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Topic: Einkorn

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In the News (Wed 20 Jun 18)

 Alternative Wheat Cereals as Food Grains: Einkorn, Emmer, Spelt, Kamut, and Triticale
Einkorn is thought to have originated in the upper area of the fertile crescent of the Near East (Tigris-Euphrates regions).
The wild and cultivated einkorn are differentiated by the brittleness of the rachis.
Einkorn along with emmer and spelt are often referred to as "the covered wheats," since the kernels do not thresh free of the glumes or the lemma and palea when harvested (Fig.
www.grainfields.com /alternativegrains/alternativegrains.htm   (7144 words)

 NOVA Online | Ice Mummies | The Iceman's Last Meal
The meal was a simple affair, consisting of a bit of unleavened bread made of einkorn wheat, one of the few domesticated grains used in the Iceman's part of the world at this time, some other plant, possibly an herb or other green, and meat.
Einkorn has low levels of gluten, so the bread made with it was probably hard, somewhat like a cracker, and rather tough on the teeth.
In addition to the einkorn, the cells of at least one other plant, possibly some herb, were present in the sample, and Oeggl concluded that they, too, had been part of his meal.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/nova/icemummies/iceman.html   (1148 words)

 WHEAT FACTS AND INFORMATION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Around 9000 years ago, wild einkorn wheat was harvested and domesticated in the first archeological signs of sedentary farming in the fertile crescent.
Einkorn wheat is diploid (2x chromosomes) and can be considered the "grandfather" breed of wheat.
Einkorn wheat hybridized with another wild diploid grass (Triticum speltoides, Triticum tripsacoides or Triticum searsii) made the tetraploid (4x chromosomes) breeds, Emmer and Durum wheat.
www.brolgas.com /wheat   (1525 words)

 Einkorn's Debut
The wild einkorn from that area proved to be distinct from other wild types and may be the forebear of the domestic variety.
Eleven of 19 lines of wild einkorn from the Karacadag Mountains are particularly close to cultivated einkorn but have clear wild characteristics, including a brittle stalk yielding a few small grains.
The weedy einkorn, closely related to both wild and cultivated types, appears to be an intermediate form with some characteristics of cultivation (the stem is somewhat tougher than in wild plants, the seeds are intermediate in weight, and there are comparable numbers of seeds as in cultivated plants).
www.archaeology.org /9801/newsbriefs/einkorn.html   (315 words)

 Wheat (Triticum spp
Einkorn wheat hybridizing with one of the goat grasses, Aegilops sp.
Much of the spread of einkorn was as a tolerated weed in the preferred cereal crop.
Einkorn was absent from low, hot regions of the Near East, including Egypt.
www.unlv.edu /Faculty/landau/wheat.htm   (2000 words)

 Athena Review: Plant Domestication, Old World: Initial site of einkorn cultivation
Einkorn, the first wheat crop of Old World, Neolithic agriculture, is a hulled wheat that typically produces one grain per spikelet.
Wild einkorn is so morphologically similar to the cultivated form that it does not constitute an independent species, but is designated as a subspecies, boeoticum, of T.
The research team chose for genetic characterization 338 of nearly 1,000 lines of einkorn whose known areas of origin are distributed throughout the Fertile Crescent region and include parts of SE Turkey, northern Syria and Iran and NW Iraq.
www.athenapub.com /einkorn1.htm   (827 words)

 CSS 330 World Food Crops -- OSU Extended Campus - Oregon State University
Einkorn was one of the first species of wheat that was grown for food, and wild forms still exist.
Einkorn is diploid and its 2n=14 chromosomes are derived from a single genome (designated AA).
Unlike modern wheat, the seeds of the wild forms of Einkorn do not thresh free of the chaff, and the rachis of the spike is brittle and breaks apart at maturity.
oregonstate.edu /instruct/css/330/four/Unit7Notes.htm   (2272 words)

 Cereal Breeeding Research Darzau - Einkorn   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.) is a specific grain type with extraordinary characters formerly grown mainly in European regions.
With the spelt 'Schwabenkorn' yield of 2.3 t/ha, with the spelt 'Kipperhaus' yield of 3.47 t/ha and with the wheat 'Bussard' a yield of 3.73 t/ha were recorded (all data after subtracting of hulls and from trials 1999 in Darzau).
Because of this transfer of resistence from einkorn into wheat during the 20th century, some similarities in proteins of modern wheat and einkorn can be expected in some cases.
www.darzau.de /en/projects/einkorn.htm   (3608 words)

