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Topic: Eighth Crusade

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In the News (Fri 22 Mar 19)

The Fourth Crusade was initiated by Pope Innocent III in 1202, but ended up in the sacking of Constantinople in 1204, as crusaders fought with Venetians and renegade Byzantines.
The vital crusading spirit was now dead, and the succeeding crusades are to be explained rather as arising from the efforts of the papacy in its struggle against the secular power, to divert the military energies of the European nations toward Syria.
A crusading force from Hungary, Austria, and Bavaria achieved a remarkable feat in the capture of Damietta[?] in Egypt in 1219, but under the urgent insistence of the papal legate[?], Pelagius[?], they proceeded to a foolhardy attack on Cairo, and an inundation of the Nile compelled them to choose between surrender and destruction.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/cr/Crusades.html   (970 words)

 Crusade - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article
When the First Crusade was preached in 1095, the Christian princes of northern Iberia had been fighting their way out of the mountains of Galicia and Asturias, the Basque Country and Navarre, with increasing success, for about a hundred years.
The 13th century crusades never expressed such a popular fever, and after Acre fell for the last time in 1291, and after the extermination of the Occitan Cathars in the Albigensian Crusade, the crusading ideal became devalued by Papal justifications of political and territorial aggressions within Catholic Europe.
The eighth Crusade was organized by Louis IX in 1270, again sailing from Aigues-Mortes, initially to come to the aid of the remnants of the Crusader states in Syria.
www.startsurfing.com /encyclopedia/c/r/u/Crusades.html   (3606 words)

 The Crusades Medieval Times, Coniage and History
Second Crusade After a period of relative peace, in which Christians and Muslims co-existed in the Holy Land, Bernard of Clairvaux preached a new crusade when the town of Edessa was conquered by the Turks.
Eighth Crusade The eighth Crusade was organized by Louis IX in 1270, again sailing from Aigues-Mortes, initially to come to the aid of the remnants of the Crusader states in Syria.
Crusades in Baltic and Central Europe: The Crusades in the Baltic Sea area and in Central Europe were efforts by (mostly German) Christians to subjugate and convert the peoples of these areas to Christianity.
www.realtreasures.com /crusades.htm   (1159 words)

 Eighth Crusade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France (who was by now in his mid-fifties) in 1270.
The Eighth Crusade is sometimes counted as the Seventh, if the Fifth and Sixth Crusades of Frederick II are counted as a single crusade.
The Ninth Crusade is sometimes also counted as part of the Eighth.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Eighth_Crusade   (508 words)

 Crusades. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The Crusaders, led mostly by French and Flemish nobles and spurred on by Fulk of Neuilly, assembled (1202) near Venice.
The Crusader Baldwin I of Flanders was elected first Latin Emperor of Constantinople, but within a year he was captured and killed by the Bulgarians and succeeded by his brother Henry.
The crusading period advanced the development of national monarchies in Europe, because secular leaders deprived the pope of the power of decision in what was to have been the highest Christian enterprise.
www.bartleby.com /65/cr/Crusades.html   (2318 words)

 Crusade at AllExperts
The origins of the crusades lie in developments in Western Europe earlier in the Middle Ages, as well as the deteriorating situation of the Byzantine Empire in the east.
The military experiences of the crusades also had their effects in Europe; for example, European castles became massive stone structures, as they were in the east, rather than smaller wooden buildings as they had typically been in the past.
The Crusaders' atrocities against Jews in the German and Hungarian towns, later also in those of France and England, and in the massacres of non-combatants in Palestine and Syria have become a significant part of the history of anti-Semitism, although no Crusade was ever declared against Jews.
en.allexperts.com /e/c/cr/crusade.htm   (4297 words)

 New Catholic Dictionary: Crusades
Since the Middle Ages, the term "Crusade," originating from the cross of cloth worn on the garments of the participants, has been applied to all expeditions of wars undertaken, in fulfilment of a solemn vow, and directed against infidels, i.e., Mohammedans, pagans, heretics, those under ban of excommunication.
All crusades were announced by preaching, supposed a union of all peoples and sovereigns under the direction of the popes, and were granted indulgences and temporal privileges.
The Eastern Crusades, directed against the Mohammedans in the Holy Land and the most important of all these undertakings, began in the 11th century and continued till the end of the 13th, and are described as eight in number, which excludes two later expeditions undertaken in the 14th and 15th centuries.
www.catholic-forum.com /saints/ncd02480.htm   (220 words)

 Crusades in the Levant (1097-1291)
Nor was the Church merely able, through the crusades, to direct the martial instinct of a feudal society; it was also able to pursue the object of its own immediate policy, and to attempt the universal spread of Christianity, even at the edge of the sword, over the whole of the known world.
But it would be a mistake to regard the crusades as a pure creation of the church or as merely due to the policy of a theocracy directing men to the holy war, which is the only war possible for a theocracy.
Crusaders ally with Damascus and are destroyed by Turks and Mamlukes at battle of Gaza.
www.xenophongroup.com /montjoie/crusade2.htm   (7678 words)

