.defencejournal.com /2001/august/tactics.htm   (5457 words)

  
 Foreign Affairs - Nuclear Winter Reappraised - Starley L. Thompson and Stephen H. Schneider
The potential global environmental effects of nuclear explosions that were known before 1982?radioactive fallout and the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer?were almost universally accepted in the strategic weapons community as being far short of true doomsday proportions.
The potential global environmental effects of nuclear explosions that were known before 1982—radioactive fallout and the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer—were almost universally accepted in the strategic weapons community as being far short of true doomsday proportions.
From a scientific standpoint, this skepticism of environmental doomsday effects was probably justified in the sense that a large nuclear war would have been more devastating to the superpowers than any known indirect effects.
www.foreignaffairs.org /19860601faessay7798/starley-l-thompson-stephen-h-schneider/nuclear-winter-reappraised.html?mode=print   (814 words)

  
 America's Atomic Bomb Tests
This film also shows animal testing, used to determine biological effects of nuclear explosions in order to better protect troops, including the pig skin protection tests.
The first program is a complete Redwing history while the second examines the results of the blast effects.
The first is a complete overview of this controversial series of tests at the Nevada Test Site, while the second evaluates blast effects.
www.usfs.com /atomic_video_descriptions.html   (814 words)

  
 Energy Citations Database (ECD) - Energy and Energy-Related Bibliographic Citations
ANTENNAS/radiation effects on Emergency Broadcast System, nuclear electromagnetic pulse;COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS/radiation effects on Emergency Broadcast System, nuclear electromagnetic pulse;THERMONUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS/electromagnetic pulse from, effects on AM broadcast stations of
Energy Citations Database (ECD) Document #4057894 - EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR EMP ON AM RADIO BROADCAST STATIONS IN THE EMERGENCY BROADCAST SYSTEM.
Availability information may be found in the Availability, Publisher, Research Organization, Resource Relation and/or Author (affiliation information) fields and/or via the "Full-text Availability" link.
www.osti.gov /energycitations/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=4057894   (127 words)

  
 Foreign Affairs - Author Page - STEPHEN H SCHNEIDER
The potential global environmental effects of nuclear explosions that were known before 1982—radioactive fallout and the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer—were almost universally accepted in the strategic weapons community as being far short of true doomsday proportions.
From a scientific standpoint, this skepticism of environmental doomsday effects was probably justified in the sense that a large nuclear war would have been more devastating to the superpowers than any known indirect effects.
But apart from appreciating any entertainment value, the cognoscenti of nuclear war have regarded the doomsday predictions as ignorant at best, or dangerous propaganda at worst.
www.foreignaffairs.org /author/stephen-h-schneider   (127 words)

  
 The Guardian
(Hussey died some years after the blast from multiple carcinoma.) Recently declassified documents in the British National Archives also describe the operation as "an investigation into the effects of nuclear explosions in a tropical rainforest".
The stated aim of the experiment, code-named Operation Blowdown, was to replicate the effects of a nuclear explosion on a tropical rainforest, using conventional explosives.
However, in hindsight it is likely that the experiment was intended to test the feasibility of the use of nuclear weapons to clear the jungles of Vietnam, an operation which was ultimately carried out with the aid of the hideous pollutant Agent Orange.
www.cpa.org.au /garchve4/1050cold.html   (127 words)

  
 I. G. Bowen - StormingMedia
Operation TEAPOT: Distribution and Density of Missiles from Nuclear Explosions Date: 14 DEC 1956
Operation Teapot, Nevada Test Site, February-May 1955, Project 33.4, Distribution and Density of Missiles from Nuclear Explosions Date: MAR 1956
Operation Plumbbob, Nevada Test Site, May-October 1957, Project 33.3, Tertiary Effects of Blast - Displacement Date: SEP 1957
www.stormingmedia.us /authors/Bowen,I__G_.html   (249 words)

  
 Aliens Cause Global Warming
The following year, five scientists including Richard Turco and Carl Sagan published a paper in Science called "Nuclear Winter: Global Consequences of Multiple Nuclear Explosions." This was the so-called TTAPS report, which attempted to quantify more rigorously the atmospheric effects, with the added credibility to be gained from an actual computer model of climate.
But it is impossible to ignore how closely the history of global warming fits on the previous template for nuclear winter.
Just as the earliest studies of nuclear winter stated that the uncertainties were so great that probabilites could never be known, so, too the first pronouncements on global warming argued strong limits on what could be determined with certainty about climate change.
www.crichton-official.com /speeches/speeches_quote04.html   (5004 words)

  
 0800062.htm
These tests produced auroral effects, a special feature of explosions where the extreme brightness of the fireball is visible at great distances.
Starfish Prime Test Interim Report by Commander JTF-8 - 7:45 - Sound - STARFISH PRIME, was one of the high-altitude nuclear tests in the Operation Fishbowl series conducted in the Pacific Proving Ground in 1962.
Two goals of these tests were to determine if radiation and blast and heat effects of high- altitude detonations were capable of neutralizing an enemy reentry vehicle and capable of determining the blackout effects on radar and communications of various yields and altitudes of bursts.
www.nv.doe.gov /library/films/fulltext/0800062.htm   (782 words)

  
 The Royal Observer Corps : History and archaeology, notably in Dumfries and Galloway
Observers were obviously unable to monitor the effects of nuclear explosions from flimsy surface buildings, even where these might be outside the main blast radius of a nuclear explosion.
From 1957 the Observers gradually took on their final task, - training to measure and to report the onset, location and after-effects of a possible nuclear attack from the Soviet Union.
The Royal Observer Corps knew of the flying bomb as 'Diver', and from intelligence sources the RAF were able to issue a silhouette of its shape and size.
freespace.virgin.net /richard.wordsmith/roc/rochist.htm   (782 words)

  
 Remote Sensing Tutorial Page 18-3
Pressures produced in underground nuclear explosions (or generated in the laboratory by firing high speed missiles at rocks) as determined by calculations and direct measurements proved to be very much higher than those associated with volcanism, mountain building, etc. The rocks affected by these explosions or firings had unique effects in their minerals.
Then, I attended a Conference on Cratering at the New York Academy of Sciences in 1964 and heard/saw several papers describing effects on rocks found at supposed impact craters.
In the bottom photo is a melt from the Manicouagan (Quebec) crater, whose composition is close to that of feldspar, in which crystals of feldspar have grown in place rapidly as the melt quenched.
rst.gsfc.nasa.gov /Sect18/Sect18_3.html   (782 words)

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