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# Topic: Egyptian numerals

###### In the News (Sat 20 Apr 19)

 Egyptian numerals Numeral hieroglyphs were somewhat different in these different periods, yet retained a broadly similar style. Another number system, which the Egyptians used after the invention of writing on papyrus, was composed of hieratic numerals. These numerals allowed numbers to be written in a far more compact form yet using the system required many more symbols to be memorised. www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk /~history/HistTopics/Egyptian_numerals.html   (686 words)

 Ancient Egyptian scripts (hieroglyphs, hieratic and demotic) The ancient Egyptians believed that writing was invented by the god Thoth and called their hieroglyphic script "mdwt ntr" (god's words). After the Emperor Theodsius I ordered the closure of all pagan temples throughout the Roman empire in the late 4th century AD, knowledge of the hieroglyphic script was lost until the early 19th century, when a French man named Jean-Francois Champollion (1790-1832) managed to decipher the script. After that it continued to be used as a the liturgical language of Egyptian Christians, the Copts, in the form of Coptic. www.omniglot.com /writing/egyptian.htm   (489 words)

 Egyptian mathematics However, once the Egyptians began to use flattened sheets of the dried papyrus reed as "paper" and the tip of a reed as a "pen" there was reason to develop more rapid means of writing. To overcome the deficiencies of their system of numerals the Egyptians devised cunning ways round the fact that their numbers were poorly suited for multiplication as is shown in the Rhind papyrus. Not that anyone believes that the Egyptians knew of the secant function, but it is of course just the ratio of the height of the sloping face to half the length of the side of the square base. www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk /~history/HistTopics/Egyptian_mathematics.html   (1677 words)

 Egyptian numerals Numeral hieroglyphs were somewhat different in these different periods, yet retained a broadly similar style. Another number system, which the Egyptians used after the invention of writing on papyrus, was composed of hieratic numerals. One major difference between the hieratic numerals and our own number system was the hieratic numerals did not form a positional system so the particular numerals could be written in any order. www-groups.dcs.st-andrews.ac.uk /~history/HistTopics/Egyptian_numerals.html   (686 words)

 COLOR: Egyptian Numerals The numerals on the hieroglyphs cited the existance of thousands of heads of cattle and thousands of prisoners. This numerals used indicates that numerals and hieroglyphs already had a long history. The conventions for reading and writing numbers is quite simple; the higher number is always written in front of the lower number and where there is more than one row of numbers the reader should start at the top. www.saxakali.com /COLOR_ASP/historymaf5.htm   (271 words)

 Egyptian Mathematics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) If you look at all the wonderful buildings and temples created by the Egyptians, of which the pyramids are just one example, then you can't help but think that their maths must have been pretty sophisticated. All Egyptian fractions are decomposed into unit fractions, where the shortest version possible is chosen, or else the version with the smallest first denominator. Egyptians had separate symbols for the fractions 1/2, 1/4 and 2/3 (the only non-unit fraction), but any other unit fractions had a special symbol over them to indicate they were fractions. people.bath.ac.uk /ma2jc/egyptian.html   (1182 words)

 Egyptian numerals Visit www.egypt-topics.com, and see further information as to not only egyptian numerals, but also Abu Mena and Dining. Also, www.egypt-topics.com can enlighten you regarding egyptian numerals and the complete surroundings about Egypt and egyptian numerals. egyptian numerals, and a bit latest lore might be considered. www.egypt-topics.com /Egypt-Articles/egyptian-numerals.html   (106 words)

 Egyptian Numerals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Egyptian Numerals or Hieroglyphics are a system of repeated numbers. By 3500 B.C. the Egyptians were using the concept of thousands and millions so that they could count the stars. The Egyptians used a decimal system with seven different symbols the symbols were as follows. web.vtc.edu /Training/stccamp2000/aaaegypt.htm   (203 words)

 Names of Ethiopic Digits The Ethiopic zero numerals were mapped to the zero positions or ASCII 048 in ModEth and EthioWord and were added for their mathematical uses and to make the sets complete. Their positions in the GeezEdit fonts have continued to be arbitrary, mainly because priority was given to the Arabic numerals and due to lack of interest in using the Ethiopic zeros. The longevity of the Geez numerals may also have been because their major problem is still the absence of zero, if we compare them with others like the Roman numerals, acrophonic Greek and Babylonian cuneiforms. www.ethiopic.com /ETHIOPIC/numerals.htm   (934 words)