Emmer and einkorn were among the Neolithic founder species, appearing at the earliest farming sites, and spreading west as far as the British Isles and east to India and beyond.
We found that emmer and einkorn are still grown because they are uniquely resistant to fungal diseases such as stem rust that flourish in the wet, warm summers of the Pontic mountains.
Emmer and einkorn are also prized because of their high quality as chicken feed and, for human food, as bulgur, a popular cracked wheat food.
www.asor.org /pubs/nea/ba/Nesbitt.html   (5333 words)

 House of Lords - Judgments - Trennery (Respondent) v. West (Her Majesty's Inspector of Taxes) (Appellant) and four ...
That is true, but once the Einkorn shares were sold the assets in the second settlement and the income therefrom would cease to constitute derived property in relation to any property for the time being comprised in the first settlement.
While the proceeds of the mortgage of the Einkorn shares remained in the first settlement they were both property comprised in the settlement in their own right and property representing the proceeds of such property, viz.
But they continued to represent the proceeds of the mortgage of the Einkorn shares (what else could they represent?) with the result that the settlor fell to be regarded as having an interest in the first settlement by virtue of Section 77(2) so long as the Einkorn shares continued to be comprised in it.
www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk /pa/ld200405/ldjudgmt/jd050127/tren-1.htm   (4023 words)

 Einkorn wheat -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Einkorn wheat is a wild species of (Annual or biennial grass having erect flower spikes and light brown grains) wheat, Triticum boeoticum.
Einkorn is a ((genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number) diploid species with a shattering ear and small seeds, making it difficult to harvest.
It was first domesticated approximately 9000 years ago.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/e/ei/einkorn_wheat.htm   (149 words)

 Ancient Wheats and New Perspective
Einkorn, Emmer, Khorasan/Kamut and Spelt are among the earliest cultivated wheats and commonly are referred to as “ancient wheats.”; Except for Khorasan/Kamut, each of these wheat crops produces hulled or covered grains at harvest, i.e.
Emmer and Kamut/Khorasan (durum relative) are tetraploid wheats having 28 chromosome, and spelt (bread wheat ancestor) is a hexaploid wheat with 42 chromosome.
Lutein is the major yellow pigment in wheat grains, and the elevated level of lutein in einkorn wheat may pave the way for the development of function wheat market.
www.medicinalfoodnews.com /vol09/issue2005/wheat.htm   (813 words)

 Cereal Chem 1999 | Einkorn Characterization for Bread and Cookie Production in Relation to Protein Subunit Composition.
Twenty-four einkorns were evaluated for agronomic traits in Italy and in Germany in replicated plot trials.
One of the einkorn lines (ID529) had farinograph stability and degree of softening indices better than those of the control bread wheat.
On average, cookies produced with einkorn flour were larger in diameter and thinner than those produced with soft wheat flour.
www.aaccnet.org /cerealchemistry/abstracts/1999/0804-01R.asp   (374 words)

 emmer-eng   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Because of their resistance to powdery mildew and rusts and also with regard to the conservation of biodiversity, both wheat species found increasing interest in organic farming.
It is reported that Emmer has good baking quality and Einkorn has a high protein and yellow pigment content and is suitable for the production of dietetic food.
The main breeding objective, therefore, is the improvement of stem stability and the resistance against lodging.
www.uni-hohenheim.de /~lsa/emmer-eng.htm   (279 words)

 North American Millers' Association - Products Section - Wheat Intro
Wheat's earliest ancestors are wild einkorn, or "one-seed" and emmer.
Archeologists have found kernels of both wild and cultivated einkorn and emmer in excavated villages in Egypt and southwestern Asia's Fertile Crescent, the area between the upper reaches of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
They began by cultivating the grains of einkorn, emmer, oats, and barley, as well as the edible seeds, or pulses, of chickpeas and lentils.
www.namamillers.org /prd_w.html   (1428 words)

 Welcome to InfraReady Products (1998) Ltd. - - PRODUCTS
Einkorn originates as one of the ancient varieties of cereal grains.
This grain is one of the first cereal grains cultivated for food by man. Historical references to Einkorn suggest that early varieties of this grain were harvested as early as 9,000 BC.
Einkorn has re-emerged in domestic agriculture and is currently being grown in Canada.
www.infrareadyproducts.com /products.html   (1547 words)

 Triticum (wheat genus)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Einkorn Wheat was grown extensively during the Neolithic period but from the Bronze Age on, its importance wained in favour of the Emmer and Bread wheat varieties.
Greece), on the Balkan Peninsula and in central Europe and remained the main cereal crop through the Neolithic period and into the Bronze Age although Einkorn Wheat was often grown as well.
With time Einkorn Wheat becomes a major crop in the near East in the Neolithic period.
www.museums.org.za /bio/plants/poaceae/triticum.htm   (1013 words)