The crusades took place through the 11th and 13th centuries A.D. The original intent of the crusades was to recapture “Christian” lands that had been invaded by Muslims.
First Crusade: The first crusade was launched by Pope Urban II after the Council of Clermont in 1095 A.D. The Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople sent a letter to Pope Urban II, asking for his assistance against the progressing Muslim invaders.
The Ninth Crusade: The Ninth Crusade was Led by King Edward I of England in 1271 A.D. It was an attempt to defeat the Mamluk sultan of Baibers.
www.allaboutgod.com /crusades.htm   (753 words)

 The Crusader Period
The Latin Kingdom of the Crusaders was that of a conquering minority confined mainly to fortified cities and castles.
After the overthrow of the Crusaders by a Muslim army under Saladin (1187), the Jews were again accorded a certain measure of freedom, including the right to live in Jerusalem.
Crusader authority in the Land ended after a final defeat (1291) by the Mamluks, a Muslim military class which had come to power in Egypt.
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/History/Crusader.html   (409 words)

Cynics have observed that Crusades were the papacy's way of keeping the knights and nobles distracted, les tthey decide to help themselves to the ever-growing wealth and property of the Church.
Crusades were also preached against the remaining pagan tribes in Europe, the Wends, Prussians, and Lithuanians.
The most curious crusades were those preached against several enemies of the papacy, most notably against Frederick II von Hohenstaufen.
www.hyw.com /books/history/Crusades.htm   (1037 words)

 Crusades - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A crusader would, after pronouncing a solemn vow, receive a cross from the hands of the pope or his legates, and was thenceforth considered a "soldier of the Church".
The Crusaders' atrocities against Jews in the German and Hungarian towns, later also in those of France and England, and in the massacres of Jews in Palestine and Syria have become a significant part of the history of anti-Semitism, although no Crusade was ever declared against Jews.
the Albigensian Crusade, the Aragonese Crusade, the Reconquista and the Northern Crusades.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Crusade   (7308 words)

 The Eighth Crusade   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The question of a crusade was always being aggravated in the West, but except among religious men, like St. Louis, there was no longer any seriousness in crusading to European royalty.
They looked upon a crusade as a political instrument, to be used only when it served their own interests and would no longer finance them.
Crusades became a part of European culture, the idea of making war on the enemies of the Church became part of European thinking.
members.tznet.com /donjuan/eighth.htm   (348 words)

 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for crusade
Crusades, series of wars undertaken by European Christians between the 11th and 14th cent.
As marshal of Champagne, he was a leader of the Fourth Crusade (see Crusades), which resulted in the conquest (1204) of Constantinople and the creation of the Latin Empire of Constantinople.
What happens after crusade?; The event is nothing that fills pews or cures a city's ills overnight.
www.encyclopedia.com /searchpool.asp?target=Crusade   (687 words)

 The Crusades
The crusaders were a bit overzealous, sacking a few cities on their way to the Holy Land for food, water, and excitement.
The crusaders went to Constantinople, and after a few misunderstandings, the crusaders decided that they were sufficiently provoked to sack the last remnant of Rome.
Sixth Crusade: Emperor Frederick II, who was barred from going on the fifth crusade by a papacy fearful of his power, decided to show Europe that you don't need a pope to vacation in Jerusalem.
www.rit.edu /~tgj7024/imm/project3/crusades.html   (1269 words)

 Albigensian Crusade
The crusades to the Holy Land having resulted in, for the most part, failure and ruin, Innocent III set out to flex his military muscle closer to the homefront.
It was in 1206 that Innocent first commissioned the monks of Citeaux to preach the crusade, and preparations continued until the Spring of 1209, when the armies were prepared to march.
He was assassinated, supposedly at Raymond's instigation, and in response to this act Innocent launched the Albigensian Crusade, a holy war in which Toulouse was ravaged and its inhabitants, Cathar and non-Cathar alike, were massacred....
jmgainor.homestead.com /files/PU/Cru/albcr.htm   (721 words)

 Wikinfo | The Crusades
Later crusades were called against the remaining pagan nations of Europe such as Lithuania [1] and against heresy, the crusade against Bohemia, 1418-1437.
A minor crusade sent to reinforce the newfound Kingdom of Jerusalem, mostly destroyed on the way.
After the precedent set during the Fourth Crusade of crusaders attacking other Christians, the Albigensian Crusade was launched in 1209 to eliminate the heretical Cathars of southern France.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Crusade   (1131 words)