 Jewish and Other Semitic Texts Written in Egyptian Characters - Maxwell Institute JBMS In any event, it is clear that some Egyptian scribes were sufficiently versed in the Northwest Semitic tongue that they were able to transliterate it using their own writing system. Because the numerals are in order, Rudolph Cohen, the archaeologist who discovered the texts, concluded that "this writing is a scribal exercise." This view is supported by the discovery, at the same site, of a small ostracon with several Hebrew letters, in alphabetic order, evidently a practice text. It is possible that the Nephites, whenever possible, used Egyptian symbols that represented two or more consonants (Egyptian symbols often represent three consonants, sometimes four or five) whenever it would take less space on the plates to write the Egyptian rather than the Hebrew. farms.byu.edu /display.php?id=128&table=jbms   (2407 words)

 Egyptian Numbers But one thing it seems the ancient Greeks did not invent was the counting system on which many of their greatest thinkers based their pioneering calculations. New research suggests the Greeks borrowed their system known as alphabetic numerals from the Egyptians, and did not develop it themselves as was long believed. Between 475 BC and 325 BC, alphabetic numerals fell out of use in favour of a system of written numbers known as acrophonic numerals. www.homestead.com /wysinger/egyptiannumbers.html   (432 words)

 Egyptian Numerals Earliest Egyptian system hieroglyphic based on the repetition of symbols for one, ten, hundred, thousand, ten thousand, hundred thousand and million. To multiply 12 by 12 the Egyptians would first double the number 12 and then double the result. In this system the Egyptians went from repetition or ordering to encipherment (the assignment of an individual symbol to a number). scitsc.wlv.ac.uk /university/scit/modules/mm2217/en.htm   (127 words)

 to babylonian, chinese, egyptian numerals [Archive] - OnlineConversion Forums   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) The number will be converted to egyptian numerals (Upto 7 digits in length) The number will be converted to chinese numerals (Upto 6 digits in length) The number will be converted to babylonian numerals (Upto 13 digits in length) forum.onlineconversion.com /archive/index.php?t-1023.html   (121 words)

 Egypy A-Z : Egyptian Numerals A compendious grammar of the Egyptian language as contained in the Coptic, Sahidic, and Bashmuric dialects; Egyptian Oil Paintings Egyptian Kings Queens Ancient Egypt Art... Describes the Eskaya people of Bohol, and their writing, numerical, and calendarsystem, as well as links to information about other Philippine scripts. egyptaz.com /egyptiannumerals/index.php   (842 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) There is a numeral for every power of _____, as well as a numeral for half of each of these powers. The Roman numeration system had a unique subtractive feature that was employed in their representations of four and nine. They traded with the Egyptians, so that it was necessary to convert from Mesopotamian to Egyptian numerals, and vice versa. www.utc.edu /Faculty/Betsy-Darken/DarkenChapter_03.doc   (7846 words)

 Mathematics Archives - Numbers In the section on applications there are a number of interactive programs that convert rationals (or quadratic irrationals) into a simple continued fraction, as well as the converse. David Eppstein has collected and implemented several algorithms for constructing Egyptian fractions and includes some other notes and WWW links on the subject. All numbers are not created equal; that certain constants appear at all and then echo throughout mathematics, in seemingly independent ways, is a source of fascination. archives.math.utk.edu /subjects/numbers.html   (1310 words)

 Math Forum: Ask Dr. Math FAQ: Roman Numerals A numeral is a symbol used to represent a number. The biggest Roman numeral is M, for 1000, so one easy way to write large numbers is to line up the Ms: MMMMMMM would be 7000, for instance. Introduction to Roman numerals, their history, large numbers, and a Java applet that converts a number from Roman to Arabic numerals. mathforum.org /dr.math/faq/faq.roman.html   (1578 words)