 The Seed of Civilization   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Eventually a natural outcross occurred between einkorn and the fourteen chromosome Triticum spletoides which produced a wild wheat, Triticum turgidum, which possessed twenty-eight chromosomes.
Wheat's earliest ancestors are wild einkorn or one-seed and emmer, both of which are believed to have crossed with native botanical grasses to eventually evolve into common wheat("Wheat", np).
Archaeologists have discovered both einkorn and emmer in excavated villages in Egypt and southwestern Asia's Fertile Crescent.
w3.uwyo.edu /~benbud/seed.html   (1556 words)

 Destination Cinema -- Mysteries of Egypt -- Best Practices
But Michael Einkorn, Theater Manager, was looking for a fun and attention-getting way to open "Mysteries of Egypt," and this seemed most appropriate.
Einkorn's plan was to bring the people of Speyer as close to Egypt as possible, without actually going there.
To help further jump-start the events, Einkorn hopped on a camel himself and rode it into the theater lobby which the staff had turned into a "mini-Egypt," complete with replicas of ancient columns and hieroglyphs.
www.destinationcinema.com /our_films/theater_managers/egypt_best_practices.asp   (217 words)

 AWN Vol 41
Recent studies suggest that diploid wheat, Triticum monococcum L. ("Einkorn"), may play a significant role in modern agriculture, both as a source of useful genes and as a crop in its own right.
Einkorn doughs were also rather sticky and difficult to handle and characterized by a low mixing tolerance.
However, one of the einkorn accessions presented a deviant amino acid profile.
wheat.pw.usda.gov /ggpages/awn/41/awn41b11.html   (2163 words)

 Plant Physiology Online: Abscission and the Dawn of Agriculture
The seven primary domesticates of the Fertile Crescent were barley, emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs.
Sharma and Waines (1980) have determined that two genetic loci are involved in the evolution of the tough-rachis character in einkorn wheat.
Even if we assume that a mutation that converts a brittle rachis to a tough rachis occurs in only one out of every million wild-type wheat plants, Hillman and Davies (1990a, 1990b) have estimated that varieties with tough rachises would become the dominant forms in wild wheat populations after only 200 years of human management.
www.plantphys.net /article.php?ch=t&id=222   (1204 words)

Botanists already knew that cultivated einkorn's ancestor was a very similar wild cereal that still grows in natural habitats in the crescent (3).
For einkorn (and probably for the other founder crops as well), that transition required changes in only a few genetic loci, which account for the few morphological changes distinguishing the crop from wild einkorn (1).
Cultivated einkorn's rapid diffusion from the Karacada mountains preempted possible independent domestications of einkorn elsewhere in its wild range.
id-archserve.ucsb.edu /Anth3/Essays/99/farmer2.html   (2086 words)

 Botanical Society of America's Evolution Statement   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
To plant biologists this suggested that somehow einkorn gave rise to emmer, and emmer gave rise to breadwheat (an hypothesis).
Further evidence was obtained from chromosome numbers that showed einkorn with 14, emmer with 28, and breadwheat with 42.
The Middle Eastern flora was studied to find native grasses with a chromosome number of 14, and several goatgrasses were discovered that could be the predicted parents, the sources of the BB and CC chromosomes.
www.botany.org /newsite/announcements/evolution.php   (1782 words)

 Origin of Agriculture | The Daily Grail   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Einkorn and emmer wheat, barley and lentils, goats and sheep all purportedly originated here between 5,000 and 10,000 years ago.
The three important founder grains from the Fertile Crescent—emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, and barley—are the earliest examples known to be located near their wild relatives.
The present-day northern portion of the Fertile Crescent yields broad bands of wild einkorn, yet research has designated the wild progenitor of domesticated einkorn as being restricted to a small region near the Karacadag mountains in southeast Turkey, far removed from the northern broad bands of wild einkorn.
www.dailygrail.com /node/682   (6064 words)

 Main page frame
The cultivation of einkorn, perhaps for eating as gruel, is thought to mark the origin of agriculture in the Old World.
Assuming that the progenitor of present cultivated einkorn have not undergone much change during last 10,000 years, those 11 also turned out to be the ones genetically most similar to cultivated einkorn, and so presumably the crop’s immediate ancestors, as it is clearly seen in the aflp gel in figure below.
This accompanies the change the einkorn wheat has gone through genetically while it was domesticated (within such short time) by the hunters.
www.geocities.com /eehakki/wheat.htm   (7441 words)

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