 Eighth Crusade, 1270   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The last major crusade aimed at the Holy Land, and an failure that well symbolises the end of the crusades.
Louis IX of France, in an attempt to restore the situation, decided to go back on crusade after nearly twenty years, but mislead by the idea that the Bey of Tunis could be converted to Christianity, he decided to land first in Tunisia, then march across Egypt to the Holy Land.
The crusading era in the Holy Land ended in 1291, with the fall of Acre, the last crusader base in Palestine.
www.historyofwar.org /articles/wars_crusade8th.html   (193 words)

 The Crusades
The Crusades, in the narrow sense of the expeditions to conquer and hold the Holy Land for the West, began at the end of the eleventh century and lasted throughout the remainder of the medieval period.
Concurrent with the Crusades was the effort to convert or eliminate the Jews within Europe that led ultimately to their expulsion from many parts of the West.
The Crusades inspired the most dedicated valor, the most bloodthirsty cruelty, and the greediest vandalism of medieval men.
www.medievaltymes.com /courtyard/the_crusades.htm   (270 words)

Instead of marching on Jerusalem, this Crusade is diverted to Constantinople, capital of the Christian Byzantine Empire.
The Crusaders pillage the city and put its inhabitants to the sword.
Note: The Children's Crusade is the name given to a variety of fictional and factual events in 1212 that combine some or all of these elements: visions by a boy, children marching to south Italy, an attempt to free the Holy Land, and children being sold into slavery.
www.allcrusades.com /CHRONOLOGICAL/chronological_5.html   (567 words)

 The Crusade Directory Index   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The Crusades writings is the last section that can properly called research notes.
The Fourth Crusade - The Sack of Constantinople
The Sixth Crusade - Frederick II The Seventh Crusade - Saint Louis
latter-rain.com /crusade   (52 words)

 Amazon.com: Angels on Crusade: Books: Jennifer Macaire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
If she cannot talk young Jean de Bourbon-Dampierre out of joining the Eighth Crusade, so that he lives long enough to sire a dynasty, her life will be erased and someone else will be sent.
The Eighth Crusade is the one which turned back at Tunis with great loss of life.
The story line is exhilarating as Isobel seems like a displaced person moving back over fifteen hundred years yet is the perfect selection by the omnipotent TCF because her prison time has made her submissive enough to fit at home in the past.
www.amazon.com /Angels-Crusade-Jennifer-Macaire/dp/1591051401   (1695 words)

 The Crusade
The war on the terrorism is continuous according to the statement of the Romans dog and carrier the cross flag nowadays and this fierce campaign but she is an extension of the Crusades on the Islamic world
The year of 489 Hijri with Peter The Hermit 's lead by the provocation of the clerics for the occupation of Jerusalem
And the communists and who followed them, and the hypocrites and from a dead with them.And the rejecting and who did not refuse them Oh Lord of Might and Glory, oh Allah their groups are Mthr 's disgust, and does not remain to them an effect and make them a lesson to who learned ،،
www.homelandsecurityus.net /crusade.htm   (412 words)

 Factacular.com : Crusades
An attempt to take back Jerusalem and the rest of Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Muslim state in Egypt.
It began only seven years after the failure of the Fifth Crusade.
Commonly considered to be the last of the medieval Crusades against the Muslims in the Holy Land.
www.factacular.com /subjects/Crusades   (62 words)

 Selecting Eighth Edition
The flavor text submissions will be up for a few more days, but for the most part we're trying to dig through all the submissions.
Crusade never let you attack for one with a Birds of Paradise or have an unkillable Phantom Centaur.
But Crusade does have history on its side, as many a small white creature has attacked for extra damage because of it.
wizards.com /default.asp?x=mtgcom/feature/84   (495 words)

 The Eighth Crusade - The Modern Crusade
Pakistan police are gathering in the streets to try and crush demonstrations by Islamic movements.
They have a crusader mentality, neo-colonial ambitions, and the power of Zionism have resulted in a Western Judeo-Christian conspiracy, which pits the West against the East.
Since legitimacy of Muslim governments is based on the Shari`ah, governments such as Anwar Sadat's Egypt, which does not follow the Shari`ah, are illegitimate.
www.bilderberg.org /crusade/Crusade.htm   (1583 words)

 Crusades - Wikichristian
The Crusades were a series of several military campaigns — usually sanctioned by the Papacy — that took place during the 11th to 13th centuries.
The Crusades unfortunately show Christians acting in an aggressive and war-like manner.
This page was last modified 12:10, 13 October 2006.
www.wikichristian.org /index.php?title=Crusades   (131 words)

 The Eighth Crusade by Rod Norgrove (Book) in Literature & Fiction
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Extremely facinating, with a great depth of research needed to make this an amazing read.
This book looks to be of great interest with its controversial theory and hopefully will prove to be very thought provoking.
www.lulu.com /content/152786   (215 words)

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