 Primary Understanding and Use of Place Value Explain that Egyptian numerals are base ten as are our Hindu-Arabic numerals and are additive. The Egyptian numerials are usually written from right to left, do not use place value and the symbols used to write their numbers are called hieroglyphics. Mayan numerals are base 20, with place value and a zero place- holder. www.iit.edu /~smile/ma9202.html   (1138 words)

 Egypt Unit Studies @ ArabesQ Egyptian fashion, religious beliefs, recreational activities, and much more can be explored through the art they created and included in their burials. Show: "Mummies: Tales from the Egyptian Crypts" Ok real important if you are going to do this theme you better hurry as it comes on TV in February. A large, colourful site on all aspects of Egyptian culture and history put together by three high school students for ThinkQuest 1998 (an international academic competition for students aged 12 to 19). arabesq.com /educate/egypt.html   (1145 words)

 Ancient Numeration Systems Objective: Students will be able to demonstrate their understanding of the four different numeration systems by accurately adding and subtracting two numbers, and showing the regrouping process in the appropriate numeration system. The Egyptian numerals link has a terrific chart that shows the symbols for the Egyptian numeral hieroglyphs...and then shows how to write a number as large as 4622 using Egyptian numeral hieroglyphs. There is also a "Roman Numeral Calculator" you might enjoy using with your students (thanks to EDUC 3/543 student Lisa Jernstedt Webster for bringing this to our attention). education.ed.pacificu.edu /charlesm/courses/mathsci/numsys/numsys.html   (661 words)

 Egyptian Numerals Earliest Egyptian system hieroglyphic based on the repetition of symbols for one, ten, hundred, thousand, ten thousand, hundred thousand and million. To multiply 12 by 12 the Egyptians would first double the number 12 and then double the result. In this system the Egyptians went from repetition or ordering to encipherment (the assignment of an individual symbol to a number). cuip.uchicago.edu /wit/99/teams/egyptmath/en.htm   (127 words)

 Math Games:Egyptian Fractions An Egyptian fraction would be something like part 3 + part 5 + part 9. This is the simplest Egyptian fraction that requires 4 parts. Ten Algorithms for Egyptian Fractions, Mathematica in Education and Research, 1995, p5-15. www.maa.org /editorial/mathgames/mathgames_07_19_04.html   (782 words)

 Egyptian Mathematics; zero in use That was supposed to be one of the "weak points" of Egyptian mathematics. Lack of a zero symbol was said to have made the hieroglyphic numerals too clumsy to use for calculations. Another system of Egyptian numerals, the hieratic numerals, was used for actual calculations. members.aol.com /EgyptMaths/EgyptZero.htm   (1032 words)

 Egyptian Numerals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Earliest Egyptian system hieroglyphic based on the repetition of symbols for one, ten, hundred, thousand, ten thousand, hundred thousand and million. To multiply 12 by 12 the Egyptians would first double the number 12 and then double the result. In this system the Egyptians went from repetition or ordering to encipherment (the assignment of an individual symbol to a number). www.scit.wlv.ac.uk /university/scit/modules/mm2217/en.htm   (127 words)

 egyptian numerals Egyptians used different notation for their fractions (unit fractions). Click here to see a page on Egyptian fractions. The word scribe is applied to clerks, copyists and, more importantly, to the class of bureaucratic officials on whom the whole Egyptian system was based. www.mathsisgoodforyou.com /numerals/egyptian.htm   (94 words)

 Egypt Pyramids Pharaohs Hieroglyphs - Mark Millmore's Ancient Egypt Egyptian culture declined and disappeared nearly two thousand years ago. It was not until Napoleon's invasion of Egypt in 1798 that the wonderful artefacts of the Egyptians were seen in Europe and their ancient culture began to awaken from its long slumber. You will also learn about Egyptian numerals and can test your knowledge with some mathematical problems set out using the ancient numbers. www.eyelid.co.uk   (583 words)

 Egyptian mathematics The ancient Egyptians were possibly the first civilisation to practice the scientific arts. But although there is a large body of papyrus literature describing their achievements in medicine, there are no records of how they reached their mathematical conclusions. This section is a brief test to see if you could survive in the world of Egyptian numerals and mathematics. www.eyelid.co.uk /numbers.htm   (389 words)

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